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RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



No. 305 Dearborn Street 
CHICAGO 



BRUCE V. CRANDALL CHARLES S. MEYERS WARREN EDWARDS 

President Vice President Manager 

M. H. Haig\ Editor O. W. BODLER, Secretary 



Index to Volume XXVIII. 

January to December,, 1904 



Issue. . Pages. 

January 1 to 36 

February 37 to 72 

March 73 to 108 



Issue. Pages. 

April 109 to 144 

May 145 to 180 

June 181 to 224 



Issue. Pages. 

July 225 to 312 

August 313 to 348 

September 349 to 380 



Issue. Pages. 

October. 381 to 452 

November 453 to 484 

December 485 to 516 



Illustrated Articles Indicated by Asterisk 



Address of President Brazier Before M. C. B. Association. 285 
Address of President Lewis Before M. M. Association... 305 
Address of Mr. H. H. Vreeland Before M.. C. B. Associa- 
tion . 284 

*Adjustable Reamers 166 

*Air Brake Hose Testing Apparatus— N. & W. By 113 

*American Locomotive Company— Improvements at Sche- 
nectady Works 19 

American Railway Master Mechanic's Association— Com- 
mittee on Subjects 60 

American Railway Master Mechanic's Association— Re- 
port of Thirty-seventh Annual Convention 255 

American Railway Master Mechanic's Association — Re- 
ports of Committees and Individual Papers 288 

American Semi-plug Piston Valve 273 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers 17-261 

*Amew Spring Stop Cock 269 

♦Andrews, M. C— Oldest Living Master Car Builder 264 

Apprentices . 211 

Apprentices— the Training of— By John B. Phillips 351 

*Arch Bar Drill 165 

♦Armstrong Bros.' Exhibit, World's Fair 478 

♦Armstrong Tool Holders 101 

*A., T. & S. F. Ry.— Coal and Water Tests of Freight Lo- 
comotives 7 

♦Automatic Band Rip Saw... 138 

♦Automatic Car Ventilator 65 

"Automatic Double Car Tenoue- 408 



♦Automatic Friction Board Lift Drop Hammer 68 

♦Automatic Air Discharge for Refuse Water 499 

♦Bancroft, William H., General Manager of the Union 

Pacific Railroad 74 

♦Barrett Geared Ratchet Lever Jack 67 

♦Belt Management 510 

♦Bettendorf Steel Truck 267 

♦Bodler, 0. W., on Electric Wiring of Machine Tools Ill 

♦Boiler Design — Report to M. M. Association 288 

♦Boring Tool Holder for Lathe Work 268 

*B. & 0. Ry.— Mallet Articulated Compound Locomotive. . 206 

♦Bowes Patent Hose Coupling 476 

Brazier, Address of President before M. C. B. Association 285 

Burke, John, on Economical Distribution of Scrap 10 

♦Bushing Pipe Plates 63 

♦C. & A. Ry.— Heavy Passenger Locomotive. 338 

♦Cafe-Parlor Car— C. G. W. Ry 26 

♦Car Brass Boring Machine 475 

♦Car, 100,000 lbs. Capacity— C, M. & St. P. Ry •. 41 

♦Car, 80,000 lbs. Capacity, Steel Underframe Box— Illinois 

Central Railroad 487 

♦Car, Cafe-Parlor— C. G. W. Ry 26 

♦Car, Combination Stock and Grain 274 

♦Car, Convertible Sleeping and Parlor for Electric Railway 55 
♦Car, Dynamometer— International Correspondence Schools 333 
♦Cars for the Milwaukee Refrigerating Transit Company. 124 

♦Car Heating and Lighting 103 

♦Car, Vanderbilt 100.000 lbs. Capacity, Steel Flat 210 



Care of Locomotive Boilers — Rules of Instruction 162 

*C'ast Iron Wheels 282 

*C, B. & Q By.— Balanced Compound Locomotive.. 328 

♦C. & E. I. Ry. Shops at Danville 185, 315 

♦C. G. W. Ry.— Cafe-Parlor Car 26 

♦Chaser Grinder 269 

♦Cinder Pit— Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis. . 164 

*Clearance Eeducing Valve Mechanism and Cylinder 366 

♦Cleveland Pressed Steel Car Lines . .. 173 

♦Cleveland Punching Machine 60 

*C., M. & St. P. Ey. Shop Improvements at West Mil- 
waukee 47, 75 

♦C., M. & St. P. By.— 100,000 lbs Capacity Car. 41 

♦Coal and Water Tests of Freight Locomotives— A., T. & 

S. F. Ey ........ 7 

♦Columbia Lock Nut 275 

Combination Stock and Grain Car 274 

Combustion, or the Source of Energy in the Locomotive. 501 
Cost of Locomotive Repair Shops— Report to M. M. Asso- 
ciation ............ 292 

♦Comparative Trials of Locomotives Using Saturated and 

Superheated Steam ; 505 

*C & O. Ry.— Locomotive, Freight ..... 21 

♦Crank Pins, a Gauge for Setting 123 

C, B. I. & P. Ry.— Opening of Line Between Kansas City 
and St. Louis 357 

♦Crown Brass— Device for Planing 163 

♦Cushions 507 

♦Cutting Key ways on Driving Axles— I. C. Hicks 460 

*De Glenn Compound Locomotive— G. W. Ry. (England) . . 44 

♦Device for Grinding Piston Rods -.-■ 19 

♦Device for Holding Drill Press Work 217 

♦Device for Locating Gauge Cocks 120 

♦Diaphragms 170 

♦Dickinson Adjustable Smoke-jack 266 

Distribution of Scrap 123 

D. & H. to Use Electric Power 465 

*Drafting Room — Kink for the. 464 

♦Driving Wheel Drop Table— Southern Railway . 160 

♦Drop Forgings -. • • • • • 15 ^ 

♦Dynamometer Car of the International Correspondence 

Schools ••••-.• 333 

Economical Distribution of Scrap 10 

♦Electric Locomotive for the N. Y. C. & H. R '. . . 340 

Electric Plant for Railroad Shops 159 

♦Electric Wiring of Machine Tools Ill 

♦Equalizing Truck for Freight Cars 215 

♦Expanding Mandrel 275 

Farlow Draft Rigging 275, 508 

♦Fitch, Charles H., on Railroad Shop Tools 23, 51, 91, 125 

♦Floorer— A New' Style , 509 

♦Galvanized Iron and Steel Sheets 269 

♦Garrett Interlocking Draft Arm 276 

♦Gas Engine — A New Design 477 

♦Gauge Cocks — Device for Locating 120 

Grates for Bituminous Coal — Paper Before M. M. Associ- 
ation : 303 

♦Gray, C. R. — General Manager, S. Louis & San Francisco 

By. . .... 382 

♦Green Pneumatic Hammer 276 

♦Green River Bolt Cutter ■. 220 

♦G. S. & F. Ry— Standard Front End Arrangement...... 157 

♦Handy Journal Jack Block .....: 33 

♦Hardening and Annealing Furnace. ........... ^ 170 

♦Hayes Electric Drill 276 

♦Hess Milling Machine :t 137 

♦Higgins, Samuel— General Manager of the New York, 

New Haven & Hartford Railway .....;. 110 

♦Holmes Metallic Packing .:..'. .'. :.■: .-'/. ... .... . .410, 102 



♦Hydraulic Driving Brass Press 158 

♦Hydraulic Piston Puller 463 

♦Illinois Central — 80,000 lbs. Capacity Steel Underframe 

Box Car 487 

Improved Tool Steels— Beport to M. M. Association 302 

♦Improvements at the Schenectady W T orks of the Ameri- 
can Locomotive Company : 19 

Injectors 202, 336 

♦Inside Braces for Flat Bottom Gondola Cars 82 

♦Inspection Engine— D. & H 467 

Kleinans, Frank B., on Piping for Hydraulic Machinery. 81 
Lewis— Address of President before M. M. Association.. 305 
♦Link Radius Grinding Machine of the West Milwaukee 

Shops— C, M. & St. P. Ry 464 

♦Locomotive, Balanced Compound— C, B. & Q. By 328 

♦Locomotive and Machine Co. of Montreal, Limited 507 

Locomotive Boilers 198 

♦Locomotive Boiler Design 331, 154, 194 

♦Locomotive, Consolidation Freight— Canadian Pacific By. 461 
♦Locomotive, Deglehn Compound— G. W. Ry. (England) . . 44 

♦Locomotive, Electric for the N. Y. C. & H. R. Ey 340 

♦Locomotive, Electric for the P. & E. 500 

♦Locomotive, Four-Cylinder Balanced Compond— N. Y. C. 

& H. E. By 199 

♦Locomotive, Freight— C. & O. Ey 21 

♦Locomotive, Freight— N. Y. C. & H. E. Ey 98 

♦Locomotive, Freight— Southern Eailway 121 

♦Locomotive Frames— Beport to M. M. Association 296 

♦Locomotive, Heavy Freight— L. S. & M. S. By 12 

♦Locomotive, Heavy Passenger— C. & A. Ey 338 

♦Locomotive — High Speed Three-Cylinder Compound Ger- 
man 358 

♦Locomotive, Mallet Articulated Compound— B. & O. Ey.. 206 

♦Locomotive Passenger, Union Pacific Eailway 130 

♦Locomotive Proportions, Trend of 4, 39 

♦Locomotive, Ten-W T heel Passenger— C, B. & Q. Lines West 402 
Locomotive Testing at the St. Louis Exposition — Bulletin 

No. 3 342 

♦Locomotive Testing Plant at the Louisiana Exposition.. 212 

♦L. S. & M. S. By.— Heavy Freight Locomotive 12 

♦Maher, N. D— General Manager of the Norfolk & Western 

Eailway 214 

♦Marked Advance in Locomotive Boiler Maintenance 467 

Master Car Builders' Association — Abstract of Committee 

Beports and Individual Papers. 279 

♦M. C. B. Association— Beport of Tank Car Committee... 362 
Master Car Builders' Association — Beport of Thirty- 
eighth Annual Convention 250 

M. M. & M. C. B. Associations: Should They Consoli- 
date? ...... .383', 459 

M. M. & M. C. B. Associations— Eesults of Letter Ballot. . 463 
Master Steam Boiler Makers' Association— Third Annual 

Convention 403 

♦McGuire-Cummings Grain Door 276 

♦McCord Journal Box , 64 

♦McKeen, Benjamin — General Manager of the Vandalia 

Line 38 

♦Metal Saw Cutting-off Machines, 31 

*Mica Metallic Packing 271 

Mica Metallic Paint 409 

♦Miller, H. I.— General Manager C, E. I. & P. Ey 350 

♦Modern Blacksmith Shop for Railroad Work— A. W. Mc- 

Caslin 472 

' Moodie, D. E., on Distribution of Scrap 123 

National Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association- 
Annual Convention , t , .•.•.■.■.-.•.• j.. 364 

♦N. Y. C. & H. R. Ry.— Electric Locomotive* 340 

♦N. Y. C. & H. R. Ry.— Four-Cylinder Balanced Compound 

Locomotive ; ;;..'.'.'.'.;.......- 199 



*N. Y. C. & H. R. Ry— Simple Freight Locomotive 98 

*Oil Cup and Swab 11 

* Oldest Living Master Car Builder— M. C. Andrews 264 

Ormsby, W. R., on the Handling of Scrap 58 

*Paint Plants for Railroads. 271 

Pennsylvania Railroad Testing Laboratory at St. Louis 
Exposition— Bulletin No. 1 28 

*Pintsch Side Lights for Suburban Coaches 219 

Piping for Hydraulic Machinery 81 

*Plain Radial Drill , . , , 167 

* Pneumatic Hammer for Boiler Shop 90 

*Porteous Injector 66 

Power Required to Drive Machine Tools 96 

Preventive of Rust of Steel Cars 279 

Prices for Repairs to Steel Cars 284 

*Railroad Shop Tools 23, 51, 91, 125 

Railroading as Viewed by a Railroader 3 

*Railway Club, Western 57 

^Railway Officials Who Received Their Training in the Mo- 
tive Power Department 182 

Randolph, L. F., on Modern Locomotive Boilers 198 

Railway Mechanical Training as Viewed by a Technical 

Graduate 489 

*Renewal of Car Department of Portsmouth Shops— Sea- 
board Air Line 86 

*Repairs to 9%-in. Air Pumps 162 

*Reversible Ratchet AVrench 63 

*Revolving Racks 218 

Rexoid Roofing 410 

*Riveting Machine with Special Universal Bail 219 

^Robertson, Alexander — General Manager of the Terminal 

Railroad Association of St. Louis 146 

*Roofing 218 

Rough Switching 390 

*Ruth Flue Machine t 136 

Scrap Handling 58 

Scrap— Economical Distribution of 10 

*S. A. L. Ry.— Renewal of Car Department at Portsmouth 

Shops 86 

*Secor Gas Engine 32 

*Sherwood Manufacturing Company 476 

*Shops of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railway. .. .185, 315 

*Shops — Locomotive and Machine Co. of Montreal 507 

*Shops of the Terminal Railroad of St. Louis .115, 147 

*Shops— Rock Island System at East Moline 455, 490 

*Sixteen-inch Crank Shaper 370 

*Six-Spindle Gang Drill 136 

*Smith, H. B., Machine Co.— Exhibit at the Universal Ex- 
position, St. Louis 409 

Solid Draft Rigging 103 

^Southern Railway— Driving Wheel Drop Table 160 

*Southern Railway— Freight Locomotive . 121 

*Square Engine Houses— Terminal Railroad Association of 



St. Louis 386 

*Standard Accident and Medicine Cabinets 510 

*Standard Front End Arrangement, G. S. & F. Ry 157 

*Staybolts— The Proper Location of Tell-tale Holes 59 

*Staybolts, Radial for Oil-Burning Engines— By I. C. Hicks 396 

*Steam Motor Car 466 

Steam Turbine Installed in Paint Plant 102 

*Steel and Passenger Car Construction 279 

*Steel Construction and Car Design 322 

*Sullivan. A. W.— General Manager of the Missouri Pacific 454 

*Super-Heater— The Schenectady, for Locomotive Practice 398 

Super-Heated Steam Trials in Germany 466 

*Taps and Dies 66 

Technical Graduate and the Machinery Department of 

Railways 133 

Technical School Graduates— Individual Paper Before M. 

M. Association 291 

Terminal Handling of Locomotives 459 

^'Terminal Railway Association of St. Louis— Cinder Pit. . 164 
*Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis — Square En- 
gine Houses 386 

*Terminal Railroad of St. Louis— New Shops at East St. 

Louis .' 115, 147 

Test of High Speed Electric Locomotive— N. Y. C. & H. R. 

R. R 504 

Test of Compound for Brazing Cast Iron 466 

Theodore Audel & Co 103 

*Thirty-six Inch Engine Lathe 372 

*Thor Power Hammer 475 

*Tool Holders 31 

*Tools, Special in Elkhart Shops— L. S. & M. S. Ry 352 

Traveling Engineers' Association — Twelfth Annual Con- 
vention 391, 357 

*Traverse Shaper with Pull Cut Head 165 

*Trencl of Locomotive Proportions. 4, 39 

*Union Pacific Railway— Passenger Locomotive. ..r. 130 

*Universal Grinder 272 

*Valve Gear— The Young Rotary for Locomotives 495 

Valve Lubrication 156, 208 

*Vapor System of Car Heating 278 

"Variable Exhaust Device— C. G. W. Ry 45 

Variable Speed Motor—Individual Paper Before M. M. 

Association 305 

^Ventilating System in Blacksmith Shop— Northern Pa- 
cific Railway §3 

*Vertical Boring and Turning Mill 172 

*Vise Wrought Bars Parallel Swivel 476 

Vreeland, H. H— Address Before M. C. B. Association... 284 

*Washburn Coupler 509 

*Western Railway Club 57 

Western Railway Club— February Meeting 97 

*Wilcox, Davids-President of the Delaware & Hudson Rail- 
road 2 

*Young Rotary Valve Gear for Locomotives 495 




G6 



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January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTBR MECHANIC 



Established 1878. 



RAILWAY 

MASTER 
MECHANIC 

Bbuce V. Crandall, Publisher. Chaeles S. Myers, Manager. 
Maham H. Haig, Editor. 

Office of Publication, Rooms 501 and 502 The Plymouth Bldg., 
305 Dearborn Street. 

TELEPHONE, HARRISON 3357. 
Eastern Office: Room 716, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 

A monthly Railway Journal. 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 
solicited. 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Cran- 
dall Company. 



Vol. XXVIII. CHICAGO, JANUARY, 1904. 



No. 1. 



THE conventions are to be held at Saratoga again 
this year. The headquarters of both associa- 
tions will be at the Grand Union Hotel. The Master 
Car Builders' Association will hold their convention 
June 22nd to 24th inclusive and the American Railway 
Master Mechanics' Association, June 27th to 29th, in- 
clusive. 

Applications for hotel accommodations should be 
made to Woolley & Gerrans, care Hotel Marie An- 
toinette, 67th street and Broadway, New York City, 
up to May 1st, 1904. After that date to Woolley & 
Gerrans, Grand Union Hotel, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 
Applications for exhibition spaces should be addressed 
to Mr. J. Alexander Brown, Secretary, 24 Park Place, 
Room 17, New York City. 



IN another column we reproduce the results of a coal 
and water test made on the third district of the 
Chicago Division of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railway. The figures presented are of peculiar signifi- 
cance in that they not only offer a basis of determina- 
tion upon which to be guided in the selection of a suit- 
able machine for a given service; but further compare 
two locomotives of identical design except in that one is 
a simple engine and the other a four-cyclinder com- 
pound. It is possible to arrive at definite conclusions 
regarding the relative performance of simple and com- 
pound locomotives only by comparing those whose de- 
signs are identical except in the feature of steam dis- 
tribution. By comparing locomotives whose heating sur- 
faces, grate areas, wheel diameters, etc., are the same, 
which are equally well drafted and in which the proper 
ratio of heating surfaces and grate area to cylinder vol- 
ume exists, the difference in the results obtained should 



be due entirely to the relative erciency of the methods of 
steam distribution, when both locomotives are placed in 
the same service. We are pleased at the opportunity of 
reproducing the results of tests of two locomotives so ar- 
ranged and merely direct attention to the figures pre- 
sented. 



OBSERVATION of the fact that in a lot of new 
switching locomotives the Frisco officials have 
specified friction gears at both ends, prompts the 
query as to why friction gears are not more generally 
applied to both ends of switching locomotives. This 
particularly so, inasmuch as the great majority of 
draft gears are damaged in switching yards, hence the 
provision of a cushion of large capacity on the engine 
would certainly seem to tend to reduce the severity 
of many of the shocks. 

♦ < » 

THOSE having to do with machine tools and con- 
sequently interested of late by the new tool 
steels and the generally increased attention given to 
machine tool output resulting from the introduction 
of the new steels, will do well to secure the paper of 
C. G. Barth upon "Slide Rules for the Machine Shop," 
which was presented at the December meeting of the 
A. S. M. E. The rules are based upon extensive tests 
which have been made to determine the relation be- 
tween the depth of feed, cut and speed, diameter of 
work and its speed, the size and shape of tools, etc. 
The results of these tests have been brought down into 
simple rules, easily handled by the ordinary shop man, 
and should certainly be in the hands of all concerned 
with the subject. 



THE superintendent of motive power of a promin- 
ent western line sends us a letter in which he 
approves of the remarks on engine failures expressed 
in an editorial in our December issue. But he objects 
that we should have gone further and set forth the 
reasons for desiring a hot fire down hill and in side 
tracks in order to keep flues from leaking. He says, 
further : "We can make a guess that the writer's rea- 
son for keeping the fire up while on side tracks and 
going down hill is to keep up circulation, so that when 
cold water is put into a boiler it don't all settle to the 
bottom and start the bottom flues in the shallow fire 
boxes to leaking. When we had the deep fire boxes 
of the American type engines we did not have so many 
leaky flues because there was room in the water leg 
for cold water to settle and it did not reach the flues 
until after it had been heated from around the fire 
box." 

As to the greater tendency of the shallow box (par- 
ticularly the wide grate type) to leak we will simply 
say that we believe this tendency has increased in ex- 
actly the amount in which the proportion of firebox to 
total heating surface (and grate area) has been re- 
duced in these shallow boxes — in other words, in any 
Hven wnter district, the comparative tendency of dif- 
fer?:: t boilers to lea'< depends entirely upon the com- 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



parative ratio of fire box heating surface to grate area. 
Reverting to the main proposition, however, as to 
what the engine crews can do with the engines with 
which they are furnished, we will not take boiler de- 
sign or circulation into the question, but will go at the 
matter from the standpoint of the man who is handl- 
ing the engine, as follows. When we reach the en- 
gine we are to take out on this trip, and look into the 
firebox we will see the tube sheet in one of three 
phases. It will either be dry, seeping or spurting. If 
it is dry we are all right, 
if it is spurting we had bet- 
ter turn it back into the 
roundhouse. If it is seep- 
ing we know that if it is a 
comparatively new set of 
tubes the seeping will take 
up under a hot fire, but if 
the tubes are rather old the 
probabilities are that the 
seeps will too easily develop 
into spurts and we had bet- 
ter not take her without re- 
cording a protest. 

Once having accepted 
the engine, however, it 
is, or should be, "up to us" 
to get over the road with 
her. We know that when 
the tubes start to seep it is 
a question as to whether 
they will take up again or 
else develop into the spurt- 
ing which is generally a 
hopeless stage. Obviously 
then, the thing to do is to 
prevent the start of ana- 
phase of leaking. We 
know that this start never 
occurs while the engine is 
working hard, but devel- 
ops after we tip over the 
hill or are lying in side- 
tracks. Why ? Because 
when the engine is working 
hard we are burning coal 
at a rate which produces 
an intensity of temperature 
which causes the junction 
of the tubes with the tube sheet to expand (with bad 
water) to an extent which is beyond the limit from 
which they will return (when the rate of combustion 
drops) to the tightness of junction which existed be- 
fore.* Now having in mind this knowledge that the 
tube junctions with the sheet have become distorted 
while working the engine hard, to an extent which 
renders them liable to start leaking when the firebox 
temperature drops, because of a cessation of firing 




Mr. David Wilcox, 
president of the delaware & hudson railroad 



Mr. Wilcox was born in Flatbush, N. Y., December 12, 1849, and has 
remained a native of New York State all his life. He was graduated from 
Yale University in 1872, later studied law at the Columbia Law School and 
was admitted to the bar in 1874. He was appointed general counsel of the 
D. & H in 1895, elected vice-president also in 1899 and president in May of 
the past year. 



when we tip over the hill, or go in a sidetrack, our 
only chance is obviously an endeavor to prevent any 
material drop in the degree of firebox expansion 
reached while the engine was working hard. This 
means that" the firebox temperature should not be al- 
lowed to drop very much, which means that ideas of 
fuel economy and aversions to popping must be 
dropped, the blower used freely and a good hot fire 
kept up. That's the whole secret of getting over the 
road with a leaky engine — keep her hot in the firebox, 

all the time, at all points 

and places and under all 
conditions, from the time 
we start out until we cut 
off from the train at the 
end of the run. The start 
of a tube leak indicates that 
this was not done — that the 
fire was allowed to die 
down — otherwise the leak 
could not have occurred. In 
this line it may be remarked 
that this avoidance of tem- 
perature drop does not im- 
ply that a high combustion 
rate is necessary to be main- 
tained, for the differences 
of temperature produced by 
burning coal at 40 lbs. per 
sq. ft. of grate per hour as 
compared with that of 180 
lbs. per sq. ft. per hour is 
only a couple of hundred 
degrees. It is at rates be- 
low 40 lbs. per sq. ft. of 
grate per hour that the cor- 
responding temperatures 
drop so rapidly as to be of 
practical effect. 

Before leaving this sub- 
ject we would like to call 
the attention of our corre- 
spondent to another matter 
in connection with this sub- 
ject, inasmuch as the tone 
of his letter gives us the 
impression that some of the 
ideas expressed are going 
to be promulgated. And 



this is, that retaining his knowledge as a superintend- 
ent of motive power, he views the engineer's job from 
the standpoint of an engineer before coming down 
very hard on some of the less efficient. The ordinary 
engineer is perforce dependent upon his officials for 
knowledge of the major portion of the finer points of 



*For an extended consideration of this subject we refer to a paper 
entitled "Concerning Leaky Fireboxes," by T. S. Reilly, Proceedings 
Western Railway Club, October. 1903. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



engine handling - . If the superintendent of motive 
power, master mechanic or traveling engineer, by rea- 
son of his greater breadth of view and facilities for 
information and observation, arrives at the proper 
solution of any particular difficulty, it is his duty to 
promulgate the information before calling down a 
transgressor. An instance: Not long ago our atten- 
tion was called to a roundhouse foreman who refused 
to have wet sand cleared out of sand boxes where the 
main air reservoir was found to contain much water 
(and with a regular crew he was in the right), yet 
neither the master mechanic nor traveling engineer 
of this division had a realization of the connection 
between the two phenomena, and even after their at- 
tention was called to the kink no bulletin was issued 
passing around the information. 

In this line we recall a division whereon the master 
mechanic was consistent in going after the engine- 
failure-because-of-leaking matter by first placing him- 
self upon record in a bulletin stating that : "Fuel econ- 
omy, black smoke and popping around stations and 
down hill was to be disregarded when handling leaky 
engines. That they must be kept hot all over the divi- 
sion ; that if an engine was delivered to an engine 
crew with a wet sheet the roundhouse foreman's at- 
tention must be called to it, in which case the round^ 
house assumed the responsibility for failure ; but 
where an engine was delivered to the crew with a dry 
sheet, or no protest against a wet sheet was made, the 
engine crew were to be held strictly responsible for 
any leakage that might develop on the road. Any 
engineer feeling a doubt as to his ability to make suc- 
cessful trips under these conditions will please request 
this office for instruction." This instruction involved 
the assignment of the traveling engineer to make a trip 
with the requesting crew and "showing" them. This 
course rendered the information available, without 
which being done there is as little reason for calling 
down a transgressor as would be exemplified by the 
general manager of our correspondent reducing him 
in rank because "since the last lot of locomotives pur- 
chased under your specifications are not giving as 
satisfactory service as expected, you evidently are not 
a competent man." Since it is well conceded that the 
design of boilers has an undoubted, though not clearly 
analyzed, effect upon its performance, it is evident that 
the engine crew is not alone in being short on infor- 
mation, and if the officials, because of their superior 
advantages, have knowledge of more proper ways of 
engine handling than is possessed by the ordinary 
engineer, it is certainly unjust to the latter to be called 
to account before having had these pointers brought 
to their attention. And the bulletin board should be 
backed up by a traveling engineer who is not only 
able, but actually does take the engine himself and 
demonstrate. This thing of traveling engineers spend- 
ing their time in roundhouses and cabooses, gouging 
the fireman out of his seat, or else as a mere errand 
boy for the master mechanic and superintendent, is 



the main reason for the wide variation in the perform- 
ances of the different engine crews on any particular 
division. We do not know the traveling engineer of 
our correspondent, but if his physical constitution and 
mental disposition are such as to have within the year 
just closed have actually taken a shovel in his hand 
and fired up a ten-mile hill, or is so conspicuously able 
and self-confident as to have gone over on the right 
side and brought in a train that some less able man 
was ready to give up, he differs considerably from the 
usual incumbent of this position. And if he further 
spends one-third of his time actually on the engines, 
he is a wonder. Yet only by such means is he of any 
use to the engineers, who are willing to agree where 
an actual demonstration is given, but very loath to pay 
much attention to a man who does not get out and 
"show" how it is done. 



Railroading as Viewed by a Railroader 

Communication from a Superintendent of Motive Power. 
Editor, Railway Master Mechanic. 

Have just been reading your editorial on page 536 
of the December Master Mechanic, on the subject of 
"get thar." The article appeals to. me as being an ex- 
cellent one and has a smell of tallow only found be- 
tween the roundhouse stove and the bulletin. 

The fellow that wrote that article has been close to 
an engine sometime and knows what he is talking about 
when he says "a crew that knows its business don't have 
leaky flues." He ought to have given some reason for 
giving just as much attention to a fire down hill and on 
side tracks as when working on a hill. 

While we don't know who wrote the article we can 
make a guess that his reason for keeping the fire up 
while on side. tracks and going down hill is to keep up 
circulation, and when cold water is put into a boiler 
it don't all settle to the bottom and start the bottom flues 
in the shallow fire boxes to leaking. 

When we had deep fire boxes on American type en- 
gines we did not have so many leaky flues because there 
was room in the water leg for cold water to settle and 
it did not reach the flues until after it had been heated 
around the firebox. 

Have that fellow write some more, it sounds like a 
railroad and reminds me of an answer of a brakeman 
when asked what he passed at a certain station, he an- 
swered "two stocks, a way car bounce and a drag." 
That's railroad vernacular for you, and sounds a whole 
lot like reading the article referred to which treats of 
breakdowns in a business-like way. If most of these 
breakdowns were disregarded and the crew kept going 
the motive power department might have some less 
explanations to make without having to call a fellow in 
and tell him where he made the mistake. 

I want to convey my appreciation of what I consider 
to be a good, practical article. I have written to each 
of our master mechanics and invited his attention to it. 

December T2, 1903. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



The Trend of Locomotive Proportions 

(Continued from Page 540 of Volume 27.) 



ONTINUING with the series of tables, the 
first of which appeared- in the December, 
1903, issue of the Railway Master Mechan- 
ic, showing" the existing- ratios of locomo- 
tive parts and the changes which these re- 
lationships have undergone, we present 
herewith a table of dimensions and propor- 
tions of freight engines, selected as repre- 
sentative of freight locomotive design from 
the year 1880 to the present time. The figures appear- 
ing in the table are arranged graphically to demon- 
strate more clearly and readily the changes undergone 
in the several dimensions and ratios during the devel- 
opment of locomotive design. 

The diversity of opinion among designers, evident 
from the irregular location of the points by which the 




tube divided by diameter. In the case of compound 
locomotives, the volume of both cylinders is taken as 
twice the volume of the high pressure cylinder. 

Referring now to the curves, the heating surface is 
seen to have increased continually and in the years of, 
about, '98 and '99, would tend to rise more abruptly, 
due to the general increase in length of tube. This is 
borne out by the form of the curve, representing ratio 
of tube length to diameter at the points indicating 
these years.. The introduction of the modified wide 
firebox was attended by a reduction in the firebox 
heating surface as manifested by the abrupt change of 
form and the total heating surface and firebox heating 
surface are seen to rise together, the former, however, 
rising above those of the older type of boiler having 
the narrow grate, while the firebox heating surface ac- 
companying a modified wide grate is, in many cases, 
as low as that of the narrow box in service ten years 




/378 80 82 8<? 66 88 90 92 5>* 9b 98 /900 OZ 04- 

Fig. i — Heating Surface and Grate Area. 

curves are plotted and the difference in the conditions 
under which locomotives are operated on different 
roads- and upon the different divisions of the same 
road, renders it impossible 'to advocate a given set of 
ratios as representative of best practice. It is there- 
fore possible to arrive at a definite understanding of 
the proportions considered best practice only by tab- 
ulating the dimensions of a number of representative 
engines and comparing the data so obtained. 

By following the general direction of the points 
plotted an imaginary zone may be outlined within 
which the several dimensions and proportions vary, 
Instead of outlining such a zone we have plotted a 
curve in each case, indicating a general average of the 
several results determined and an imaginary zone 
would follow the general direction taken by the curve. 

In order to discriminate between locomotives using 
the narrow fireboxes and those burning coal on the 
modified wide grates, the former are represented by 
crosses and the latter by circles. Where no discrim- 
ination is made the points are represented by solid 
dots, as in the case of the curve representing length of 



/878 80 82 8f 3b 88 90 92 94 ?6 98 /900 02 04 

Fig. 2 — General Features. 
ago, and is much lower than the same surface of some 
recent designs which continue to use the narrow grate. 

Steam pressure has increased steadily and consist- 
ently up to 1900, after which time 200 pounds appears 
to be the more general boiler pressure for simple en- 
gines, while in some instances it has reached 225 
pounds on compound locomotives and in recent years 
is generally higher than 200 with this type. Compar- 
ing the curve of the freight locomotive with that of 
the passenger, simple pasenger locomotives are oper- 
ating under higher boiler pressure than the simple 
freight engines. 

Weight on drivers and total weight of locomotive 
have increased together and consistently. The small 
diameter of the freight locomotive driving wheels per- 
mits the mud ring of the modified wide firebox to ex- 
tend beyond the frame so that the trailing wheel is 
usually unnecessary on locomotives in such service. 
The change in the direction of the curve is not so 
abrupt as in the case of the passenger curve where 
the influence of the introduction of the wide grate and 
trailing wheels is clearly marked. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 




/878 80 8Z 84 86 86 90 9Z 94 96 98 /900 OZ 04- 

Fig. 3 — Steam Pressure. 



XIO0O0m 



Ziooodi 
izoook 
nooool 

IQOOOtk 



fflOOOA 

mom 

I50000& 

mooo\ 
noooo\ 
jzooooi 




80 82 84 66 80 90 92 ?4 96 98 7900 OZ 04-.. 

Fig. '4 — Weight on Drivers. 



90000 i 
80000\ 
70000\ 



7878 60_ $2 df- 66 3d 90 92 9? 96 98 /900 02 04 

Fig. 6 — -Total Weight. 



/876 80 82 



90 9Z 94-. 



ffMlffifffitllfliillllt'liiffl 




ill 


llllllllllll 9 w mi {mill mi 1 


W||||I j fl || ] fljliltr 








;:; i 


Hffilffffllillll 1 , 1 




r^&l i' 1 ■ f 1 iff Fr*TTiT i 1 1 f f Hfl T fl 1 H HTIffHif Jf *■! t f ^ri~If n^-TFWf^f$^Hif+f-^7?Sf : f z l : f^^^^^^^^f?^^3^^^^^^$$^^^^?~^M : f ^^^1' f M^"* 


^^^^BBj^^^^^^^^BHill 


lilltjIJIllllflillllifllllJijIlP 


tfjflsff) 




jffiffifflij IjJ 1 1 J| 1 1 !i I] 


Mffllllitilllllll 


Billi^liSii 


■■ii 






''ff 




^K^MWWpj 


-:, J. '-. 


■iMllilMiillCt(fiiJlitl?l 


Sfflffi 



98 7900 02 04 



Fig. 7 — Ratio of Weight on Drivers to Tractive 
Effort. 




Fig. 5 — Tractive Effort by Formula 



94 96 98 7900 OZ 04 /073 ao a2 gy. d6 Qa 9Q ?/? ^ % ?Q mo Q/) Q/f 



Fig. 8— Ratio of Total Weight to Tractive Effort. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 




90 9Z 94 96 98 /900 0Z_ 0? " 

/<?/<? 60 82 84 86 88 90 9z 94 1 96 98 /?00 oz 04- flg. 1 3 — ratio of total heating surface to grate 
Fig. 9 — Ratio of Tractive Effort to Total Heating Area. 

Surface. 




/87S 80 81 84 86 8d 90 9Z 94 96 98 /90O OZ 04- 

Fig. io — Ratio of Total Weight to Total Heating 
Surface. 



/67B 80 81 84 86 88 90 9Z 9f 96 98 /900 OZ 04- 

Fig. 14 — Ratio of Firebox Heating Surface to Grate 
Area. 




Fig. 1 1 



94 96 98 /900 OZ 0<4 

-Ratio of Tube Heating Surface to Grate 
Area. 





' 


22 


■iivMm 1 III nJUtl If Hit IllHlj.U 1 1 )i!tt[ ! 1 i i j ] h ii;i' ■'. " .: i ,. ■ \-,w !!i;!i 
dSffiHj- 1[ |HfflI HffjttroM ' ■■||[ fffiffiS 


20 




IB 




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16 




If 




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8 


'?■! \'\ ]] l : .\ '■'■'.. J 1 •■<]•■ , ! ■■;■ j_ ■" : ' i ■' ! :-.':-.| , ' 





iUI41ftlliUJ}iy-trtlHfHyB1^BjtllttWl±Bt&fil!tMiliHtHj 


.ijjijrijltjlljjut' 


111111m 






25 | 

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10 I 

25 [ 

20 j 


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|||[|jHp|l ff ''IH 










15 S 










sji 








1, ' ! ; ' 






SMtfilfffi 


|ffl|jJi LiUttSB 


™ 


lb 



dZ 84 86 88 90 9Z 94* 96 98 2900 OZ _ 0# __. 

—Ratio of Total Heating Surface to Weight 
of One Cylinder Full of Steam at 
Boiler Pressure. 



1878 80 

Fig. 12- 



0Z 84 86 



90 9Z 94- 96 



/900 02 0-4 



7878 80 

Fig. 15- 



600 
500 
WO 
300 
ZOO 
100 
600 
500 
400 
300 
200 
100 



/878 80 82 84- 



■HHHHnnf' 


HliHIIII 


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111 


PI; {[l|ffl|J^PI[||!|| 








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iff 






^fflPtmTinffiilii'irif''ifJlr 


" : ■'•-' :- 


\\\\ t|j| ifttiflff" 


hiiiHiill'Biiff^fltfflffllS 




\ 




tfflffit 


MipSmWi 1 








iff H 1 i ilwlllnlfj ifii }fi 






BSB 


11 


tiff fflUrf '' f'-f^'i I'l-f'l !'!■ 


'fflffUflffl 


" ! iS 


fi+f; Iff ! ft!! In \v f tffl-ffi 1 Iff fffffm 



90 9Z 9* 96 



2900 OZ 04 



-Ratio of Total Heating Surface to Firebox 
Heating Surface. 



Fig. 16 — Ratio of Total Heating Surface to Volume 
of Both Cylinders. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



Most of the curves speak plainly for themselves, as 
the curve of tractive effort, Fig. 5. 

Arriving at the curves of ratios, the first two which 
are the most impressive are those showing the ratio of 
tractive effort and total weight to total heating sur- 
face. By the drop of the curve during the last few 
years the total heating surface is seen to have been in- 
creased, indicating the greater attention given by de- 
signers to produce freer steamers and the attempt to 
place all available weight within the boiler. While 
we have seen that both the total heating surface and 
grate area have increased, the ratio of the former to 
the latter has increased very gradually and during the 
past fifteen years the average ratio has remained near- 




/87Q BO 



mo oz 04- 



Fig.' 17 — Ratio of Grate Area to Volume of Both 
Cylinders. 

ly constant. The longer tube is responsible for this, 
as as clearly shown by the curves in Fig. 12, where 
the ratio of total heating surface to firebox heating 
surface has increased very rapidly since 1894. A curve 
representing the ratio of tube heating surface to fire- 
box heating surface would have practically the same 
form, as the difference between total and tube heating 



surface is equal to the firebox heating surface ; except 
where water tubes are used. There is a difference of 
opinion extant regarding the advisability of the present 
relation between tube and firebox heating surface and 
the subject is worthy of more careful investigation 
than has been made since the adoption of wider grates 
and longer tubes. 

The change in the direction of the curve indicating 
the relationship existing between firebox heating sur- 
face and grate area is so abrupt as to impel attention 
to the fact that with the modified wide grate there is a 
much smaller firebox heating surface per square foot 
of grate area than with the narrow grate. The result 
of this change in the ratio is that the effect of the hot 
gases impinging against the firebox sheets is much in- 
tensified. 

A factor used by the Pennsylvania railroad in loco- 
motive design is the ratio of total heating surface to 




/878 80 81 8? 86 88 90 9Z 94- 96 98 /?W OZ OP 

Fig. i8 — Ratio of Tube Length to Diameter. 
weight of one cylinder full of steam at boiler pressure, 
this road requiring the ratio to be 1,000 or greater. 
This relationship is presented in Fig. 15. The great 
difference appearing among the figures representative 
of compound locomotives rendered it necessary to 
trace a zone as it is impossible to plot a consistent 
curve from the points given. 



Coal and Water Tests of Freight Locomotives — A., T. & S. F. Ry. 



THE Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway has com- 
pleted a number of coal and water tests with five 
of their freight locomotives, over the third district of the 
Chicago Division, a distance of 113 miles, between Ft. 
Madison and Marceline. One of this number made but 
a single run. We include it, however, as the figures are 
of some significance. 

The profile of the road, the elevation at each terminal 
and at points between, the maximum grade in each di- 
rection are clearly shown on the accompanying data 
sheet. 

There were entered in these tests three compound and 
two simple locomotives : Engine 606, Vauclain com- 
pound, 2-6-0, cylinders 15J/2 ins. and 26 ins. with 28-in. 
stroke, 62-in. driving wheels, steam pressure 200 pounds. 
Engine 601, Baldwin simple, 2-6-0, 20-in. cylinders with 
28-in. stroke, 62-in. driving wheels, steam pressure 200 
pounds. Engine 105 1, Vauclain compound, 2-6-2, cylin- 



ders 17 ins. and 28 ins., with 28-in. stroke, 69-in. driv- 
ing wheels, steam pressure 220 pounds. Engine 565, 
2-6-2, Schenectady tandem compound, cylinders 16 ins. 
and 28 ins., with 28-in. stroke, 63-in. driving wheels, 
steam pressure 210 pounds. Engine 175, Brooks simple, 
4-6-0, cylinders 18 ins., with 24-in. stroke, 63-in. driving 
wheels, steam pressure 180 pounds. The fireboxes of 
all boilers are of the modified wide type for burning 
bituminous coal, with the exception of engine 175. 

During the tests the coal and water used were care- 
fully weighed. The same kind of coal was used on all 
locomotives during the several runs, the coal being Illi- 
nois mine run. 

With regard to the corrected weight of coal used per 
thousand ton miles, a decided advantage is shown on 
the part of engine 1051, being a gain of 5.53 per cent as 
against engine 606; 25.6 as against engine 601, and 35 
per cent as against engine 175. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 




January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 




en" 



Q 

< 
O 

P4 

o 
o 

Ph 
Q 



W 

H 
o 

5 

K 
P 

Q 
w 
P 

Q 

w 

u 



Notes 

Trip No. 1 — North quartering wind 8 to 10 miles 
per hour: engine slipped at Baring and Ethel. 

Trip No. 2 — North quartering wind 20 miles per 
hour : engine slipped on Oliver hill : engine popped 40 
seconds. 

Trip No. 3 — North quartering wind 15 miles per 
hour to Oliver: engine slipped leaving Ethel, mud ring 
leaked, Revere to Baring: boiler washed Marceline. 

Trip No. 4 — Southeast quartering wind 15 miles per 
hour : engine slipped at Hart, Gorin, Wyaconda, Medill : 
mud ring leaking, Biddie to La Platte : bad rail Marce- 
line to Revere. 

Trip No. 5 — South quartering wind 15 miles per 
hour: engine slipped at Revere and Ethel. 

Trip No. 6 — South quartering wind 30 miles per 
hour : engine slipped at Revere, Medill and Ethel : trac- 
tion increaser not working: engine simpled i l / 2 miles 
on Dumas hill and 2 miles out of Ethel. 

Trip No. 7 — North quartering wind 15 miles per 
hour : traction increaser working : light tonnage from 
Marceline to Baring. 

Trip No. 8 — North quartering wind 8 to 10 miles per 
hour : train handled nicely. 

Trip No. 9 — -North quartering wind 10 miles per 
hour: coal 50 per cent slack. 

Trip No. 10 — South quartering wind light and help- 
ing: train handled nicely. 

Trip No. 11 — South quartering wind 15 miles per 
hour: slow into Revere and Ethel. 

Trip No. 12 — Calm. 

Trip No. 13 — North quartering wind 30 miles per 
hour : pushed out of Ethel by train No. 57 : slow into 
Revere and Rutledge. 

Trip No. 14 — Helping wind : bad storm at Wyaconda. 

Trip No. 15 — North quartering wind 30 miles per hour. 

Trip No. 16 — South quartering wind light: engine 
slipped at Shopton, Nixon, Dumas, Wyaconda Rut- 
ledge, Baring and Ethel : hole Y% inch in diameter in 
left valve which admitted boiler pressure steam into low 
pressure cylinder : track scale broken at Shopton and 
engine transferred to another division, hence but a single 
run made with this engine. 

Trip No. 17 — South quartering wind 6 miles per 
hour : 4% inch nozzle. 

Trip No. 18 — South quartering wind 10 miles per 
hour : stopped on grade east of Cana : 4% inch nozzle. 

Trip No. 19 — South quartering wind 6 miles per 
hour: 4^2 inch nozzle: diaphragm plate 153/2 inches 
high. 

Trip No. 20 — South quartering wind 8 miles per 
hour: engine fired 24 hours before starting. 

Trip No. 2T — .South quartering helping wind 18 
miles per hour. 

West bound engines on trips 1 to 16 took water at 
Ethel on account of water being short. East and west 
bound engines on (rips 17 to 21 did not stop. 



10 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



Engine 565 shows to a little better advantage in the 
single run than the average of the runs made by engine 
105 1. At the same time each of three runs made by en- 
gine 1 05 1 shows up better than the single run of engine 

565. 

Engine 606 shows an advantage in the use of coal per 

thousand ton miles of 20. 9 per cent as against engine 
601, and an advantage of 31.2 per cent as against en- 
gine 175. The comparison between engines 606 and 601 
is the most striking and as the test of a compound en- 
gine in the same service as a simple, it is the most prac- 
tical, for the reason that these two locomotives are 
identical in design and dimensions with the exception 
of the systems of steam distribution. 

While the figures representing the performance of en- 
gine 105 1 appear the most satisfactory, these results must 
be considered merely as comparing a number of locomo- 
tives with regard to each one's respective fitness for the 
given class of work. As a test between simple and com- 
pound locomotives or between two different systems of 
compounding the figures cannot be considered as truly 
comparative in view of the difference existing among the 
several designs of boilers, ratios of heating and grate 
surfaces to- cylinder volume, etc. 



The comparison of the results of the tests as between 
606 and 60 i tell a different story however and speaks 
highly in favor of the compound. 

The results of the tests and the important details of 
of the several locomotives, appear in the accompanying 
tables. 

These tests were conducted under the personal super- 
vision of Mr. A. L. Beardsley, Road Foreman of En- 
gines, through whose courtesy we are enabled to repro- 
duce the results. 



Type of locomotive.. 2-6-0 

Steam pressure 200 

Cylinders 15y 2 &26x28 

Diam. driving wheels. 62 

Weight on drivers... 132000 

Total weight 157100 

Tractive effort: 28900 

Total heating surface 2626 

Grate area 48.5 

Weight on drivers di- 
vided by tractive 

effort 4.56 

Tractive effort divid- 
ed by total heating 

surface 11 

Total heating surface 
divided by grate 

area 54 . 14 

Total heating surface 

divided by volume 

of both cylinders... 430.5 

Grate area divided 

by volume of both 

cylinders 7.9 

Diameter of nozzle. . 4% 



Engine 


Numbers 






1051 


601 


565 


175 


2-6-2 


2-6-0 


2-6-0 


4-6-0 


220 


200 


210 


180 


f&28x28 


20x28 


16&28x28 


18x24 


69 


62 


63 


03 


141690 


132000 


134500 


96500 


210190 


157100 


211000 125100 


31000 


28900 


34000 


17800 


3738 


2626 


3666 


1492 


53.5 


48.5 


51.25 


18 


4.57 


4.56 


3.95 


5.5 


8.29 


11 


9.27 


11.9 


68 


54.14 


71.5 


83 


508.5 


258.5 


564 


210 


7.6 


4.76 


7.87 


2.53 


514 


4% 




4% 



Economical Distribution of Scrap 



Communication 



Editor Railway Master Mechanic: 

I noticed your issue of December presenting the very 
able and useful paper written by Mr. Murphy, of the 
L. S. & M. S. in regard to the economical and advan- 
tageous disposition of scrap material. He leaves but 
little to be said in connection with this, as he has gone 
over the ground very fully. I might add, however, that 
the classification of scrap material, when reported for 
sale, should be entirely in accord with the ideas of the 
purchasing, agent, who usually makes the sales. It is a 
fact, probably well known, that the several mills that 
purchase scrap have different classifications under which 
scrap is purchased, and that a great deal of money is lost 
to railroad companies from the fact that they sell to 
brokers, under a certain classification, the broker prob- 
ably reclassifying the scrap and selling to the mills, the 
mills not wishing to buy from the railroad company, 
being afraid that the classification will not be up to the 
standard as used by the mills. A suggestion as to han- 
dling this feature of the disposition of scrap, that the 
difficulty above referred to can be best overcome, would 
be for the purchasing agent to outline a form of scrap 
report, showing the usual information as to quantity, 
class, etc., and on the back of this form have full printed 
instructions showing what would make up the different 
grades of scrap iron, and these instructions to be fol- 
lowed carefully by the storekeepers who do the loading 
and shipping. 



Another feature is that storekeepers sometimes antici- 
pate in their report a certain accumulation of scrap. It is 
sold by the purchasing agent upon this report, with the 
result oftimes that the accumulation does not accrue as 
rapidly as the storekeeper anticipated and there is a great 
delay in making shipment on the sales order. This is 
another factor that keeps the mills from buying from 
railroads direct, as they depend upon prompt deliveries ; 
thus it will be seen from the above that if the mills could 
depend upon a correct grade and a prompt delivery they 
would purchase from the railroads direct, instead of 
through the brokers, and the profit the broker is now 
making would accrue to the railroad corporation. 

There is just one important classification of scrap that 
Mr. Murphy has omitted. The class of scrap known as 
No. 1 shop wrought should be separated as to arch and 
tie bars, and any similar grade of iron from the regular 
No. 1 wrought, as the former always commands a higher 
price than the latter. 

There is another problem which we are now wrestling 
with, and one which is quite important to railroad com- 
panies from an economical as well as expedient stand- 
point. The subject might be classified under the head of 
the best method of handling wooden bridge material as 
between the stores and bridge and building department. 
The custom in vogue on a great many roads is that the 
general foreman of bridges or master carpenter makes 
requisition for what is needed at the various bridges in 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



11 



his territory, to be shipped to the station nearest the 
bridge where material is to be used. The storekeeper 
loads the material up, bills it to the station, the agent 
notifies the general foreman of bridges or master car- 
penter, who moves the bridge gang to the station, calls 
on the transportation department to handle cars to the 
bridge for unloading, and the local trains which usually 
handle this work are delayed, probably making overtime 
while this work is being done. Thus, it can be seen from 
this method that the prompt handling of shipment is de- 
pendent, first, upon the transportation department to 
move cars promptly from storehouse; secondly, upon 
the agent to give prompt notice when the cars arrive; 
third, upon the ability of the general foreman of bridges 
or master carpenter to move his bridge gang to the sta- 
tion where the cars have been billed to, and fourth, upon 
the ability of the transportation department to handle 
the cars from the station to the bridge where material is 
to be unloaded. Where it is dependent on so many de- 
partments for the accomplishment of delivery, it would 
be easily seen from a practical standpoint that there is 
always more or less delay. There is also the expense at- 
tendant upon delay to equipment, from the movement of 
bridge gangs to and from the place where material is to 
be unloaded and the overtime paid train crews while the 
unloading is being done, and the uncertainty as to the 
delivery of the material and the lack of knowledge on the 
part of the bridge department officials as to whether the 
material is on the ground so that gangs may be moved 
there to perform the work outlined. As a method of 
overcoming this, I have recommended the adoption of 
the following plan. 

The officer in charge of repairs to bridges to indicate 
in what territory he desires his work to be done, he to 
indicate sufficient work to make use of at least twelve 
carloads of material. This to be loaded by the store de- 
partment and the material handled as a work train, 
which usually costs $25 per day, stores department to 
furnish men to put the material on the ground in accord- 
ance with requisition furnished; and as soon as delivery 
is accomplished notify the officer in charge of bridge 
work that the material is there. He can then advan- 
tageously dispose of his bridge repair gangs, knowing at 
what points material is on the ground for the accomplish- 
ment of work outlined. There is no delay to equipment 
other than that occurring while the cars are being hauled 
in the work train to the several points where the ma- 
terial is to be unloaded. The work of unloading is done 
by cheap labor and not by bridge carpenters, who always 
receive a greater compensation than laborers employed in 
the stores department. 

I think by the adoption of the above plan that several 
thousand dollars in the aggregate can be saved the rail- 
road companies annually in the handling of material and 
that the maintenance of way department will be always 
able to make a better showing in the accomplishment of 
bridge work, at a lesser expense, than where they attempt 
to handle the bridge timbers. 



I would indeed be pleased to have the opinion of other 
general storekeepers on this subject. 
Yours truly, 

John Burke, 
General Storekeeper, Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf R. R. 



The Oil Cup and Swab 

AT the last meeting of the Traveling Engineers' 
Association, held in Chicago, October, 1903, 
the Association placed itself on record as favoring the 
use of an oil cup together with a swab for lubricating 
piston rods. During the discussion of the committee 
report regarding piston rod lubrication, Mr. G. W. 
Wildin, mechanical engineer of the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey, described a successful method of using 
a swab and oil cup which he has placed in service on 
• the road. Through Mr. Wildin's courtesy we are now 
privileged to present an illustration of his method of 




Application of the Oil Cup and Swab — C. R. R. of 

N.J. 

making this application. The swab is placed in a cav- 
ity within the gland and oil is fed thereto by a 5-16-in. 
copper pipe, leading from the cup, which is located 
above the guide as shown by the accompanying line 
drawing. Provision is also made for hand oiling when 
necessary, by arranging holes through the casing. An 
advantage of this arrangement is that the pipe leading 
from the cup to the swab is kept within the cylinder 
head casing and is thus maintained in all weather at a 
temperature which permits a free flow of oil. 



According to newspaper reports the western roads arc 
continuing to experience much difficulty from bad water 
with the heavy locomotives operating at high steam pres- 
sures, and the only relief possible seems to be in the erec- 
tion of water-treating plants. 



12 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1964 



Heavy Freight Locomotive—Lake Shore & Michigan Southern 

Railway 



NUMBER of heavy 2 — 8 — o freight locomo 
A tives built at the Brooks works of the 
American Locomotive Company have been 
placed in service on the Lake Shore & Mich- 
igan Southern Railway. Their design and 
construction represents careful observation 
and investigation on the part of Messrs. H. 
F. Ball and H. H. Vaughan, superintendent 
and assistant superintendent of motive power 
of the road, and Mr. John Player, consulting engineer 
of the American Locomotive Company. The design em- 
bodies a number of interesting features, among which 
we mention first the provision for free circulation in the 
boiler. The water space in the throat sheet leg is made 
very wide to permit water to flow back to the water 
legs ; the water spacings at mud ring are 4^ ins. wide 
and the spacing between flues is wide, having a bridge 
of 15-16 in. Another noticeable feature in the boiler 





L. S. & M. 



-non fl-B SecTJorTc-O 

-Heavy Freight Locomotive- 
Exhaust Nozzle. 

design is that of the large radius of crown sheet at 
corners. Boiler feed water is supplied through two No. 
11 Nathan non-lifting injectors. The check valves are 
located at the bottom of the front sheet, being connected 
with a specially designed elbow on the inside of the 
boiler, so directed as to assist in the circulation of water 
and lead it towards the flue sheet. 

The front end arrangement is peculiar. The stack is 
very short and but a portion is visible above the smoke- 
box. Its height above the smokebox is 22 ins., while a 
portion extends within the box 24^ ins. The portion 
of the smokebox below the bottom of the stack is sepa- 
rated from the remainder by a horizontal diaphragm so 



that the effect of the stack is the same as that of one 
46^ ins. high. The stack was designed according to 
the formula of Prof. W. F. M. Goss, resulting from 
his recent experiments. 

The exhaust base and nozzle received careful atten- 
tion in design. It is illustrated in Fig. 1, and as will 
be seen it has cross ribs through the center on account 
of its large size. The flanged base is 24 by 22 ins. and 
the diameter of the nozzle is 6% ins. The valve gear, 
also shown herewith, Fig. 3, is arranged for direct 
motion. It includes a transmission bar connected to a 
double pendant rocker arm. The valves are of the piston 
type, having inside admission and fitted with 12-in. 
piston rings. 

The frames are of cast steel 6 ins. wide and are illus- 
trated by Fig. 4. They have been made very strong 
and stiff and are provided with braces at both top and 
bottom to resist lateral stress. The cast steel cross 




M. S. Ry. 



Fig. 2 — Heavy Freight Locomotive— L. S. 
— Piston Valve. 

braces in front of the cylinders combine the guide for 
truck, center pin and bumper bracket. 

The design of the engine truck is shown by the ac- 
companying line drawings, Fig. 5. The usual equal- 
izers and side springs have been dispensed with and coil 
springs are used on top of the journal boxes. The 
frame is of cast steel. 

The engines were designed for pusher service with 
coal and ore trains on the hills at Youngstown and 
Ashtabula, on the Franklin division. Except at the 
division terminals the grades are low and trains can be' 
conveniently handled with smaller power. They are also 
to be used as pushers from Cleveland to West Park on 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



13 




Fig. 3 — Heavy Freight Locomotive — L. S. & M. S. Ry.— Valve Motion and Cylinder. 



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Fig. 4 — Heavy Freight Locomotive — L. S. & M. S. Ry.— Frame. 








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Fig. 5 — Heavy Freight Locomotive — L. S. & M. S. Ry. Engine Truck. 



14 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 




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January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



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RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 




Fig. 10— Heavy Freight Locomotive — L. S. & M. S. 
Ry. — Stack. 

the Toledo division, and. for service in the new gravity 
hump yards at Collinwood and Elkhart. They will later 
be put in regular road service on the Franklin division, 
when steel cars of 80,000 and 100,000 lbs. capacity are 
sufficiently numerous in the traffic over this division to 
provide full tonnage. 

The usual formula shows these engines to be capable 
of a starting power of 47,300 lbs. The several ratios of 
heating surface, etc., are included in the table of freight 
locomotive proportions appearing in the insert accom- 
panying this issue. 

The general dimensions are given in the following 
table : 

General Dimensions. 

Gauge 4 ft. 8*4 ins. 

Fuel Bituminous coal 

Weight in working order 235,400 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 207,000 lbs. 

Weight engine and tender in working order. ..... .386,400 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving: 17 ft. 3 ins. 

Wheel base, rigid 17 ft. 3 ins. 

Wheel base, total , 26 ft. 5 ins. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender 57 ft. 10 ins. 

. . Cylinders. 

Diameter Of cylinders - 23 ins. 

Stroke of piston 30 ins. 

Horizontal thickness of piston . .7 ins. 

Diameter of piston rod 4% ins. 

Kind of piston packing .Dunbar 

Kind of piston rod packing U. S. 

Size of steam ports 29% ins. by 2 ins. 

Size of exhaust ports 65 sq. ins. 

Size of bridges 4 ins. 

Valves. 

Kind of valves .Piston 

Greatest travel of valves 5 7-16 ins. 

Outside lap of valves , 1 in. 

Inside lap of valves ins. 

Lead of valves in full gear 1-16 in. 

Kind of valve stem packing U. S. 

Transmission bar With 

Wheels, Etc. 

No. of driving wheels 8 

Diameter of driving wheels outside of tire 57 ins. 

Material of driving wheel, centers Cast steel 

Thickness of tire 3% ins. 

Tire held by Shrinkage 

Driving box material Cast eteel 

Diam. and length of driving journals. .9% and 10 in. dia. x 12 
Diam. and length of main crank pin journals... 7% in. dia. x 7 
Diam.. and length of side rod crank pin journals . 8% in. dia. x 5% 



Section of rods, main I side Double fish belly 

Engine truck, kind Swing 

Engine truck, journals 6 in. dia. x 12 

Diam. of engine truck wheels 33% ins. 

Kind of engine truck wheels Cast steel spoke centers 

- Boiler. 

Style Radial stayed extended wagon top 

Outside diameter of first ring. 80 ins. 

Working pressure 200 lbs. 

Material of barrel and outside of firebox Worth 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of firebox 

13-16, %, 15-16, %, 9-16, % in. 

Horizontal seams 

Sextuple bolt with inside and outside welt strips 

Circumferential seams Double 

Firebox, length 109 ins. 

Firebox, width 74 ins. 

Firebox, depth, front, S3V- ins.; back 69% ins. 

Firebox, material Worth 

Firebox plates, thickness 

Sides, % in.; back, % in.; crown % in.; tube sheet, % in. 
Firebox, water space 

Front, 4% ins.; sides", 4% ins.; back, 4% ins. 

Firebox, crown staying .... 1 in. 

Firebox, staybolts 1 in. 

Tubes, material, and gauge Steel 

Tubes, number 460 

Tubes, diameter 2 ins. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 15 ft. 6% ins. 

Firebirck, supported on Four 3-in. tables 

Heating surface tubes 3,725 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, water tubes 29 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 20.3 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3,957 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 55 sq. f t. 

Grate, style Rocking 

Ash pan, style * Hopper 

Exhaust pipes Single 

Exhaust nozzles 6%. dia. 

Smoke stack, inside diameter 20 and 24 ins. 

Smoke stack, top above rail 15 ft. 2% ins. 

Boiler supplied by Two 11-in. new Nathan injectors 

Tender. 

Style Eight- wheeled 

Weight, empty 56,580 lbs. 

Wheels, number 8 

Wheels, diameter 33 ins. 

Journals, diameter and length 5% ins. dia x 10 ins. 

Wheel base 18 ft. ins. 

Tender frame 13-in. channel steel 

Tender trucks B. W. cast steel bolster 

Water capacity 7,500 U. S. gallons 

Coal capacity 16 tons 

Brake American outside equalized driver brakes 

Westinghouse tender and train brakes, 11-in. pump 



OF interest to builders and designers of American 
locomotives is a letter from Consul-General J. 
H. Worman, stating that the Bavarian government 
has decided to construct a large number of new loco- 
motives from the designs of the American locomotives 
introduced by the railways of Bavaria nearly four 
years ago. During the next two years 40 locomotives 
are to be replaced by 70 new locomotives, and 5,000,000 
marks ($1,190,000) are to be expended for this pur- 
pose. The two locomotive building establishments in 
Munich, the large establishment of Maffei, as well as 
that of Kraus, are to be favored in the distribution of 
these contracts. 



A Washington press dispatch states that fifteen of the 
Interstate Commerce Commission's inspectors of railway 
safety appliances were presented to President Roosevelt 
on Dec. 17 by Edward A. Mosely, secretary. The inspec- 
tors were in Washington in connection with an applica- 
tion for an extension of time for the adoption of the 
safety appliances required by act of congress. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



17 



The American Society of Mechanical Engineers 




HE American Society of Mechanical Engi- 
neers convened for its forty-eighth meeting 
at its house in New York City, Tuesday 
evening, December 1, 1903. After an in- 
formal gathering of an hour or two, the 
members were called to order. President 
James M. Dodge then delivered his presi- 
dential address, on the "Money Value of 
Technical Training," in which he made a 
very careful comparison of the eminence attained by the 
technically trained man, the trade school graduate, the 
shop trained man and the unskilled laborer, pointing out 
that the progress of the world calls for a better and 
more speedy means of producing trained men than 
could ever be developed by the methods of self-in- 
struction. 

The business meeting opened Wednesday morning at 
10 o'clock in Mendelssohn Hall, the first thing on the 
program being the presentation of reports of the various 
committees. The tellers of election of members pre- 
sented their report through the secretary, showing that 
58 new full members had been elected and that the total 
increase of membership by reason of election was 119. 
The secretary presented the report of the tellers of 
election of officers for the ensuing -year, which resulted 
as follows : President, Ambrose Swasey, Cleveland, O. ; 
vice-presidents, Prof. D. S. Jacobus, Hoboken, N. J. ; 
M. L. Holman, Saint Louis, Mo.; W. J. Keep, Detroit, 
Mich. ; managers, George I. Rock wood, Worcester, 
Mass.; J. W. Lieb, Jr., New York City; Asa M. Mat- 
tice, Pittsburg, Pa; treasurer, William H. Wiley New 
York City, re-elected. 

The committee report on standard specifications for 
boiler plate, rivet steel, steel castings and steel forgings, 
presented by Prof. Spangler, met with a vigorous discus- 
sion and criticisms by several members. Upon motion 
the subject was finally referred to "Committee No. 1." 
It is understood that this committee will have authority 
to go over the entire matter and revise it. 

It was moved that a committee be appointed to pre- 
pare a history of the society and its organization, em- 
bracing its records and description of relics, portraits 
and library. This motion was adopted and before ad- 
journment the president appointed a committee to this 
end. 

Having disposed of the preliminary business, the first 
paper of the program was presented by Mr. Frank 
Richards. In this paper, entitled "Is Anything the Mat- 
ter with Piece Work?" the author attempted to show 
that the premium plan is essentially the same as piece 
work, except that it is not so fair to the workman be- 
cause it does not pay him a uniform price per unit of 
work done regardless of output. This paper was fol- 
lowed by one presented by Mr. H. L. Gantt on "Modify- 
ing Systems of Management," in which he dealt with 
the difficulty of starting a premium or bonus system. 

"What Are the New Machine Tools To Be?" is the 
title of a paper by Prof. John E. Sweet. It is first sug- 



gested that machine tools must be largely redesigned 
to meet the demands and the later possibilities in high 
speeds, increased feeds and heavy drives. The machines 
must be made not merely stronger, but must be changed 
in form in many cases. For instance, it is stated that a 
complete box is thirteen times more rigid against tor- 
sion and four times more rigid against bending than if 
the same materal is in the form of side plates with thin 
cross girts. 

By invitation the Thursday morning session was held 
in the main lecture hall of Stevens Institute of Technol- 
ogy, at Hoboken, N. J. The meeting was opened by the 
reading in abstract by the secretary of Prof. W. B. 
Gregory's paper, the "Pitot Tube." Attention was called 
to this simple, efficient instrument for measuring the 
velocity of fluids. Reference was made to several for- 
mer reports and papers and a description with diagrams 
was given of a simple form of Pitot tube, together with 
the results of tests made on the Mississippi River. . . 

"A Method for Determining Rates and Prices for 
Electric Power," by Mr. Frank B. Perry, General Elec- 
tric Company, was the next subject presented. This 
dealt with defects of the ordinary "step" system of rates 
for charging consumers of power by electric companies 
and the author formulated a method for paying by kilo- 
watt-hour, which would produce uniform results. 

"Tests of a Compound Engine, Using Superheated 
Steam," by Prof. D. S. Jacobus, Stevens Institute, fol- 
lowed. In a discussion Professor Jacobus said -that the 
cylinder proportions were not the best for saturated 
steam, but that he considered that a saving of 15 per 
cent due to this amount of superheat can be safely 
counted upon. Some discussion was held upon the dif- 
ficulty of regulating the degree of superheat, and it was 
stated that by running a by-pass round the superheater 
or by providing an additional outlet for the steam after 
passing the superheater, thus enabling a larger amount 
to be passed through in a given time, the degree of 
superheat can be regulated closely. 

The paper by Mr. Edward F. Miller, "Pressure Tem- 
perature Curve of Sulphurous Anhydride," gave the re- 
sults of an investigation of the properties of sulphurous 
anhydride similar to those on which the tables of the 
properties of saturated steam have been constructed. 
The results were presented in both tabular and diagram- 
matic form. Of this paper there was no discussion and 
the program was continued by taking up the "Construc- 
tion and Efficiency of a Fleming Four-Valve Engine 
Directly Connected to 400-Kilowatt Generator," by Ben- 
jamin T. Allen. This paper contained a short descrip- 
tion of this type of engine, in which the valves, which 
are somewhat similar to the Corliss type, are positively 
actuated by a system of bell cranks. Sample indicator 
cards were shown, and (he result of five tests was given, 
the best of which at about 7-10 load gave a water-rate 
of 12.33 pounds, with an indicated horsepower of 348. 
According to the results, the efficiency of the engine did 
not vary widely from one-sixth load to a little over full 
load. 



i8 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



The next paper considered was entitled "Slide Rules 
for the Machine Shop as a Part of the Taylor System 
of Management," by Carl G. Barth, who described a 
method of constructing slide rules which will solve rela- 
tions between cutting speeds, depth of cut and feed, con- 
sidering the material and class of tool steel. The data 
used was obtained from many experiments made by Mr. 
Taylor in regard to resistance in cutting steel and iron. 
This rule is intended for use in shops in order to deter- 
mine quickly the most efficient feed or speed, knowing 
the other factors of material, tool steel, etc. 

Mr. F. A. Scheffler's paper, "Suggestions for Shop 
Construction" was the last paper presented at the morn- 
ing session. He discussed a proposed arrangement for 
an electric manufacturing plant, consisting of seven 
buildings arranged radially, with administration build- 
ing in the center and material and shipping tracks con- 
necting the different buldings. 

The members reassembled in the auditorium in the 
afternoon to listen to an address, accompanied by ex- 
periments, by Dr. Hans Goldschmidt on the use of 
"Thermot" in welding steel and iron. 

The Friday morning's session was opened by Mr. C. 
A. Morgan's paper, "A Compact Gas Engine of the 
Beam Type." The engine is of the inverted beam type, 
two cylinders operating on the two-cycle principle being 
connected to the opposite ends of a working beam from 
which a third arm drives the crank-shaft through a 
connecting rod. The valves are a combination of pop- 
pet and piston valve and are operated in a decidedly 
novel manner directly from the working beam without 
eccentrics or cams. The valve gear is of the releasing 
type with dash-pots. The author called attention to the 
immense waste in the gases from blast furnaces and coke 
ovens for the utilization of which his engine is more 
especially intended. 

The next paper was a plea for the institution of a 
"Standard Unit of Refrigeration," by Mr. J. C. Bertsch. 
He directed attention to the extensive employment of 
mechanical refrigeration, and especially to the rapid in- 
crease in its use in the last few years. The writer, an 
expert in this line, says that sooner or later it will be 
applied to our dwellings and public halls not only to re- 
place the ice in the refrigerators, but to furnish also 
cooler and better air in the hot season of the year. 

Prof. W. F. M. Goss presented a paper on "A Series 
Distillery Apparatus of High Efficiency," in which he 
gave a very complete description of a distilling appa- 
ratus consisting of a succession of chambers, in each of 
which the liquid to be vaporized is successively raised in 
temperature, and in all but the first of which some vap- 
orization occurs, the process continuing until all is 
changed to vapor. Heat is supplied at only the last 
chamber, and all the vapor produced starts from that on 
a return circulation, passing the chambers successively, 
giving tip a portion of heat to each, a portion of the 
vapor being condensed thereby, until at the end of the 
series the condensation is completed. 




A Device for Grinding Piston Rods. 

A paper on "Air Motors and Air Hammers," by Mr. 
Max H. Wickhorst, was read by the secretary. The 
paper described the apparatus and methods employed in 
testing air impelled tools used by the Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy Railroad. The principal facts to be de- 
termined were the air consumption, horsepower and 
stalling load of motors, the number and force of ham- 
mer blows, etc. A written discussion was presented by 
Mr. Hobart in which he contended that the apparatus 
was useful for obtaining comparative results only. 

The concluding paper of the meeting was by Mr. 
Sterling H. Bunnell, "An Improvement in Valve Motion 
of Duplex Air Compressors." The improvement de- 
scribed applies to the inlet valves of the air cylinders in 
connection with the Meyer cut-off for the steam cylin- 
ders of duplex air compressors. Diagrams and explana- 
tions of the valve staying were included, and a state- 
ment as to the advantages gained over the use of the 
ordinary pocket valve. 

The attendance of the several sessions was good and 
the total attendance was larger than at any previous 
meeting, the register showing a total of members and 
guests of 837. About a hundred members availed them- 
selves of the privilege of visiting the Trenton Works of 
the De Laval Steam Turbine Company on the excursion 
of Friday afternoon. 

It is regretted that lack of space will not permit us 
to include any of the valuable papers read, which form 
interesting additions to existing technical literature. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



19 



A Useful Device for Grinding Piston Rods 

/k USEFUL device for quickly grinding the ends of 
piston rods and for securing a good fit between 
the piston rod and cross-head, has been placed in serv- 
ice in the Collinwood shops of the Lake Shore and Mich- 
igan Southern Railway. The accompanying engraving 
from a photograph illustrates the device very clearly. The 
cross-head is held securely by the vise shown on the 
floor. The end of the rod is placed therein and is held 
in a vertical position by the bracket shown bolted to the 



end of the bench. A clamp is attached to the rod above 
the bracket, which in turn is connected by a pin to the 
jaws at the end of the connecting rod shown. By a 
suitable arrangement of gears and crank the power de- 
rived from an air machine is made to give an oscillating 
motion to the rod, a means of grinding which is found 
much more satisfactory than the old hand method. In 
order that continuous grooves may not be cut in the sur- 
faces of the rod and cross-head, the operator gives the 
rod an occasional vertical motion by a stick which he 
places between the bracket and clamp. 



Improvements at the Schenectady Works of the American Locomotive 

Company 



^\ INCE the acquisition of the Schenectady works by 
VJ the American Locomotive Company a number of 
changes have been made in the use of the several build- 
ings constituting the plant, and many improved facili- 
ties are being added. The original plant on the south 
side of the Erie Canal having become inadequate and 
no accommodation being available immediately adjacent, 
it was_ necessary to secure land on the opposite side of 
the canal. This was done some time ago and the erec- 
tion of suitable buildings has been rapidly advanced. 

The building now used as the cylinder shop was orig- 
inally the blacksmith shop. It is arranged in two bays, 
the main bay being occupied by machines for the heavier 
work on cylinder castings, boring, planing, etc., and is 
served by three electric traveling cranes. Machines for 
lighter work, such as cylinder heads, steam chests, steam 
chest covers, piston valves, bushings, etc., are placed in 
a side bay where they are served by light traveling hoists. 
Machines in this shop are arranged in groups and elec- 
trically driven. 

The old boiler shop has recently been converted into 
a frame shop, while the old foundry has been rearranged 
for a wheel shop. The old hammer shop has been torn 
down and in the position which it occupied is being 
erected a five story brick building supported by a steel 
frame in which the office drawing room and store rooms 



are to be located. Its position being the most conven- 
iently available from the several buildings on both sides 
of the canal makes it the most appropriate location for 
the store house. A new building is being constructed 




Fig. 2 — Centre Bay of New Boiler Shop — Schenec- 
tady Works of the American Locomotive Co. 

for finishing locomotives, on the site on which the tender 
frame shop was previously located. This building is to 
be equipped with a light traveling crane and the neces- 
sary machine tools for finishing locomotives after they 
have reached such stages in construction that it is prac- 
tical to transfer them from the erecting shop, thus mak- 
ing room to forward the construction of others. 




Fig. 1 — Interior of New Hammer Shop — Schenec- 
tady Works of the American Locomotive Co. 



Fig. 3- 



Showing Structural Work of New Foundry 
Schenectady Works of the American 
Locomotive Company. 



20 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



BlWUM „ 






Fig. 4 — Interior of New Blacksmith Shop — 

Schenectady Works of the American 

Locomotive Company. 

A new tank shop is being constructed in which tanks 
will be finished complete and painted before being re- 
moved from the shop. The building is .600 ft. by 175 
ft. and is constructed of rjrick Upon a framing of steel, 
a construction which has been consistently followed in 
the erection of the new buildings about the plant. The 
building is divided into three bays, each of which is 
served by a Niles electric traveling crane. The capacity 
of the crane serving the main center bay is 40 tons, 
while each side bay is served by a crane of 10 tons 
capacity. 

The new hammer shop, interior view of which is pre- 
sented herewith by Fig. 1, is 85 ft. by 650 ft. In it 
are located 10 steam hammers of Chambersburg and 
Bement-Niles manufacture and space provided for the 
addition of four more hammers. Each hammer is served 1 
by a steam generating furnace and two jib cranes. 

A new shop has been erected for drop hammer and 
die work. Machines in service in "the drop hammer shop 















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and machine tools in a small machine shop adjacent 
thereto are driven by electric motors. In order that 
one or the other of the two groups may be operated at 
a time, the heavier machines in the drop hammer shop 
are connected to a large 63 horse power motor, and the 
machine tools are driven by a small motor of 35 horse 
power. i I I 

A view of the interior of the foundry is presented 
by Fig. 3. The building is 650 ft. by 175 and 
is divided into three bays. The main center bay is 
served by 35 ton Niles electric traveling cranes and local 
hoisting work is done by jib cranes. Transfer of mate- 
rial is further facilitated by lorry tracks. 

The boiler shop is 650 ft. by 175 and divided into three 
bays, as shown by the accompanying illustration, Fig. 2. 
The main bay in which the heavy work is done is served 
by three traveling cranes of 35 tons capacity, one of 
which is of Shaw manufacture and the other two are 
Niles cranes. Punches, shears, etc., are located in one 




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Fig. 5 — Interior of New Blacksmith Shop — Schen- 
ectady Works of the American Locomotive Co. 



Fig, 6 — Interior of New Cylinder Shop — Schen- 
ectady Works of the American Locomotive Co. 

of the side bays, where they are served by three travel- 
ing cranes of 10 tons capacity, manufactured by the 
Niles Co. Both this side bay and the main bay are 
equipped with jib cranes for local use. The fires, etc., 
are located in the third bay, a part of which is arranged 
for staybolt and flue work. The heavy machinery, riv- 
eters, accumulators, etc,, are located -in one end of , the 
building. . 

All material for the boiler shop is unloaded in the yard 
at the east end of the building. The work begins at this 
end of the shop, the sheets being carried first to the lay- 
out benches, from which point the cranes continue them 
to the punches, shears, rolls and drills, the shells finally 
reaching the riveters. In the mean time all flange work 
has been going on in the opposite bay and the parts are 
finally brought to the centre bay where they are as- 
sembled. Upon completion all boilers are thoroughly 
tested before leaving the boiler shop. 

In converting the old boiler shop to the present frame 
shop, the riveters were removed and the ventilators re- 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



21 




Fig. 7 — General Plan — Schenectady Works of the American Locomotive Company. 



placed by sky lights. The machines for heavy work are 
located in the centre bay, where they are served by three 
electric traveling cranes of twenty tons capacity, which 
were installed by the Morgan Engineering Company 
when the shop was used for boiler work. Light machines 
are in the side bay and the whole machine tool equipment 
is driven by two 60 h. p. General Electric Motors, one lo- 
cated in each side bay. Adjacent to the north bay is a 



bolt room well equipped with bolt cutting machines. 

All shop buildings of the entire plant, on both sides of 
the canal, are connected by standard gauge tracks. There 
are two traveling jib cranes in service, which operate up- 
on standard gauge tracks, for transporting material, 
which have been found very serviceable in saving both 
time and labor. They were manufactured by the Indus- 
trial Works, Bay City, Michigan. 



Freight Locomotive— Chesapeake & Qhio Railway 



THROUGH the courtesy of Mr. J. F. Walsh, super- 
intendent of Motive Power of the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Railway, we are enabled to present herewith a 
photograph and the principal dimensions of one of the 
standard consolidation locomotives recently built for 
that road by the Richmond Works of the American Loco- 
motive Company. The engines are designed for service 
on all of the several divisions of the road. They are 



giving satisfactory service both from the standpoint of 
economy and popularity with the enginemen who have 
handled them. The firebox is of the modified wide type 
for burning bituminous coal and the valves are of the 
piston type. The cab is made- of steel, presenting a neat 
appearance and a design simple of construction. For 
convenience and for economy of space the main reser- 
voir is placed on the rear of the tender. 




Freight Locomotive — Chesapeake & Ohio Railway. 



22 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



By the usual formula the tractive effort is 41 100; the 
ratio of weight on drivers to tractive effort is 4.05; the 
ratio of tractive effort to total heating surface is 13.6 
and the ratio of total heating surface to grate area is 
64.5. The ratio of total heating surface to firebox heat- 
ing surface is 19.25 ; the ratio of firebox heating sur- 
face to grate area 3.35 ; the ratio of total heating surface 
to volume of both cylinders is 245.4 an d the ratio of 
grate area to volume of both cylinders is 3.8. 

The further interesting features are evident from the 
following table : 

General Dimensions. 

Gauge 4 ft. 9 ins. 

Fuel Bituminous coal. 

Weight in working order 186,225 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 166,875 lbs. 

Weight engine and tender in working order 305,525 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving 17 ft. in. 

Wheel base, rigid 17 ft. in. 

Wheel base, total 25 ft. 3 ins. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender 54 ft. lOMs ins. 

Cylinders. 

Diameter of cylinders 22 ins. 

Stroke of piston 28 ins. 

Horizontal thickness of piston 6 ins. 

Diameter of piston rod 4 ins. 

Kind of piston packing Plain rings. 

Kind of piston rod packing Jerome Elliott. 

Size of steam ports 1% ins. 

Size of exhaust ports 2%, ins. 

Size of bridges 1% ins. 

Valves. 

Kind of slide valves Piston. 

Greatest travel of slide valves 5% ins. 

Outside lap of slide valves . . . 1 in. 

Inside lap of slide valves in. 

Lead of valves in full gear in. 

Kind of valve stem packing Jerome Elliott. 

Transmission bar With. 

Wheels, Etc. 

Number of driving wheels 8. 

Diameter of driving wheels outside of tire. . '. 56 ins. 

Material of driving wheels, centers Cast steel. 

Thickness of tire 3 ins. 

Tire held by Shrinkage. 

Driving box material Cast steel. 

Diameter and length of driving journals. .9x9% in. dia. x 10. 

Diam. and length of main crank pin journals.. 7 in. dia. x 6%. 



Diameter and length of side rod crank pin journals 

• 7% in. dia. x 5 3-16. 

Section of rods, main "P' side, "I." 

Engine truck, kind 2-wheeled swing motion. 

Engine truck, journals 5% in. dia. x 9%. 

Diameter of engine truck wheels 30 ins. 

Kind of engine truck wheels. .. ."Standard" steel tired, spoke. 
Boiler. 

Style Extended wagon top, wide fire box. 

Outside diameter of first ring 70 ins. 

Working pressure 200 lbs. 

Material of barrel and outside of fire box 

Cen. I. & S. Co.'s steel. 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of fire box 

% in., 13-16 in., 11-16 in. and % in. 

Horizontal seams Butt jointed, sextuple riveted. 

Circumferential seams Double riveted. 

Fire box, length 90 ins. 

Fire box, width .75 ins. 

Fire box, depth , front, 73 ins.; back, 61% ins. 

Fire box, material Cen. I. & S. Co.'s steel. 

Fire box plates, thickness „ 

sides, % in.; back, % in.; crown, % in.; tube sheets, % in. 
Fire box, water space 

front, 4 ins.; sides, 3% ins.; back, 3% ins. 

Fire box, crown staying Radial, 1% ins. dia. 

Fire box, stay bolts 1 in. dia. 

Tubes, material and gauge National No. 11. 

Tubes, number 370 x 11-16 rear, 23-32 front. 

Tubes, diameter 2 ins. O. D. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 14 ft. 9 ins. 

Fire brick, supported on Water tubes. 

Heating surface, tubes 2841.38 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, water tubes .26.04 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, fire box 157.08 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3024.55 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 46.87 sq. ft. 

Grate, style Rocking, 2-section. 

Ash pan, style Sectional. 

Exhaust pipes Single. 

Exhaust nozzles 5% ins., 5% ins. and 5% ins. dia. 

Smoke stack, inside diameter 16 ins. tapered to 17 ins. 

Smoke stack, top above rail. ...» 14 ft. 11% ins. 

Boiler supplied by 2 No. 10 Hancock injectors. 

Tender. 

Style Channel steel frame with water bottom tank. 

Weight, empty - 48,600 lbs. 

Wheels, number 8. 

Wheels, diameter 33 ins. 

Journals, diameter and length 5% ins. dia. x 10 ins. 

Wheel base 18 ft. 1% ins. 

Tender frame Channel steel. 

Tender trucks "Stirlingworth," 

Water capacity 6000 U. S. gallons. 

Coal capacity 10 tons. 



Railroad Shop Tools 

By Charles H. Fitch 
IX 



E have already described the Ajax forging 
^Lm/ rolls, by use of which a variety of shapes 
can be quickly and cheaply drawn down to 
taper by the movement of revolving dies 
through part of a revolution. The move- 
ment of the work in these rolls is in a 
plane perpendicular to the axis of the rolls. 
Its length must, therefore, be limited to 
such a fraction of the circumference of the 
rolls as will admit the passage of the work through 
them with reasonable clearance between the work 
and the portion of the dies which form the end of it, 
in a taper piece, the small end of the taper being rolled 
last. 




Rolling, however, in a broader sense, is not limited 
by this construction. It may be continuous, as in the 





Fig. 1 — -Vertical and Horizontal Arrangement of 
Rolls. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



23 




Fig. 2 — Engine Driven Rolls Manufactured by 
Wickes Bros. 

rolling of merchant bar and tubes, and peculiar and 
valuable results may be had from the use in combina- 
tion of rolls set askew, and dies formed in the sur- 
faces of conical or sphero-conical rolls. Such are 
some English types of flange-rolling machines, and 
the devices for producing Mannesmann tubes. No 
more interesting application of conical rolls can be 
found than that which originated in Chicago, the in- 
vention of Frank C. Caldwell, for the continuous roll- 
ing of the flights of helicoid conveyors. There re- 
mains a great deal more to be done in the processes 
of rolling material in the place of milling or cutting 
it. The latter removes the skin, or earliest cooled por- 
tion, hardest to resist wear, while rolling retains it. 

Such methods of rolling will apply in railroad as 
in other work, but for the present, apart from roll- 
cutting and the forging of comparatively short taper 
pieces, the chief use of rolls is in the time-honored 
machinery for straightening and bending plates in 
boiler work. 

Antecedent to rolling and other machine forging 
was, of course, hand work. In this formers were used, 
plates for fireboxes, saddles, etc., being forged over 
them with sledge and hammer, until these methods 
were superseded by use of heavy hydraulic flanging 
machinery. The formers were held by clamping in 
long vises by means of screw jacks. Pneumatic vises 
have also been used for quicker action on plate work, 



and there is no reason why hydraulic power should 
not be employed. 

Plate-bending rolls are not only machines for roll- 
ing plate, but combine with this function that of a 
vise with rolling instead of fixed jaws. Rolling plates 
is a process of peining or swaging upon long lines or 
cylindrical elements. The outside of the plate is 
stretched, and the inside is compressed, to form a cyl- 
inder, which retains the diameter determined by this 
stretching and compressing. If plates are curved or 
warped they are restored to plane surfaces by 
straightening rolls in which several sets of rollers 
above and below are employed, but for forming boiler 
cylinders only three rollers are used, two being driven 
by power, while the third one, revolving idly, is ad- 
justable for bending, so that by moving it the curve 
required may be given. 

Where plates are very heavy the weight of the 
plates affects uniformity of curvature, and the large 
shipyards find that they can handle plates better with 
vertical rolls, but locomotive boilers do not have very 
thick plates, nor very great variety in dimensions, 
and railroad shops commonly use two geared hori- 
zontal rolls side by side, and a movable bending roll 
above, midway between them. This is called the 
pyramidal form. It does not bring the edges of the 
plate to a true curve. Another form of machine has 
two power-driven rolls, one above the other, while 
the bending roll is advanced in an oblique line. This 
makes a uniform curve, but unless eprcycle and com- 
pensating gears are used, one power roll rubs over the 
plate after it is curved, calendaring it, which is objec- 
tionable. 

The two types are shown in sketch Figure 1. The 
pyramidal type is more commonly used as being on 
the whole more simple and satisfactory. Such rolls 
made by Wickes Bros., Saginaw, Mich., are shown in 
Figure 2. In these the bending roll is seen to be 
larger in diameter than the power-driven rolls, and to 




Fig. 3 — Electric Motor Driven Rolls Manufactured by Hilles & Jones Co. Top Roll Operated by Hand. 



24 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 




Fig. 4 — Electric Motor Driven Rolls Manufactured by Hilles & Jones Co. 

Individual Motor. 



Top Roll Operated by 



prevent the latter from yielding under their work 
short roller bearings are placed in the middle. 

We have all heard the story of the man who built 
a machine and had to take down his shop to get it out 
as an illustration of the lack of forethought. Bending 
rolls are commonly built with this provision. Where 
cylinders are rolled in one sheet, as consists with the 
best practice for ordinary diameters, it is necessary 
to make special provision for their removal after roll- 
ing. The outer top roll housing is mounted in trun- 
nions, so that it may be swung down to permit the 
rolled cylinder (boiler shell) to be drawn out side- 
wise. To make this easy by giving clearance and re- 
lief from the weight of the top roll, this roll is ex- 
tended (it is usually of forged iron) in a long taper 
balance bar, to the end of which a hand screw may be 
applied, lifting the roll by leverage upon the inner 
housing. 

Plates are bent with one pass, the heaviest plate 
being handled at ten or twelve feet per minute. 

A number of railroad shops have tools which mark 
an epoch prior to the convenient application of elec- 
tric motors for individual machine drive. In the 
boiler shop v{here. machines are few and powerful, 
and the use of shafting was always undesirable, sep- 
arate steam engines were installed, an expense which 
would now hardly be considered. The arrangement, 
then the best obtainable and still available in excep- 
tional circumstances, is shown in Fig. 2, rolls by Wickes 
Bros., Saginaw, Mich., driven by duplex reversing en- 
gines. The C. & N. W. shop arrangement for driving 
rolls was even more elaborate,, there being two pairs of 
vertical engines, one pair for each live roll. Such in- 
stallations are expensive in first cost, and as the use of 
steam in such small engines is -Uneconomical, it is prob- 
ably onlv a question of a short, time before these engines 
give place to electrical drive. 

The idle roll whose position determines the curva- 
ture, may be fed uniformly at each end by actuating 
the nuts of the vertical feed screws by power gearing. 
This is usual in ship work, where plates have to be 
rolled of thicknesses of 5 inches or more, and often 
"out of wind," so that the problem of rolling involves 
much more than usual with the light plates and 



straight work on locomotive boilers. Illustrations of 
up-to-date machines for locomotive work are shown 
in Figure 3, rolls driven by electric motor, top roll 
operated by hand, and in Figure 4 showing method 
of driving by electric motor, with a separate motor 
for raising and lowering the top roll. 

Examples of roll equipment are the Du Bois shops, 
Hilles bending rolls, one set No. o light and one set 
No. 5, for plates up to twelve feet by Y\ inch, and 
straightening rolls, all belt driven, and the new Col- 
linwood shops, two sets bending rolls, Hilles No. 2, 
the lighter, and Bement for plates 12 ft. 2 in. long by 
% in. thick. These are driven by ten and twenty 
horse-power variable speed motors, respectively, and 
a set of Niles No. 3 plate straightening rolls is used, 
requiring a ro horse power motor. The latter shops are 
of much greater capacity than the former, and this 
emphasizes the fact that plate rolls are an element in 
machine plant in which capacity of work is so great that 
small shops are at a disadvantage, requiring as expen- 
sive machinery as large ones with less continuous use 
for it. 

Machines embodying the rolling principle and used 
upon plate are those for shearing, splitting, beveling and 
forming the edges of plates. Joggling machines are 




Fig. 5 — Sectional View of Lennox Rotary Bevel 
Shear. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



25 



those used for forming a ribbed lap joint special to 
ship work. A machine seen in nearly every large rail- 
road shop is the Lennox rotary bevel shear made by 
the Lennox Machine Co., of Marshalltown, Iowa, rep- 
resented by Joseph T. Ryerson & Son of Chicago. 
Few machines are more admirable than this in its labor- 
saving qualities, neatness of design and adaptation to 
its purposes. It expands the ability of a man to do a 
class of work which for clean finish could not other- 
wise be attempted. 

Rolling cutters have some obvious advantages over 
shear blades. They act at a contact point instead of 
along a cylindrical element so that they can be used on 
curved and irregular work, and at the same time the 
cutting edges are out of contact with the work most 
of the time, preventing heating even when work is done 
as fast as a man can handle it. 

Figure 5 is a sectional view of the Lenox machine. 
The bevel is on the lower cutter. The work is usually 
held horizontal. The upper spindle has a small pivotal 
movement adjustable by spring and set screw for thick- 
ness of plate. The top cutter overlaps the lower one 
about one-sixteenth of an inch, and small variations 
in bevel may be made by letting out the lower cutter. 
The upper cutter is reversible, and the machine will not 
receive plates too thick for its capacity, usually limited 
to }i inch, a convenient safeguard. The cutters pinch 
and feed the work as they cut it. A guide roll is ope- 
rated by hand wheel. Figure 6 shows one of these ma- 





Fig. 6 — Lennox Rotary Bevel Shear Operated by 
Individual Motor. 

chines With direct motor drive, Figure 7, a furnace 
flange in process of being beveled, the boiler head being 
suspended on, center by temporary angles. Mr. A. A. 
Akins, F. B. M., Chicago Great Western Shops at Oel- 
wein, la., makes the following comparison of machine 
and hand work on locomotive sheets, the machine re- 
quiring one man at 23^ cts. an hour, with helper at 
17/^ cts. an hour. 

Machine. Hand. 

Dome head, 29 inch 8 min. 360 min. 

Crown sheet, 108x56 12 min. 540 min. 

Firebox side sheet, 108x70 14 min. 600 min. 

Door sheet, 56x56 10 min. 420 min. 

Flue sheet, 56x71 11 min. - 570 min. 

Translated into hours the dome head takes 6, etc., by 
hand. The machine is 40 or 50 times as fast. The time 
labor cost on the above sheets is about 40 cts. by ma- 
chine, against $10 by hand, or 1 to 25. Labor of han- 
dling is about the same by machine as by hand. 

On some work the planer can be superseded, and the 
rotary shear is a much more convenient tool than the 
plate planer. 

Splitting shears for straight work will handle 400 or 
500 feet of plate in an hour, about 5 times as much as 
by other methods. Compare this with the speed of roll- 
ing the heaviest plate (statement attributed to Mr. 
Cullen, Niles-Bement-Pond Co.), viz.: 10 or 12 feet 
per minute, or at rate of 600 to 720 feet per hour. In 
the" splitting shears the cutters are milled on edge so 
that they will grip and feed the plate as it is being cut. 



Fig. 7 — Beveling the Furnace Flanc;e of a Boiler 

Head. 



A Chicago mechanical engineer is putting in a central 
heating system, to cost $250,000, for the Little Rock 
(Ark.) Heating Co., a novel feature of this installation 
being in the fact that the heating plant will utilize waste 
steam from cross compound condensing engines under 
vacuum conditions. The steam will be secured from the 
Little Rock Traction & Light Co., who will place steam 
from engines aggregating 4,000 horse-power at the dis- 
posal of the healing plant. 



26 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



Cafe-Parlor Cars—Chicago Great Western Railway 



THE Chicago Great Western Railway has recently 
received seven cafe parlor cars for day trains and 
a number of buffet-smoking cars for night trains, on its 
new line to Omaha. These cars are similar in design to 
the club cars now in service on the line between Chicago 
and St. Paul, though they are in advance of the latter in 
arrangement and equipment. 

Two types of the buffet-smoking cars have been placed 
in service, both of which have the smoking compartment. 
In some of them, however, the remaining portion is 
equipped with regular coach seats, while in others this 
portion is used as a baggage car. The latter are illus- 
trated herewith in plan. 

The cafe parlor cars were first placed in service on 
Sunday, December ,13, between Chicago, Minneapolis 



platform is a 3-foot observation platform with brass rail- 
ing and gates. The forward platform is fitted with the 
usual swinging door designed to cut the view of the 
kitchen compartment off from passengers passing from 
car to car. The exterior of the car is painted in olive 
green and decorated in gold, presenting a very attractive 
appearance. A noticeable feature adding to the pleasing 
appearance of the car are the many wide windows and 
the small high windows in the kitchen and toilet rooms, 
instead of the oval windows which have been so commonly 
used in parlor cars. 

An exterior view of the car is shown by Fig. 2, 
while the distribution of the > several compartments is 
shown by Fig. 3. The interior of the dining compart- 
ment, looking to the rear, is shown by Fig. 4. In the 




Fig. 1 — Plan of Combination Baggage and Buffett Smoking Car — C. G. W. Ry. 



and St. Paul and between Chicago, Des Moines and 
Omaha. The cars are thoroughly modern in every re- 
spect and because of their elegant ornamentation and 
equipment, as well as their many features arranged for 
the convenience of travelers, they have been denominated 
"house, cars" by the passenger department. 

The body of the car weighs 75,000 pounds, trucks 35,- 
300 pounds; total 110,300 pounds. They are 79 feet 
long over all, 9 feet 8 inches wide over sheathing and are 
carried on the usual six-wheel truck. The forward plat- 
form is of the regulation wide-vestibule type and the rear 



background appears the table and very artistic mirror 
above the same in the rear of the parlor section, the lo- 
cation of which can be noted in the floor plan. Fig. 5 
is an interior of the parlor compartment looking for- 
ward and showing the very tasteful mission type of com- 
bined book case and writing desk. Fig. 6 is an interior 
view of the smoking and observation room looking for- 
ward in which the disposition of oval mirrors over the 
corner sofa and with the gas globes between, appears 
very clearly. The sofa is equipped with locker below for 
bedding. Fig. 7 is a view looking toward the rear of 




Fig. 2 — Exterior View of Observation-Cafe-Parlor Car— C. G. W. Ry. 




Fig. 3 — Plan of Observation-Cafe-Parlor Car — C. G. W. Ry. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



27 




Fig. 4 — Interior View of Cafe Compartment— 
C. G. W. Ry. 

the smoking and observation compartment in which the 
low glass observation windows and door are shown. 

The kitchen compartment is 12 ft. 6 ins. long and con- 
tains the most modern equipment throughout, including 
conveniently located lockers, tables, range, broiler, etc., 
and a full quota of copper utensils, together with Bohn 
white enamel refrigerator. Entry is had to the car by 
a door opening into a passageway 2 ft. 2 ins. wide at the 
left of the kitchen. A swinging door leads from the 
latter passageway into the kitchen for the purpose of 
serving instead of access being had through the butler's 
pantry as is usual in full-dining car construction. An 
acetylene gas generating outfit is located in the locker 
immediately back of the kitchen at the left of the car, 
as indicated, and on the opposite side a booth for the 
heater and a wine and a fruit locker are installed. This 
subdivision consumes 5 ft. 2 ins. of the length of the car. 

Entry is had into the cafe portion through an arch 
30 ins. wide and by reference to Figs. 3 and 4 it will 
be seen that this room contains four tables — two large 
and two small — with a total seating capacity of twelve 
persons. The style of this room is colonial, and the de- 
sign in consequence is very properly a plain one with 
little carving to catch the dust, but unusually beautiful 
woods are used, and the entire equipment, including the 
brass chandeliers and hat hooks, were especially de- 
signed, so that the result is a room which presents a 
very ornamental ensemble. This compartment is 13 ft. 
long, and it will be noticed at once upon reference to 
the photo-engraving and line drawing that an unusual 
amount of space is provided, making a very roomy cafe. 



Immediately to the rear of the last named compartment 
the men's and women's toilet rooms are located on 
opposite sides of the car. 

Just back of the cafe is the parlor portion of the car, 
which is 18 ft. 8 ins. long and is illustrated in the re- 
produced interior view, Fig. 5. This portion of the car 
has the full wide windows on both sides with leather 
upholstered wicker easy chairs, twelve in number, and 
various other details designed for the complete comfort 
of travelers. Like the dining room the style is colonial, 
the walls being of green burlap with a frieze decorated 
in relief in ivory, and with woodwork of light mahog- 
any. The usual traditions of car design have been de- 
parted from in this section so that it presents the ap- 
pearance of a room in a house rather than a subdivision 
of a car. The extent to which this is true may be had 
by reference to the photo-engraving. At the rear end 
of the room is a table for books and papers and over 
the latter is a large oval muror set in an ivory colonial 
frame, as illustrated in Fig. 4, and the book case and 
writing desk is in the opposite corner, as previously 
mentioned. 

To the rear of the parlor, entry to which is had 
through a swinging door at the extreme left, is the 
smoking and observation room, which is 16 ft. 6 ins. 
long. This room is, as its name implies, largely made 
up of windows, and is provided with the same form 
of easy chair as the parlor compartment, ten being fur- 
nished. The wide corner seat is luxuriously upholstered 
with a convenient small, round table. The observation 
room, as is the whole car, is hansomely carpeted and 
has an aisle strip in addition. The observation room is 




Pig. 5 — Parlor Compartment — C. G. W. Ry. 



28 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 




Fig. 6 — Observation Compartment — Looking For- 
ward — C. G. W. Ry. 

finished in the empire style with considerable ornamenta- 
tion, as will be noted in Figs. 6 and 7, brass being 
largely used in the decoration. The ceiling is domed, 
and of an entirely original, and exceedingly attractive 
design. The end windows and door are fitted with plate 
glass extending down, nearly to the floor, as is shown in 
the last view, and the wide observation platform is pro- 
vided with an awning so that it may be used as a piazza 
in the summer. These cars are heated by steam, lighted 
by acetylene gas, and provided with hot and cold water. 



The Pennsylvania Testing Laboratory at St. Louis 

A BULLETIN has been distributed describing the 
plan and scope of the work to be accomplished 
by the locomotive testing laboratory which is to be in- 
stalled at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition by the. 
Pennsylvania Railroad as a part of its exhibit. The 
formal announcement of the Pennsylvania Railroad Sys- 
tem to provide the facilities for testing locomotives at 
St. Louis was made before the conventions of the Amer- 
ican Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Amer- 
ican Railway Master Mechanics' Association, then 
in session at Saratoga, June 25th, 1903. An outline of 
the work contemplated was presented in our issue of 
August, 1903. 

The plant will be ready for preliminary running by 
the first of March next, and in perfect running condi- 
tion by the first of May, at which time formal work will 
commence. The purpose of the whole work is to be 
comprehensive and the endeavor will be to determine by 
the use of locomotives presenting different characteris- 
tics, the effect of the latter upon the economic perform- 



Fig. 7 — Observation Compartment — Looking to 
Rear— C. G. W. Ry. 

ance, and the limits of the tractive power and boiler 
capacities. It is planned to test twelve different loco- 
motives, and it is hoped that a portion of this number 
can be of foreign design and construction. The time to 
be allowed to each locomotive will vary from twenty to 
fourteen working days, the longer time being allowed 
those which are tested when both men and equipment 
will be new at the work. While it is not possible at 
this time to present a complete list of the locomotives 
which .will be tested, we understand that this matter is 
now under careful consideration and will be announced 
by the authorities in a later bulletin. 



Personals 



Charles A. Hino, of Wilkes-Barre, has been appointed 
general foreman of the Lackawanna car shops in El- 
mira, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Donald 
W. Jackson. Mr. Hino during the last 17 years has 
been connected with the Lake Shore and Lackawanna. 

Mr. John R. Mcintosh has been appointed boiler in- 
spector of the Grand Trunk, at Montreal, Que. 

Mr. A. Buchanan, Jr., has been appointed superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Central Vermont Rail- 
road, with office at St. Albans, Vt. 

Mr. T. M. Downing has resigned as master mechanic 
of the St. Louis, Memphis and Southeastern and St. 
Louis and Gulf, at Cape Girardeau, Mo., to accept a po- 
sition with the Mobile, Jackson & Kansas City at Mo- 
bile, Ala. 

Mr. Joseph Walsh, general foreman of the locomotive 
department of the Pittsburg, Cincinnati & St. Louis, at 
Dennison, O., has been appointed general foreman of the 
locomotive and car departments of the Toledo division 
of the Pennsylvania Company, with headquarters at 
Toledo, O. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



29 



Mr. W. W. Leeman, heretofore master mechanic of 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Mexico at Dalhart, Tex., 
has been appointed master mechanic of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific at Goodland, Kan. 

Mr. James McDonough has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Chicago, Rock Island & Mexico, with 
office at Dalhart, Tex. 

Mr. Alfred Owens has. been appointed storekeeper for 
the Baltimore & Ohio at New Castle Junction, Pa. 

It is stated that the offices of the motive power de- 
partment of the Chicago Great Western are to be re- 
moved from St. Paul, Minn., to Oelwein, la. 

Mr. E. T. Munger has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Metropolitan West Side Elevated Railroad 
of Chicago. 

Mr. R. Preston, who was formerly master mechanic 
of the Lake Superior division of the Canadian Pacific, 
with headquarters at North Bay, Ont, has been trans- 
ferred to the Ontario division, with headquarters at 
Toronto Junction, Ont. 

Mr. T. J. Cutler, formerly master mechanic at Fargo, 
N. D., has been transferred to Missoula, Mont., as mas- 
ter mechanic of the Rocky Mountain division of the 
Northern Pacific. 

Mr. Webb C. Ball has been appointed general time 
inspector of the Illinois Central, Chicago & Eastern 
Illinois and Yazoo & Mississippi railroads, with head- 
quarters at Chicago, vice J. W. Forsinger. Effective 
December 5, 1903. 

Mr. Elliot Summer, formerly assistant engineer of mo- 
tive power of the Pennsylvania in Buffalo, has been 
transferred to Altoona. 

Mr. P. T. Lonergan, of the Rutland, has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Boston & Albany in 
West Springfield. 

Mr. Joseph Stehlin has been appointed mechanical 
engineer of the engineering department of the New 
York Central. 

Mr. C. A. Snyder, foreman of the shops of the Gulf, 
Colorado & Santa Fe at Gainesville, Tex., has been 
transferred to a similar position at Galveston, Tex. Mr. 
C. C. Walker, road foreman of engines, has been placed 
in temporary charge of the Gainesville shops, to succeed 
Mr. Snyder. 

Mr. Frank Cain has resigned as master mechanic of 
the Louisiana & Arkansas, and that office has been abol- 
ished. Mr. F. A. Symonds has been appointed foreman 
of shops, with headquarters at Stamps, Ark. 

The directors of the Midland Railway of England 
have appointed Mr. Richard Mountford Deeley, locomo- 
tive works manager at Derby, chief locomotive superin- 
tendent, succeeding Mr. S. W. Johnson, who is retiring. 
Mr. Deeley is succeeded in his former position by Mr. 
Cecil Paget. 

Mr. J. J. Williams has been appointed general fore- 
man of shops of the Pennsylvania Lines at Dennison, O. 

Mr. J. F. Osborne has been appointed acting master 
mechanic of the Saratoga and Champlain divisions of 
the Delaware & Hudson, with office at Green Island, 
N. Y. 

Mr. W. B. Ott has been appointed assistant engineer 
of motive power of the Buffalo & Allegheny Valley di- 
vision of the Pennsylvania Railroad at Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. George A. Bruce, master mechanic of the Supe- 
rior and Mesaba divisions of the Great Northern, has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Eastern district, 
with headquarters at Saint Paul, Minn. 

Mr. L. E. Woglemuth, chief draughtsman of the Chi- 
cago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, has been ap- 
pointed mechanical engineer, with office at St. Paul, 
Minn. 



Mr. B. R. Moore has been appointed assistant super- 
intendent of motive power and machinery of the Chi- 
cago, St. Paul, Minneapolis & Omaha, with headquarters 
at Sioux City, la. 

Mr. J. E. Anderson has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Mexican International, with office at Mon- 
clova, Mexico. 

Mr. E. A. Gilbert has resigned as master car builder 
of the Southern Pacific at San Francisco, Cal. 



Effective November 1, Mr. Charles B. Morrill has 
been appointed general western passenger agent, with 
office at Troy, N. Y., succeeding Mr. C. A. Nimmo, re- 
signed to accept service with another company. 



Notes of the Month 



Hoisting rope of every description for elevators, mines, 
coal hoists, ore hoists, conveyors, etc., is described and illus- 
trated in a neat pamphlet which is being distributed by the 
American Steel & Wire Company, Chicago. 



The Armstrong Brothers Tool Company has sent us a copy 
of their latest catalogue illustrating their tool holding de- 
vices, and including a tool holder history. 



Mr. Willis C. Squire, mechanical engineer, has been elected 
vice-president of the Locomotive Appliance Company, with 
offices at 1614, 1615 and 1616 Chemical building, St. Louis, 
Mo. Mr. Squire is well known as mechanical engineer for the 
Frisco System, and previous to that as engineer of tests for 
the Santa Fe System. His large experience in railroad and 
locomotive work especially fits him for the business in which 
he is now engaged. 



Level, Straight and Comfortable.— The roads of the New 
York Central Lines, over which run hourly trains, occupy 
the Natural highway between the East and West. A water 
level for one thousand miles between Chicago and New 
York, along the shore of Lake Erie and Lake Michigan, 
through the Mohawk Valley and beside the Hudson River. 
A route, level and straight, and offering comforts and con- 
veniences, unsurpassed. Send a two-cent stamp to George 
H. Daniels, General Passenger Agent, Grand Central Station, 
New York, for a copy of the illustrated catalogue of New 
York Central's "Four-Track Series." 



We are in receipt of a catalogue from the David Bell En- 
gineering Works, Buffalo, N. Y., devoted exclusively to steam 
hammers, of which this company makes a specialty in ten 
sizes, from 250 lbs. to 1600 lbs. falling weight. These ham- 
mers, as shown and described in the catalogue, are furnished 
from comparatively new and improved patterns and embody 
the very best features, which have been found essential after 
many years of experience in this line. The company's sales 
during the past year have exceeded those of any previous 
year, and include 48 hammers, and in spite of the general 
dullness of trade they shipped seven hammers la si month, 
which is more than in any other month of the year. These 
48 hammers, actually finished and shipped, represent a total 
falling weight of 34,350 lbs., am! a total shipping nel weighl 
of 558,400 lbs. They have been shipped to practical every 
part of this country, besides numerous export shipments. 
Their field is constantly Increasing) which is thoughl to be 
due to some extent to these hammers having taken their 

place among Ihe high grade machine iools. in place of being 
built in an indifferent fashion, with the Idea that anything 
will do as long as it will hammer. 



3° 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



During the past few years, the motive power and rolling 
stock of railroads, and the heavy machinery in mills through- 
out the world, have undergone a complete revolution, and in 
order to keep pace with the modern requirements of heavy 
freight and high-speed passenger locomotives and modern 
mills machinery, the question of bearings became a serious 
one. The duty of a handsomely arranged and peculiarly at- 
tractive circular pamphlet issued by the Damascus Bronze 
Company, of Pittsburg, Pa., is to solve this question by di- 
recting attention to Damascus Nickel Bronze Bearing Metal. 



The Georgia Car Company, of Atlanta, Ga., have the follow- 
ing orders for freight equipment: Four flat cars of 60,000 
lbs. capacity, 40 ft. long, equipped with automatic couplers 
and Westinghouse air brakes, for the Greenbrier & Elk River 
R. R.; eight box cars of 50,000 lbs. capacity, equipped with 
automatic couplers and Westinghouse air brakes, for the 
Georgia Northern Ry.; and are building for the Coal River 
& Western R. R., five drop bottom gondola cars of 50,000 lbs. 
capacity, equipped with automatic couplers and Westing- 
house air brakes; five flat cars of 50,000 lbs. capacity, 36 ft. 
long, equipped with automatic couplers and Westinghouse air 
brakes; two box cars of 50,000 lbs. capacity, 36 ft. long, 
equipped with automatic couplers and Westinghouse air 
brakes. 



The growth of the associations and erection of new build- 
ings during the year 1903 has been the largest in any single 
year of the history of the Railroad Department of the Young- 
Men's Christian Association. This has included a building- 
devoted strictly to the use of men in street railway work, as 
well as sixteen well equipped buildings for railroad men 
generally. The fact that this number of buildings has been 
secured is an indication of satisfactory, substantial and 
permanent growth, and of the favor of the railroad officials 
and companies. The growing interest of railroad men is in- 
dicated by an increase, during the year, of over twelve thou- 
sand in the membership. 

It is also of interest to know that additional railroad sys- 
tems have, during the present year, committed themselves to 
hearty co-operation with this movement. As in the past, the 
cost of construction of buildings and their maintenance has 
been shared both by railroad men and the corporations. 



The Electric Club announces that it will issue an illus- 
trated monthly magazine to be styled the Electric Club Jour- 
nal. The first number will appear Feb. 1, 1904. 

The immediate purpose is to put into permanent form the 
engineering papers and technical discussions that form a 
regular part of the work of the Electric Club. Many of the 
papers will be written by the engineering staff of a leading- 
electric company, and much of the material will pertain to 
the latest apparatus and to the newest problems in engineer- 
ing work. This matter will be published in a form suited to 
the needs of intelligent young men. 

The Journal will also publish other material of special in- 
terest and value to members of the club. 

The circulation of the Electric Club Journal is not re- 
stricted to the members of the club, but the privilege of sub- 
scribing is extended to others. 



We have been favored with a clearly illustrated cata- 
logue describing the principle of the surface condenser 
manufactured by the Cosmopolitan Power Company, of Chi- 
cago. Its principle is based upon the fundamental fact that 
the thermal conductivity of water in a solid body is very 
low — so low, indeed, that only about 12% B. T. U.'s per square 
foot per hour could be conducted from face to face of a 
thin sheet of water % inch thick for every degree of differ- 



ence in the temperatures of the faces; but this same water, 
broken up into minute particles, and coming in contact with 
a hot metal, produces a vaporous gas which is a vigorous 
absorbent of heat. 

The thermal conductivity of copper is five hundred times 
that of water in solid bodies. Therefore copper tubes are 
used in the construction of the condenser and the injection 
or spray water is broken up into minute particles. By means 
of a sprinkling- device — the perforations in which are but 
25-1000 of an inch in diameter — the water is driven against 
the tube-head and drawn into and through copper tubes by 
means of an exhaust-fan. The spray water coming in con- 
tact with the hot tubes (the tubes are surrounded by steam) 
produces vapor or vaporous gas, which is the medium by 
which the latent heat is absorbed, and the fan the vehicle 
for the removal of same. 

The Sligo Iron & Steel Company have sent us a copy of 
their latest price list. The list is arranged very clearly and 
consistently from which the desired prices may be readily 
ascertained. The Sligo Iron & Steel Company are manu- 
facturers of high grade iron, staybolt iron, iron and steel 
plates, sheets, angles, tees, light rails, etc. 



Recent experiments by Massachusetts bacteriologists have 
determined that cresylic acid as a disinfectant is more 
effective and cheaper than formaldehyde. This is a matter 
the railroads interested in disinfecting car interiors would 
do well' to look 'into. 



October 6th last there were remaining- 421 passenger cars 
on the Boston & Maine R. R. with the Miller hooks to be re- 
moved and replaced with couplers of the M. C. B. type. In 
two months this was practically all accomplished, as it had 
to be any way by January 1st, which was the limit of the 
new extension of time. This work has handicapped paint 
shop work to the extent that they were 105 cars behind 
December 1st over last year in varnishing their equipment. 



Good Track, Good Trains, Good Time. — In each of these 
the New York Central is not surpassed, as thousands will 
attest. Travelers between the West and the East will find 
it to their advantage to use the New York Central which, 
in point of time, equipment, roadbed, dining car service, and 
scenic- attractions is first among the railroads of the world. 
Send a two-cent stamp to George H. Daniels, General Agent, 
Grand Central Station, New York, for a copy of the illus- 
trated catalogue of the New York Central's "Four-Track 
Series." 




Fig. i — Complete Set of Too: 
Holder. 



ith "O. K." Tool 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



31 



Tool Holders 

With the increased use of high speed tool steel the value 
of tool holders becomes more apparent. By the application 
of a practical holder a small piece of steel is all that is re- 
quired for making a tool instead of using up a large por- 
tion of the bar for the stock of the tool. The latter practice 
is very expensive, especially in view of the additional ex- 
pense incurred in the purchase of the high speed tool steel. 

To meet the demand for such appliances a holder has been 
placed on the market which is known as the 0. K. Tool 
Holder. This device with the assorted tools supplied there- 
with possess many advantages. 

Any of these tools can be removed from the holder and 
another substituted without disturbing the holder when once 
placed in position on the lathe, or shaper. This change can 
be made instanteously as a quarter turn of the handle serves 
to release the tool and allow another to be inserted. The 
holder is so constructed as to hold the tools as firmly as 
though they were a portion of tiie holder itself. With this 
holder is furnished shapes of tools, also many attachments 
for lathe use, and are not limited to one special shape, as 
is usually the case. The tools are hydraulic forged and drop 
forged to the correct shape of the old style hand forged 
tools. They are made at the present time out of Jessup 
Best Cast, Novo Air Hardening, Capital High Speed and D. 
-S. W. Steels, and the company is prepared to make tools of 
any first-class steels that are called for. 

The holder and tools are supplied in two sets, the com- 
plete set being shown in Fig. 1, which contains a holder and 
twenty-two tools and working set containing thirteen tools, 
shown by Fig. 2. 




Fig. 2 — Working Set of Tools with "O. K." Tool 
Holder. 

This holder is marketed and manufactured by the "0. K." 
Tool Holder Company, manufacturers of lathe, shaper and 
planer tools. Shelton, Conn. 




Six-inch Metal Saw Cutting-off Machine. 



Metal Saw Cutting off Machine 

This machine, of recent design, contains the principal re- 
quirements for a thorough-built machine tool for rapid and 
accurate steel cutting, and is essential to the machine shop 
where blanks are to be cut, or finished stock cut square and 
to exact length. It is well arranged for cutting dies, cranks, 
keys, studs, cutter blanks, small I-beams, channels, angles, 
and a large variety of work usually done on a milling ma- 
chine. 

With the special large V shoe, four pieces of 2-inch round 
may be held to be cut at once, and smaller sizes in various 
quantities, which admits of a very much larger product 
from a machine of this kind than can possibly be obtained 
from one where the stock revolves and whicn cuts but one 
piece at a time. Larger pieces may also be cut faster with 
a saw properly arranged than in any other way. One of 
these machines will cut more in a day than twenty hack- 
saws. The principal advantages over machines where the 
stock revolves are that it will take in any shape 
or size within its range, is more convenient to 
operate, requires less labor to handle stock, will 
give a greater output, and cost less. 

The saw arbor is driven by a spur gear 
powerfully connected with other gears to the 
pulley-driving shaft. These are all mounted on 
a traveling slide which is moved forward by a 
feed screw, driven by a worm wheel and worm 
on the feed shaft, the speed of which is 
regulated from a four-step cone pulley. The 
feed is controlled at the front of the machine 
by a hand wheel and levers. The work shoo 
is surrounded by a channel to catch the oil and 
return it to the trough, which is under the saw, 
and supplies the lubricant for the saw. Rounds, 
flats, squares nncl hexagons may be held in 
the V shoe. For special work the V shoo may 
ho removed and one substituted In suil the 
work; or the plain table may ho used. 

The number 3 mnohino operates ;i saw. ]f> 
inches diameter, V* inch thick; the depth of 
cut wilh 15-inch saw is r> ' ._» inches; iho speed 
of L5-inch saw is ll 1 ^ turns per minute; saw 
arbor bearing In box, 11 1 - Inches; saw arbor 
diameter, 2 1 1 inches; saw arbor collar diameter, 
:: :; i indies; main driving gear, 1 I inches diame 
ter, i :! i inch face; traveling slide, 15 inches 
wide. 20 inches long; traveling-slide movement, 

<;'_. inches: traveling slide b ing on beds, 12% 

Inches i>.\ 20 Inches; capacitj of work shoe, 6 
inch rounds, 7 Inch squares; driving pulley, 12 
inches diameter, f inch face: from floor to worfo 
table, :! I inches; positive automatic cone-feed, 
8 changes from h inch to 1 inch per minute; 

flOOr space. 2 I'ccl 8 inches by I feel; height, I 



3 2 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



feet; weight complete, 1,600 pounds; V shoe for single bars; 
counter friction pulley, 14 inches by 4-inch face; speed of 
countershaft, 120 revolutions per minute. 

The machine is manufactured by Nutter, Barnes & Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

■+-++ 

The Secor Engine 

The United States Census Bulletin of October, 1902, shows 
an increase during ten years of over fifteen hundred per 
cent in the number of internal combustion engines used in 
manufacturing, while steam power shows an increase of 
only seventy per cent, and water power less than one per 
cent. 

Th electric motor is subject to the loss of a secondary 
power generator, but the gas engine is a prime mover which 
dispenses with the boiler and fireman required by steam 
power, while it can be used where water power, or even 
water, is not available. The demand for the internal com- 
bustion engine is, of course, due to its labor saving and 
thermodynamic advantages over the steam engine. No com- 
petent authority claims that the gas engine as heretofore 
constructed is equal to the steam engine in its performance, 
or is in the same rank as a machine, nevertheless the present 
output of these engines is seriously restricting steam engine 
production, especially in the smaller sizes. The commercial 
prosperity of the leading makers evidences the earning power 
of gas engine manufacture. 

It would add to the industrial value of any gas engine if 
it could operate with a single cylinder without involving in- 
. ferior regulation, and fluctuation in rotation rate during its 
cycle. Steam engine reliability would add further to the 
value of the gas engine; that is to say, if the occasional 
delay, or uncertainty in starting, or operation, were entirely 
eliminated; so that readjustment would be uncalled for, 
when extreme variations occur, whether in atmospheric con- 
ditions, gas pressure, or power demand. 




The Secor Gas Engine. 



In view of the limited areas of gas supply and its cost, 
and the insufficient supply of gasoline, its dangerous prop- 
erties, and advancing price, the usefulness of these engines 
would be still further increased if they were adapted to use 
the only universally obtainable and safe fuel, kerosene oil. 

The Secor engine, an illustration of which is presented 
herewith, embodies a new conception. Emphasis is placed 
equally on the three great features which govern commercial 
value— range of availability, quality of service, and cost of 
power production. For universal use the Secor oil engine 
stands in a class by itself. It has been successfully installed 
by unskilled labor, with the aid of printed instructions, in 
the most remote districts. It starts as promptly and posi- 
tively as an electric motor. Its operation after starting is 
automatic. It requires only to be supplied with lubricating 
and fuel oil; its design permits ready access for examination, 
or cleaning when required. 

The special advantages of this type of machine may be 
briefly summarized as follows: 

Reliability, regulation, scientific and simple method of 
using the most desirable of fuels, kerosene oil, which is in- 
dependent of atmospheric conditions, and which burns all 
its fuel within the combustion chamber, and never clogs up 
with soot; the ability of an engine using safe fuel to start 
quickly and positively; an oil engine which has the accurately 
timed explosion due to electic ignition; mechanism, of which 
the interchangeable spare parts are available, and all wear 
easily compensated for, thereby insuring great durability; 
safety, it has no such elements of danger as an exposed 
lamp, or an oil tank on the engine from which the oil flows 
into a hot chamber by gravity, or is forced by other pres- 
sure. It complies with the underwriters' requirements in 
every particular. 

Including within itself the best features of all existing 
types, the Secor engine is constantly gaining popularity and 
is being widely installed in railway yards, stations, machine 
shops, factories, printing offices and private establishments. 

One company who are large- 
users of power have ordered 
and installed over fifty Secor 
engines. They are suitable 
for all the ordinary uses of an 
auxiliary power such as air 
compressing, pumping and 
hoisting. The important ad- 
vances of the Secor system 
over all previous practice and 
performance have created what 
is practically a new generator 
or power, with an enlarged in- 
dustrial opportunity, fully 
meeting the modern and con- 
stantly increasing demand for 
detached and independent pow- 
er installations of modern ca- 
pacity. 

The users of power demand 
an engine which will furnish 
their needs at the lowest pos- 
sible cost per horse power. 
They will consider the relia- 
bility of the engine at all times, 
aud under the most difficult 
conditions. The Secor engine 
is so designed and so performs 
as to supply power at a low 
cost. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



33 



The Handy Journal Box Jack Block 

While the removal of journal bearings and wedges and 
the insertion of fresh ones is in a way a very simple opera- 
tion, it at times becomes a good deal of a bother because 
of the lifting of the wheel when the load is lifted by the 
jack under the journal box. The result of the lifting of 
the wheel being that the bearing and wedge does not be- 
come free so that they can be taken out. The usual pro- 
ceedure under these circumstances being the gathering of 
from two to four men to assist the man with the jack; 
blocks, bars and levers being required to hold the wheel 
down so that the hot or worn bearings will become freed 
from all load and in condition to be lifted out, and no time 
be lost in inserting new bearings. 

Many trains are delayed and blockades formed due to 
the time consumed in changing bearings on the road. There 
is also a great deal of unnecessary time and labor spent in 
repair yards in changing bearings. 

The device here illustrated is designed to reduce the time 
and labor in changing bearings both on the road and in 
yards. It is claimed that one man with any good journal 
box jack and with this Handy Journal Jack Block can change 
bearings in from five to ten minutes. 

The device consists of a base or block of oak 9 ins. by 2% 
in. by 26 ins., which rests on the ties or ballast and on which 
the journal box jack rests. On the inner edge of the block 
is secured a malleable casting, this casting having top and 





The Handy Journal Box Jack Block. 



The Handy Journal Box Jack Block in Service. 

bottom flanges for securing it to the block by bolts and 
rivets, on this casting there is a post having teeth on the 
edge next to the wheel, moving loosely on this post is the 
hook-like piece, also of malleable iron, having teeth for en- 
gaging with the teeth on the post; the hook is thus kept 
from slipping upwards when the strain is applied in resist- 
ing the tendency of the wheel to lift. The projecting hook 
or arm engages the rim of the wheel. Adjustment for vary- 
ing heights is provided by the provision for locating the 
hook at different positions on the post. A handle is provided 
by which to carry the device. 

Further particulars can be secured from the manufacturers, 
the Handy Car Equipment Company, 890 Old Colony Building, 
Chicago, 111. 



Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest of 

CHARLES E. COPP ^?&<& Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. (Sk> M. Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 



Locomotive Painting 

The painting of locomotives seems to be receiving a fair 
share of attention, especially of late. Mr. A. P. Dane of the 
Boston & Maine read an interesting paper on "The True Econ- 
ony in the Painting of a Locomotive" at the October meet- 
ing of the New England Railroad club, which would have 
met with more discussion than it did had the painting fra- 
ternity of the New England roads and vicinity been properly 
notified. The editor of these columns intended to be present, 
but got unavoidably detained while on a visit to New Hamp- 
shire. 

Mr. Dane's paper, which was similar to one read at the 
Chicago convention, is too long to reproduce in its entirety 
in these columns, as it would nearly fill them, occupying, as 
it does, eight pages of the club's October proceedings. It 
can be obtained by any one for a trifle by writing to the 
secretary of the club, Mr. E. L. Janes, South Terminal Sta- 
tion, Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Dane is also a member of a committee of five which 



is to report to the Master Mechanics' Association at their 
next convention in response to their request, through Secre- 
tary Taylor, as to the best method of painting a locomotive. 
When this report is published it ought to be plain sailing on 
this subject, so that a novice ought to know how to pro- 
ceed. 

Locomotive painting was once an art; today it is a business. 
The writer painted all the locomotive tanks on the original 
B. & M. road from July 1. 1876 until September, 1885, when, 
with one exception, no more were sent to the carshop at 
Lawrence, but shop facilities were made in Boston at the 
machine shop to do them with the locomotives, as in Decem- 
ber, 1884, the Eastern Railroad had been leased and the roll- 
ing stock of all kinds had been doubled in amount. During 
this time the writer painted or varnished in all about 300 
tanks, 60 of which had the paint removed to the iron, 
mostly by the flame, a few being done by the lime and soda 
plaster process. Those were the days when locomotives were 
rolling chromos. In contrast with present practice what a 
difference in the cost! Now a tank is painted entire for $15 



34 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



or $20. We note the figures in our old record book before 
ns of the cost of some of the work in those "good old days." 
We note about the last ornamentally painted tank, if not 
the last. It belonged to the "Lowell," No. 72, for the engines 
were all named then, and the cost of painting this tank was 
$72.20! and the president of the road, who lived in Law- 
rence, found no fault with it, but when it backed up to the 
station to take his train to Boston, he said to Engineer Fal- 
lensbee, who by the way, is still running, "You have a hand- 
some engine." 

Some freight engine tanks cost $54.40 to paint. However, 
there was no uniform figure of cost because instead of paint- 
ing them uniformily we were told by the superintendent of 
motive power not to do them all alike and not to be afraid 
of putting on the "apple sass," a characteristic term of his 
for scroll work or other ornamentation. Of these 300 tanks 
42 were new tanks and 65 were cleaned and simply touched 
up and varnished at a cost of from $15 to $20. 

This is a point that we wish to particularly contrast with 
the present times. Those were days when engines were 
painted to stay painted and looked after by the engineer 
and fireman, and consequently were in such shape that a 
cleaning and varnishing were all they needed. How many 
tanks are touched up and varnished today? While the paint- 
ing is done cheaply that is all that is done, so that the saving 
is not so much as at first appears. The very best materials 
were used also in those days. The mechanical officer bought 
his own materials, and did not buy them at auction either, 
as is largely the practice today, of purchasing departments, 
departments. 

It is a question whether it would not be better to paint 
engines as thoroughly as formerly, if hot decorated, and take 
care of them as well, and then shop them in season to clean 
and varnish them, possibly cutting in the tank and cab, and 
thus save so much painting of the iron or rusty tanks. 
They were painted smooth in those days and could be cleaned 
and kept clean. 



The New P. B. & W. Shops, Wilmington, Del. 

On a recent trip we visited Mr. Charles A. Cook, president 
of M. C. & L. P. A., to look over the new plant that is being 
made for the P., B. & W. at the outskirts of the city. Judging 
by the old ramshackle shops they are now occupying it was 
a well-directed ••effort to give them something new and fit 
to do their work in. But in this regard they are no worse 
off than many others who will have to wait longer still for 
new shops. 

Mr. Cook was found, after some effort and delay, in the 
little office and shop in which the late lamented veteran, 
Jacob Sheller, made himself famous. As soon as greetings 
were over and he was at liberty, we began our tour. 
The new shops seemed destined to be called the "Shellpot" 
shops, as they are built along a creek by that rather uneu- 
phonious designation. This great plant, designed for both 
locomotive and car work appears to be as large as the new 
shops of the New York, New Haven & Hartford at Readville, 
Mass., if not larger, and is built on "a fill" in a rather low, 
swampy plot of land, which must have cost an immense 
sum to put in shape for building thereon. There appears to 
be eight or ten feet of filling, which is of the best red earth 
and must tread down hard by use. These shops are large, 
light and airy and well constructed and well adapted to the 
purposes for which they are built. If we were to criticise 
them at all it would be as to the relative location of some 
of them to one another. Particularly bad is the location of 
the stock house to the paint shop. One might think it was 
intended to hold tons of dynamite so that if it blew up the 
paint shop would not be harmed, so remote is it from the 



seat of the painter's wjrfare. As it is there should be a 
retail department of paint stock for daily use in one end 
of the varnish room at the end of the paint shop nearest to 
this brick store house where paints and varnishes, etc., may 
be kept in wholesale packages. Unless this move is made 
we wonder at the result of the Foreman Painter giving an 
order to a painter in the paint shop to go over to the stock 
house and get some priming and go over to the wood work- 
ing shop, another block away, to do a half hour's priming. 
Somewhere we have read about "a city of magnificent dis- 
tances" and some of these new shop plants correspond to 
that description pretty well, and it requires almost super- 
human effort to get out a corresponding amount of work 
from them compared to the old shops, there is so much 
time to be consumed in traveling these long distances from 
one shop to another. 

At one end of this new paint shop there is a division wall 
crosswise of the shop which is again subdivided into two 
large rooms, one of which is the varnish room and office and 
the other the tin shop! It would seem that upholstery would 
better fit the location of this tin shop, as it does one other 
shop plant in mind. But, strangest of all, the stock house 
before referred to is located opposite the tin shop instead 
of the varnish room! However, shops of this character are 
usually designed and built by the building and bridge depart- 
ment of a road in which possibly the head of the mechanical 
department may have a hand and he may not, but as to the 
foreman painter he is about as apt to be consulted as to his 
conveniences as a Hottentot would be about putting a baptis- 
try in a church in a Puritanic town. Still, almost anything 
is better than old ramshackle shops to do painting and var- 
nishing in and if the writer can get his some sweet day he 
will not complain. 

The elevation of the P., B. & W. tracks throughout the 
entire city of Wilmington is progressing so fast that they 
are up to the old shops and waiting for them to get out. In 
fact it looks like "a freeze out" and into the new shops the 
first of the year before they are nearly ready in their in- 
terior appointments and fittings for occupancy. However, 
where there is a will there is a way, and much can be accom- 
plished that seems impossible when once the mind is made 
up and concerted action begun. We should think though 
that next summer in the dull season would be the time to 
make this transfer, if it can be deferred that length of time. 



M. C. & L. P. A. Portrait Gallery 

John Stocks. 

The editor of these columns takes pleasure and some degree 
of pride in presenting to the fraternity the picture and sketch 
of one of his own shop "cubs" who, though not yet a mem- 
ber of the M. C. & L. P. A., is in a fair way to be one in the 
near future, for he succeeded our old friend and confrere, 
Edward Hartshorn, as foreman painter at the Maine Central 
R. R. shops in Waterville, Maine, June 1, 1903, where he still 
remains and was doing well at last accounts, and likely will 
attend our next convention. He is a member of the New 
England R. R. Club. 

Mr. Stocks was born in Queensbury, Yorkshire county, 
England, in October, 1869, and came to this country with his 
brothers (two of whom are cai'penters, with their father, 
in the Lawrence shops of B. & M.) in March, 1890, landing 
in Boston Wednesday, and going to work with the writer as 
a car washer the following Monday. Brilliant, apt, capable, 
he worked his way up through all the grades and classes of 
work in the shop, being faithful in all branches and trusty 
wherever placed, until he was regarded by the writer as 
almost indispensible, doing much of his clerical work, having 
been paint shop stock-keeper for several years. However, he 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



35 




Mr. John Stocks. 

recommended him, with one other applicant, for his present 
position, and he was promptly accepted by Mr. Philip M. 
Hammett, superintendent of motive power, and we believe 
he will have no occasion to regret his choice. 

The accompanying" picture is from a photograph taken a 
few years ago, but, with the exception that he now has less 
hair and more flesh, it still does him justice. 



The Pullman Shops, Wilmington, Del. 

While in Wilmington, Del., Nov. 30, the writer was pleased 
to visit the Pullman shops also, in connection with touring 
the shops of the P., B. & W., with Mr. Cook. Here we met 
and made the acquaintance of Mr. Vanney, the superinten- 
dent of the shops; aho Mr. John H. Dunn, the Master Painter. 
Mr. Dunn resumed his duties in September and looks the pic- 
ture of health and good spirits, though, as it were, he is out 
of the valley and shadow of death. Mr. Dunn was at our 
Boston convention a year ago last September, but in poor 
health; and was obliged to give up entirely in December 
following, and was out of the shop on account of his illness, 
some nine months. P»ig fellow that lie is, we hope he will 
hold his own and have no recurrence of his illness. We 
found him and his assistants busy, it being the last day, in 
straightening out the month's accounts, for it is all piece 
work there. At this time it was a sort of imposition 
to visit his shop, but he nevertheless left his desk and 
showed us over the . plant, which is a veritable hive of 
industry in all dcpurtinenls, especially did it appeal 1 so 
in some departments, such as the cabinet room, where 
the interior finish and fittings of these palaces on wheels 
are made. They are, however, making some cheaper 
cars for tourist business for the World's Fair iTSte a! SI. 



Louis, which will allow of a night's rest and the comforts of a 
day's travel for less money than the company's regular 
sleepers, for they are shorn of the luxuries of draperies, etc., 
while they have all the essentials. They are to have four- 
wheel instead of six-wheel trucks, we understand. 

Here we saw Pullman cars painted to conform to the color 
of various roads' passenger equipment— Tuscan red for the 
Pennsylvania, blue-black for the Lehigh Valley's "Black Dia- 
mond express," Cadium yellow for the "Big Four," Chesa- 
peake & Ohio, etc. Concerning the latter color, Mr. Dunn 
says it is not susceptible of being treated like others when 
the cars are brought in to the shop for general repairs and 
varnishing,. That is to say, he cannot cut in a car of this 
color or repaint it over the old paint without first skinning 
off the varnish by the use of ammonia. If he does, the 
newly applied paint will peel from the old. This was "a 
new one" to me, and seemed strange. We wonder of Messrs. 
Gohen and Byrne have the same trouble? This, of course, 
is on cars that are beyond the point of cleaning and varnish 
ing without cutting in or repainting; and he says that suet 
colored cars cannot be cleaned and touched up> and varnished 
more than once, or twice at the most, before they must be 
repainted over the old paint to make a first-class job, and be 
treated in the way he does them. If this is so, it appears to 
be an expensive color to maintain. But when newly painted 
and striped in gold it makes a most elegant appearing car, 
with the letter belts and posts of a darker hue. 

Mr. Dunn has an old condemned car in the yard which he 
uses as a shop for the use of varnish removers, to keep their 
disagreeable smell out of the 'shop. This is a good idea. He 
does much of this commendable work, having tanks large 
enough in which to immerse the bunks face down into the 
liquid remover, and in a few minutes the old varnish is 
softened up so that it may be readily washed off with 
brushes, etc. He keeps one man at this work, and all de- 
tachable articles needing this treatment are carried to this 
car. 

We were shown the glass finishing department, of which 
Mr. John Kelley is the presiding genius. They make all the 
fancy glass used in the Pullman cars here, except the apoles- 
eent glass which is bought in the plain form and is here cut 
up and leaded into various intricate patterns. This form of 
glass, we understand, is getting to be passe. Cars are com- 
ing back to the Wilmington shop to have this glass removed 
and the etched, gilded and silvered glass placed in its stead. 
The trouble is the smoke from the engine gets in betweei 
the plain outer glass that covers the leaded design and th< 
metal frame in which it is bedded, and blackens the wit 
dow so that light is obstructed, in spite of all that they can 
do in thoroughness of work, and cannot be readily cleaned. 
Once they had at the Wilmington shop slivered lights to 
burn, so great was the fad for the opalescent glass. Now it 
is the reverse. 

They bevel and polish mirror plates here, as well as silver 
them; also all forms of acid etching, etc. It is an interesting 
corner in this great establishment. No car shop of magni 
tude is up to date without a glass finishing department. 
This has followed the brass dipping and lacquering depart 
ment, which was not many years ago adopted by a sort of 
natural evolution; and now the enterprising car shop fore- 
man has all the requisites for the prosecution of his work, 
so that he does not have to wait for outsiders but 
knows in just what stage of progress it is in all the time, 
and he can figure to a nicety when lie can promise the 
management a car that is wanted. If to (he |>r;iss dipping 
plant plating is added, with buff wheels, of course, to polish 
the work, it is all the better. 

Mr. Dunn informs us that he expects fo meet witli us at 

Atlantic city next September. 






RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



January, 1904 



The Recovery of Lost Gold 

Gold leaf has entered into the lettering and decoration of 
passenger equipment painting to such a degree, and is still 
used for that purpose, though perhaps to a less extent, that 
we have often thought in years gone by of saving the paint 
chips when burning off to see if the gold could not be re- 
covered. But somehow we never put our thoughts into prac- 
tice. 

However, while being shown over the old P., B. & W. shops 

in Wilmington, Del., by our associate, Cook, recently, we 

passed by a large wooden box in the paint shop nearly full 

of burnt-off paint chips, with two mortar pestles shaped like 

ndian clubs of heavy wood to pound them down with. 

"What's that?" we inquired. 

"0, that is what we save in burning off cars; there is $45 
or $50 worth of gold in that box. It is the practice on the 
Pennsylvania system to save the burnt chips where there is 
gold," replied Brother Cook. 

Now here we saw in operation what we had years ago 
thought of doing. Of course, it makes some difference 
whether or not there is much gold leaf used upon a car in 
attempting any thing of this kind. On the best cars of the 
P. K. R. system there is a running scroll band of gold below 
the belt rails and another near the bottom of car that goes 
clear round the body of car; also there are scrolls above and 
below the side numbers, as well as all the lettering. It might 
pay to save the letter belts and number panels with any 
road's method of painting, whether it would the entire body 
or not. At any rate, if the body contains gold bands, the 
entire lot of paint chips could be swept up from the floor 
and powdered down in a box, and what gold there is would 
be saved. 

How is the gold saved from that mess of paint and dirt, 
do you ask? Well, the whole is dumped into a retort and 
burned up into ashes; then the ashes are dumped into a 
trough of water, and that which settles to the bottom, con- 
taining the gold, is treated with acids in a way peculiar to 
the gold beater, and thus the gold is separated and saved. 
This is worth trying by all. 

♦ * » 

Notes and Comments 

The organization of the new paint shop of the Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern Ry. at Collinwood, 'Ohio, is as follows: 
Robert Shore, foreman; Geo. Durnbaugh, assistant foreman; 
J. G. Keil, assistant foreman. The Cleveland and Buffalo 
shops have been abolished. Mr. Wm. T. Burton 'is general 
foreman car department at Collinwood shop* and Mr Geo, 
ST. Dow, master car builder. 



and the coach work at New Haven also will ultimately all be 
done at Readville. 



The New York, New Haven and Hartford R. R. has started 
up work to some extent at least at its new plant at Read- 
ville, Mass. Already the coach work has been taken from 
the Roxbury and Norwood shops. Our associates, "Sam" 
Brown, of the Roxbury, and George Gehman, of the Nor- 
wood, are to remain at their respective shops in charge of 
the locomotive painting only, we understand. Mr. McGregor, 
who succeeded Mr. 'Shuttleworth as foreman painter at the 
New Haven shops, is to have charge of the new big pas- 
senger paint shop at the Readville plant, we are informed, 



The following, clipped from the Frankfort (Ind.) Evening 
News of Dec. 14, 1903, concerning a well-known member of 
the M. C. & L. P. A., will be read with interest by his many 
friends among our readers: 

"Frank Fisk, Sr., foreman of the Clover Leaf paint shop, 
who has been laid up since the 30th of last April with a 
badly scalded leg, will again assume charge of his depart- 
ment tomorrow morning. Mr. Fisk has chafed under en- 
forced idleness for seven months and fifteen days and now 
that he is able to go back to his employment he naturally 
feels like a boy who has just been let out of school for a 
vacation. Frank had a very close call to lose a leg, and it 
was only by the most patient care he is today able to go 
about on two pins, a fact which his friends appreciate nearly 
as much as he does himself." 

He adds, however, that he is "still walking with a cane." 



Sometime ago we received the following appreciative 
words from Mr. John H. Kahler, chairman of the Advisory 
Committee, M. C. & L. P. A.:— "In the November issue of 
Master Mechanic your explanatory remarks regarding the 
Advisory Board was a timely hit, and explains to associate 
members the necessity of centrally located members on this 
committeee. Also a central place of meeting to do the busi- 
ness in the least time and for the least expense. It is true, 
the expense of this committee is supposed to be borne by the 
association, but it is a rare case of a bill being presented, or 
at least to my recollection. I have been meeting 'with the 
committee for the last fifteen years, either as a member or 
as a visitor, and have never caused the association one cent 
of expenses." We learn that he also pays his regular 
dues. He is a model member in this regard, and 'his example 
is thus held up for others to follow. 



We clip the following timely words from an exchange 
about varnish removers: 

"If removers are made on the creosote or carbolic acid 
basis, they are obnoxious in odor, and those acids cannot be 
neutralized — that is, the effects of the acid cannot be killed, 
especially when absorbed in spongy wood, cracks, joints, 
deep mouldings or carvings. They also have very dangerous 
effects on the hands of the workmen. 

"If made on the fusel oil or amyl sprits basis, they are 
most dangerous to health, and are highly inflammable and 
explosive. Ethers, guncotton, collodion, the well-known 
banana liquid, also the poison in whisky, contain as their 
basis fusel oil. Everyone knows the danger of all of them, 
and it is a very unscrupulous undertaking of some firms to 
sell, under a spurious name, an article containing a deadly 
poison, which should be handled only by experienced per- 
sons. Furthermore, removers should not be used if they con- 
tain greasy or fatty ingredients. Because, despite the ut- 
most care, those ingredients cannot be cleaned out of cor- 
ners, carvings and cracks; they will settle in pores and they 
will not allow the bleaching of discolored wood; neither will 
they allow the proper hardening of paint and varnish used 
afterwards." 






5>1£ 



A Stencil by Warner Bailey. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



37 



Established 1878. 



RAILWAY 
MASTER 
MECHANIC 

Bruce V. Ckandai-l, Publisher Chakles S. Myers, Manager. 
Maham H. Haig, Editor 

Office of Publication : Rooms 501 and 502 The Plymouth Bldg., 

305 Dearborn Street. 

TELEPHONE: HARRISON 3357- 

Eastern Office: Room 716, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 

A Monthly Railway Journal. 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 
solicited. 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 
Company. 



There are so many looking for the smallest excuse to 
condemn these engines that it is well to put them, so far 
as possible, beyond the reach of unfair criticism. 



Vol. XXVIII. CHICAGO, FEBRUARY, 1904. 



No. 2, 



FOLLOWING a line of thought to which attention 
was directed in our editorial columns of a recent 
issue relating to existing facilities in the older round- 
houses, the length of stall necessary to accommodate the 
new and larger engines is a matter of some significance. 
In a number of cases, where additions to the roundhouse 
have not kept pace with the growth of locomotives run- 
ning on the division served thereby, or where larger en- 
gine-houses have not been provided, it is impossible to 
close the door behind a large engine having a corre- 
spondingly large tank. While this fact does not appear 
on first sight to affect the number of hours during which 
the engine is detained in the roundhouse, and therefore 
the interval between arrival at and departure from ter- 
minal, yet it is a fact that a greater length of time is con- 
sumed in warming the outside of the locomotive and 
melting the snow and ice accumulated during the run 
and while standing over the cinder pit. 

The result of this condition is that machinists can 
not work on repairs to equal advantage while the engine 
is cold ; they cannot keep their hands warm, and a lack 
of interest in their work ensues. This leads to complaints 
against the larger and heavier engines, which are even 
louder than those which might be raised against the 
heavier parts to be handled by inadequate roundhouse 
facilities. 

The suggestion has been offered that the same objec- 
tion might be raised as an argument against the com- 
pound by those uninitiated in the repair of this type of 
machine, as most compounds have been constructed ac- 
cording to designs of heavy locomotives, and are there- 
fore probably among the number to bold the doors open. 



AT the January meeting of the Western Railway 
Club Mr. Waggoner presented a paper suggesting 
the organization of a "bureau of economies" on railways. 
The author seems rather inclined to think the present 
departmental officials do not have a sufficient apprecia- 
tion of the possibilities in this regard in their depart- 
ments — chiefly through lack of time to devote to the 
subject. While the author makes several good points, 
we are under the impression that no set of men have the 
necessity of economy more persistently held before them 
than do railway officials. That more advantage is not 
taken of often apparent possibilities of more economical 
-operation is, we are quite sure, solely because the recom- 
mendations of the departmental heads are turned down 
by those higher up. On practically any line it would be 
a very simple matter to point out an infinite number of 
instances and directions in which economies might be 
effected. But on looking closely into any one of these 
propositions it will almost invariably be found that the 
subject was closely scanned by the departmental head 
long, long ago, and that measures tending to better opera- 
tion in this regard are dependent entirely upon some 
proposition which has been turned down by those 
higher up. 

For example, we were recently in a shop where the 
boiler tubes were caulked by hand. It needs no bureau 
of information to point out to this master mechanic that 
the work could be more cheaply done pneumatically, or 
that water softening plants would obviate the necessity 
for the work at all. Yet we would hesitate in under- 
taking to say how many months and years the master 
mechanic and his superintendent of motive power have 
been endeavoring to secure the appropriation necessary 
to institute these remedies. 

The author makes a good point, however, when he 
states that "a large number of items are made at railroad 
shops that can be purchased cheaper outside, if their 
actual costs were known, but many master mechanics 
will say that flat cost and 10 per cent is close enough to 
real cost for the statement that the shops can make a 
thing cheaper than it can be bought — forgetting that 
heat, light, power, handling materials, general labor, 
shop repairs, supervision, etc., are all legitimate parts of 
the cost per unit. Master mechanics, shop foremen and 
shop clerks need education along the line of more care- 
ful economical accounting." One difficulty in this re- 
gard, however, is that the motive power department is 
often called upon to manufacture despite its disinclina- 
tion for such work. The department must perforce often 
manufacture articles it would prefer to have purchased 
outside, principally to avoid delay on material of which 
it would require an undue investment if carried in stock 



38 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 



parts sufficient to avoid such manufacture. It is true, 
though, that there is much need of more education of 
officials on costs. At present there is practically no 
means at hand whereby railway men gain an idea of 
what the articles they are handling cost. Ask any brake- 
man what his lantern cost, or any machinist the price of 
a file or any other article, or any engineer the price per 
ton of the coal he is burning? Not one out of ten could 
give anywhere near the amount. This should not be. 
A knowledge of the price of 
things will assist any man 
to a more intelligent idea of 
that relative importance of 
things which is so necessary 
in a railroad man. In this 
line we remember one road 
where, on going to work as 
a machinist, we were sur- 
prised to note that every 
article handed out of the 
storeroom bad a price tag 
on it. In the casting plat- 
form all castings had their 
weight and price painted on 
them. Heavy lumber and 
other material was all price- 
painted the same way, so 
every one handling or using 
material of any nature 
gained an idea of the price 
of things. We remember an 
immediate personal inclina- 
tion to give greater esteem 
to files and other tools as 
more worthy of care while 
in that shop, not to mention 
a surprise at learning injec- 
tors cost $110. It has 
been the only line on which 
we have encountered a sim- 
ilar system, but as an educa- 
tional matter we have always 
thou adit the trouble well worth while. 




Mr. Benjamin McKeen 



GENERAL MANAGER OF THE VANDALIA 
CTERRE HAUTE AND INDIANAPOLIS). 



Mr. McKeen was born in Ter're Haute, Ind.. in 1864, and 
graduated from Rose Polytechnic Institute at Terre Haute in 
1885. He entered the service of the Terre Haute and Logans- 
port in the engineering depart ment. and has advanced from 
his first position as ehaimnan in the engineering department 
through a number of positions to become general manager 
of the road. His entire railroad service having been with the 
Vandalia, with the exception of a year and a half with the 
Pittsburg, Cincinnati. Chicago and St. Louis. 



OUR attention has been directed to the stand taken 
by a railroad company in opposing the minor rail- 
road associations, whose members are principally among 
the foremen. We have been informed that this company 
has given its men to understand that membership in 
such organizations will not be countenanced and the 
attendance at their conventions will be sufficient 
grounds for dismissal. The objections raised are that 
the foremen take advantage of such occasions to 
amuse and enjoy themselves when they are supposed 
to be acquiring information for the interest of the com- 
panies which they represent, and this may possibly be 
true to a very limited extent, and also that these as- 



sociations have a tendency to assume the nature of 
labor organizations. 

Both of these objections are inconsistent and we be- 
lieve that they will prove so to anyone who will take 
the occasion to view the proceedings of the several 
associations, wherein it may be seen that the conven- 
tions take up many points which relate to the efficient 
and economical methods of* accomplishing results. 
To claim that the men do not appreciate the object for 

which they convene and that 
they waste the time which 
they should spend in session 
is unfair. Granted that they 
do set aside a portion of 
their time for recreation, 
and for sight-seeing, or to' 
visit an old friend while 
either on . their way to or 
from the convention point, 
wherein does the objection 
lie? Many such men are 
practically confined to the 
shop for months at a time 
and a large number of them 
are located in small towns. 
A short rest and change of 
environment is, therefore, an 
advantage rather than a det- 
riment. The opportunity of 
mixing with other men, ex- 
changing ideas with regard 
to methods and a possible 
visit to a shop located at or 
near the point in which the 
convention is held tend to- 
broaden a man and expand 
his vision. The more men 
present and the greater the 
number of roads repre- 
sented the larger the field 
in which the individual 
may profit from the ex- 
perience of others. 
The feature suggested with regard to labor organ- 
ization may be met by the argument that the associa- 
tions consider to no small extent the introduction of 
the most improved machinery and methods for saving 
labor as well as the probable saving resulting from the 
piece work system. In consideration of the unques- 
tioned view taken of such matters by labor organiza- 
tions, it cannot consistently be further held that as- 
sociations which endeavor to promote economy for 
the good of the railroad companies are aiding un- 



LINE 



The arbitration committee of the American Railway 
A ssociation has decided that roads on which rolling stock 
of foreign roads was located at time of the Kansas City 
floods must pay for cars. damaged in the floods. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



39 



The Trend of Locomotive Proportions 



( Continued 

ROPORTIONS of switching- locomotives 
show no marked evidence of particular 
change at any given time which would indi- 
cate radical differences in the design of such 
engines. Locomotives of this type have been 
gradually increased in weight, steam. pressure 
and power to meet the greater demands. The 
tables of switch engine parts and graphical 
expositions of the same here presented are 
therefore interesting as comparative data only and do 




from page 7.) 

switching service. The curves representing weight on 
drivers and tractive effort indicate a consistent increase 
in these features. The curve of ratio of total heating 
surface to firebox heating surface is noticed to incline 
toward the axis of abscissae, indicating that in the 
gradual increase of total heating surface the tendency 
has not followed that of passenger and freight engines 




78 78 80 8Z 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 96 /900 OZ 04 

Fig. i — Heating Surface and Grate Area. 

not attract the same attention as those relating to pas- 
senger and freight engines wherein the effect of the in- 
troduction of the modified wide grate for burning soft 




80 8Z a* 86 88 90 9Z 94- 96 98 /900 OZ Of 

Fig. 2 — General Features. 

coal was clearly marked by the abrupt change in the 
form of several of the curves representing the ratios. 

Steam pressure is seen to have attained 200 lbs. per 
square inch in but a few cases, 180 lbs. being the maxi- 
mum working pressure of most locomotives in yard and 





/878 80 



82 84 8b 88 90 92 94 96 98 /900 OZ 

Fig. 4 — Weight on Drivers. 



wherein the tube heating surface has been so rapidly en- 
larged that the firebox surface now constitutes a smaller 
percentage of the total surface than heretofore. In con- 
trast to this the firebox heating surface of the switch 
engines constitutes a larger portion of the total in loco- 
motives of more recent design. Nor has tube length 




1878 80 82 84 86 68 90 92 94- 96 98 /900 OZ 04 

5 — Tractive Effort by Formula. 

been increased in this type of engine as in the case of 
road engines, the ratio of tube length to tube diameter 
varying in most instances between sixty and ninety. 
While the ratio of total heating surface to weight of 
one cylinder full of steam at boiler pressure varies con- 
siderably, it is in the majority of cases greater than 900 
and largely greater than 1,000. In this connection we 
wish to rectify an error in the figures on the curves rep- 
resenting this proportion for freight locomotives, ap- 




7876 80 62 84- 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 7900 OZ 04 

Fig. 3 — Steam Pressure, 



1878 80 62 d4 86 88 90 92 9t 96 98 7900 02 .04- 

Fig, 6- Ratio ou Weight on Drivers to Tractive 
Effort, 



40 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 




7878 80 8Z 



1878 80 8Z 64 86 



92 34 96 98 /900 02 04 



Fig. 7— Ratio of Tractive Effort to Total Heating p ti _ Rati0 of Tube Heating Surface to Grate 
Surface. 

Area. 




1878 80 82 84 86 



Fig. 8 — Ratio of Total Weight to Total Heating 
Surface. 



/8 78 60 82 8? 86 3d 90 92 9+ ?6 96 7900 02 04' 



Fig. 12 — Ratio of' Firebox Heating to Grate Area. 




1676 80 62 64 66 86 90 92 ?4 '96 96 /900 02 04 



Fig! 9— Ratio of Total Heating Surface to Grate m* «« 82 64 66 86 90 9Z 94 96 98 /?oo 02 04 
Area. 

Fig. 13 — Ratio of Total Heating Surface to 
Volume of Both Cylinders. 




J878 80 82 84 86 83 JO 92 94- 96 96 7900 02 04 



Fig. io — Ratio of Total Heating Surface to Fire- 
box Hfating Surface. 




7876 80 62 



92 94 96 .98 7900 02 04> 



Fig. 14 — Ratio of Tube Length to Diameter. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



41 




Fig. 15 — Ratio of Grate Area to Volume of Both 
Cylinders. 

pearing on page 6 of our January issue. The figures as 
they appear are from 8 to 22. They should be from 800 
to 2,200 . 



/&18 80 8Z 8? 86 86 90 92 90 96 98 /900 OZ 

Fig. 16 — Ratio of Total Heating Surface to 

Weight of One Cylinder Full of 

Steam at Boiler Pressure. 



100,000 Lbs. Capacity Coal 

St Paul 

MONG the interesting designs of high 
&k capacity coal cars developed in recent years 
is the form of construction followed in a lot 
of 100,000 lbs. capacity cars now being built 
by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
way at its shops in West Milwaukee. The 
present order calls for five hundred cars of 
this type, of which over two hundred have 
already been built and the shops are turn- 
ing them out at the rate of five per day. This design 
is the outcome of careful consideration and observa- 




Cars — Chicago, Milwaukee & 
Railway 

tion on the part of Mr. J. J. Hennessey, master car 
builder of the road. The most interesting and notice- 
able features apparent therein are the continuous 
metal center sills and continuous body bolsters, as 
well as the truss rods which run from side to side of 
the car adding to the rigidity of the coal box, and also 
the Hennessey friction draft gear used in connection 
with these cars. 

The construction of the center sills and bolsters 
constitutes an arrangement which embodies th-e desir- 
able features of both continuous metal center sills 




Fig. 1 — C, M. & St. P Ry., Coal Car Showing Under framing. 



42 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 




• .1" Over a// 



Fig. 2 — Part Sectional End Views, C, M. & St. P. 
Ry., Coal Car. 




Fig. 3 — Body Bolster Spider, C, M:& St. P. Ry., Coal 

Car. 




Section ot /l-B < Section at C-0 



Fig. 4— C, M. & St. P. Ry., Coal Car. 




Fig. 5 — Part Cross-Sectional Views, C 
Ry., Coal Car. 



M. & St. P. 



and continuous body bolsters. This has been patented 
by Mr. Hennessey. The principal feature consists of 
a spider or center casting placed between the upper 
and lower members of the body bolster and extending 
lengthwise under the steel center sills. All of the 
weight is thus distributed from the lower flange of 
the channel to the center plates, making it practically 
equivalent to a double body bolster. The center casting 
and the body bolster are secured together, and the upper 
and lower members of the bolster are held firmly to- 
gether so that any movement of parts is prevented. The 
center plate is riveted to the bottom of the bolster, while 
the top member of the latter passes through the center 
of the sills. The opening in the web is reinforced by 
brackets, which are riveted to the center sill and pre- 
vent any backward or forward motion of the bolster, 
and since it is in the neutral axis of the channel, this 
opening through the web does not detract tfrom the' 
strength 01 the sill. 

The metal sills are of steel channel in commercial 
form, so that in case of damage by wreck they may be 
removed and replaced in any car shop. Malleable iron 
columns placed between the channels form distance 
pieces and bolts passing through the channels and col- 
umns secure them together. The object is to provide 
a continuous draw-gear arrangement, the construction 
of which brings the neutral axis so that it coincides with 
the central line of pulling and buffing forces ; that is. 
the center of the draw-gear. 




Ftg ; 6— Details of Center-Sill Channel, C„ M, & St. P, Ry., Coal Car, 



February, T904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



43 




Fig. 7— C, M. & St. P. Ry. Coal Car. 




Fig. 8— Hennessey Friction Draft Gear, C, M. & St. Fig. 9— Friction Draft Gear, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 
P. Ry., Coal Car. Coal Car. 




Fig. 10 — C, M. & St. P. Ry., Coal Car Showing Steel Channel Center Sills and Body Bolster. 



44 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 




Fig. 11 — Sectional Elevation and Plan Views, ioo,ooo-Lb. Capacity Coal Car, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 



ilie tie rods aDOve reierrea to extend irom side to 
side ot tne coal box, passing diagonally tnrougn tne siae 
posts and under tne center sills. /\ tie 01 tms type nas 
ueen in service on cars 01 tne U. M. & bt. Jf. railway 
lor several years and has proved successiui in pre- 
venting tne sides 01 tne coai dox irom spreading. 

The design of tne car is clearly shown in tne accom- 
panying line drawings and half tone engravings. Ine 
Dody is 42 It. long over end sill and 39 It. iij^ ins. 
inside length, while it is 10 it. 1^ ins. wide over all, 
9 it. 5^4 ins. wide inside the flaring top side plank, and 
8 it. 7 ins. wide inside the box. The hopper doors are 
located at the two ends of the car, being centered 8 it 
6 ins. from center of the car. The full opening of each 
pair of hopper doors is 42 ins. long by 2 ft. 3j4 ins- 
wide. The diagonal truss rods previously mentioned are 
located at every third side stake, and consist of a 24-in. 
wrought iron rod. The transverse width over framing 
is 9 ft., and the dimensions of the sills are as follows: 
Side sills, 5x13^ ins. ; four intermediate sills, 4^x10 



ins., and center sills, 15-in., 33TD. Carnegie steel chan- 
nels, liie coal sides are made up of four 9^4x23^-111. 
plank, with a ii}ix2y 2 -in. flaring timber at tne top, 
as previously noted. There are 13 side stakes on each 
side, composed of 5/ / 2X3^}-in. timbers, and in addition 
there are lour straps formed into a J^-in. bolt at the 
bottom,, which extend from the coal sides proper through 
the side sills as shown in the drawing. There are six 
1 Yz -in. body truss rods, four mounted underneath, and 
between the side sills and the outer intermediate sills 
the truss-rod bearing being of duplex type, and two 
are mounted underneath the center sill, the rod bearing 
being of a somewhat similar form. The flooring is of 
i^4-in. tongue-and-groove lumber, and the hopper doors 
are operated by the usual ratchet and pawl device. The 
truck wheel base is 5 ft. 5 ins., the total car wheel base 
36 ft. 5 ins., and the distance between centers of trucks 
31 ft. Barr contracting. chill wheels 33 ins. in diameter 
are applied and the trucks are of the Barber all-metal 
type. 



DeGlehn Compound Locomotive—Great Western Railway of England 



SUCH interest is being centered upon the perform- 
ance of four cylinder balanced compound loco- 
motives and the attention of railroad men and builders, 
both in this country and abroad, is being directed to 
engines of this type. In view of this fact we present 
the accompanying illustrations and description of a De 
Glehn compound locomotive recently delivered by the 
Sociate Alsacienne de Constructions Mecaniques to the 
Great Western Railway of England for trial on fast 
passenger trains, which we take from Transport, of 
London : 

"The engine weighs 145,000 lbs., of which 77,300 is 
on the drivers, which are driven by high pressure cylin- 



ders 13 3-8 ins. in diameter outside connected to the rear 
drivers, and low pressure cylinders 22 1-16 ins. in 
diameter inside-connected to the forward driving axle; 
227 lbs. of steam are carried and a maximum tractive 
effort of 28,814 lbs. may be developed. The valve gear 
adopted is of the Walschaert type and the distribution of 
steam to the h. p. and 1. p. cylinders can be independently 
controlled by an ingenious arrangement of the reversing 
gear. For starting a valve is provided which permits 
the driver to admit boiler steam through a reducing valve 
to the 1. p. cylinders, whilst valves arranged for divert- 
ing the escaping steam from the h. p. cylinders direct 
to the blast pipe are brought into operation by a three- 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



45 




Fig. 1 — De Glehn Compound Atlantic Type Locomotive, Great Western Ry., of England. 




Fig. 2 — Diagram Showing Simple and Compound Working of the De Glehn Locomotive. 
way valve and small steam cylinder. When working as reducing valve E and thence to the 1. p. steam chests, 



a compound, the exhaust steam from the h. p. cylinders 
enters the 1. p. steam chests through the valves above 
mentioned. 

"The diagrams in Fig. 2 illustrate the general sys- 
tem of working. In the upper detail the valves are 
shown as when the engine is working as a four-cylinder 
simple engine, whilst the lower detail represents the 
position when operating as a compound. The letters are 
the same throughout. In diagram 1 the auxiliary steam 
valve A' is shown open for boiler steam to pass to the 



whilst the three-way cock B' stands for steam to be ad- 
mitted to the transverse cylinder, D', which moves the 
tubular valves C to the required position for h. p. ex- 
haust to pass direct to the blast pipe. In diagram 2 the 
auxiliary steam valve is closed and the three-way cock 
B" shown in position for steam to move the piston in 
cylinder D" and alter the position of the valves C" to 
give a passage for h. p. exhaust steam to the 1. p. steam 
chests." 



Variable Exhaust Device, C. G. W. Ry. 



THE Chicago Great Western Railway has placed a 
device on a number of their locomotives the object 
of which is to reduce the exhaust when the reverse lever 
is in the corner, allowing a lighter fire to be carried and 
absolutely avoiding danger of injuring fire when start- 
ing. By softening the exhaust the effect of a large 
nozzle is produced, and this, by reducing back pressure, 
naturally increases the power and economy of the en- 
gine. It is, in effect, a variable exhaust nozzle, without 
its drawbacks of complication and tendency to "gum up" 
and get out of order. 

The arrangement of the device is as follows: A hole 
2 to 4 inches in diameter is drilled into the exhaust cav- 
ity of each cylinder, preferably at the valve chest, and a 
2 to 4-inch pipe as indicated by A in the accompanying 
line drawings, inserted and led by suitable bends and 
fittings to an auxiliary stack, B, immediately in front of 
the main stack. At some point, preferably just outside 
the valve chest, the pipe passes through a gate valve, 



shown at C, so constructed that when the gate is in its 
central position the valve is closed, and when in its for- 
ward or back position the valve is open. This valve is 




As Applied to Piston Valve 

Variable Exhaust Nozzle, C. G. W. Ry. 



46 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 




Variable Jixhaust Nozzle, C. G. W. Ry. 



connected by suitable rods, and, if necessary, a rocker 
arm to the reverse lever, so that when the lever is in 
either corner the valve is open, but when near or at the 
center the valve is closed. Thus, when the engine is 
working heavily or starting out of a station with the re- 
verse lever in or near the corner, the valves are open 
and permit about half the exhaust fo escape directly to 
the atmosphere. As the engine is hooked up notch by 
notch, the valves close gradually, directing more and 
more steam through the regular exhaust nozzle until 
the lever is in running position, when the valves are 
closed and all the exhaust is used to fan the fire. 

The rod operating the valve is connected by jaws and 
a pin through holes in the reverse lever, or bracket at- 
tached thereto, as shown at D, so that when working up 
a long grade where a heavy fire must be kept up the 
valve may be disconnected by the engineer and closed 
or adjusted as desired by hand. 

The device is now in use on the Chicago Great West- 
ern suburban service between St. Paul and Invergrove, 
and the engineers give it their unqualified approval. 
The service is very severe and a light suburban engine is 



used. Before the device was applied it was always neces- 
sary to take water on the last trip of ten miles as the en- 
gine passed the roundhouse standpipe on the way to 
the Union depot. After the device was applied it was 
found that it was possible to make the ten-mile trip, run 
to the Union depot, and return to the roundhouse, a dis- 
tance of two miles additional, and yet have enough water 
for a wait on the roundhouse tracks. 

The engineers say that an engine is much stronger 
when supplied with this device and works much more 
easily, and the coal records show a saving of 13 per cent 
in coal since its application. It has shown no sign of 
gumming up or getting out of order, and the Great 
Western is now having it applied to two of the largest 
type of freight and to one passenger engine. It is ex- 
pected to show a considerable saving on a single track 
road where business is heavy and stops are many. The 
whole device is simple and in few parts. It can be en- 
tirely renewed by a machinist and helper in half a day. 
The invention is patented by F. O. Whealon, locomotive 
engineer, C. G. W. Ry., St. Paul, Minn. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



47 



: hop Inprovcments of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Rail- 
way at West Milwaukee 



N order to pursue its policy of building its 
own equipment the Chicago, Milwaukee & 
St. Paul Railway has modernized and added 
materially to the locomotive department of its 
plant at West Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The 
;\ :?.; i: : headquarters of the motive power depart- 
ment and the principal shop of the road are 
located at this point, which is also the man- 
ufacturing establishment of the entire system. 
For several years the company has built all of its own 
cars with the exception of sleepers and the finer type 
of passenger equipment, and with the improved locomo- 




Menominee River, which crossed the yards as indicated 
by the dotted lines, was diverted so that it now flows 
in the channel indicated by the full lines. This work 
was necessary to arrange the system of tracks in a belt 
plan around the plant and was no small undertaking in 
itself. As shown, the tracks are arranged in a double 
belt line and from the lower belt line tracks lead off 
into all the lumber, material, scrap and store yards and 
to the buildings located in that vicinity. Cars and loco- 
motives enter for shop repairs from the northeast cor- 
ner of the yards and it is interesting to note a number 
of spur tracks ?rranged in the vicinity of the proposed 




Fig. 1 — General Plan, Car and Locomo 

tive department it is expected to build about seventy-five 
locomotives a year in addition to the better maintenance 
of existing motive power equipment. 

An interesting feature of the plant as it now stands is 
the rearrangement of yard tracks to permit additions to 
the buildings and to provide sufficient space for exten- 
sive freight repair yards. The trackage system shown 
in Fig. 1 of the accompanying line drawings is seen to 
be most comprehensive. The former course of the 



tive Shops of the C, M. & St. P. Ry. 

new round house, to be used as storage tracks for loco- 
motives, tanks, wrecking outfits, etc. The wagon road, 
indicated by dotted lines and seen to enter the grounds 
near the office, is noticed to extend to all parts of the 
plants, passing through the material yards and immedi- 
ately near all buildings. Strict requiremens aire fol- 
lowed in keeping this road unobstructed so that in the 
event of fire unimpeded access may be had to the origin 
of the flame. 



48 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 




Fig. 2 — Plan of Power House, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 



The general plan of the plant is shown by Fig. I, 
in which the old buildings are indicated by section lined 
portions and the additions made during the improve- 
ments here considered are designated by open lines. The 
improvements have been planned and executed entirely 
by the present motive power staff consisting of Mr. A. E. 
Manchester, superintendent of motive power; Mr. J. Y. 
Hennessey, master car builder ; Mr. James De Voy, me- 
chanical engineer; with Mr. J. N. Barr, assistant to the 
president, in a consulting capacity, and Mr. Charles F. 
Loweth, superintendent of bridges and building, who 
assisted in the matter of structures. 

The power plant is installed in a brick building of 
rather artistic exterior appearance. The roof trussing is 
of steel and reverses the usual plan by sloping inwardly 
to the center above the wall which divides the boiler and 
engine rooms. This roof is also equipped with a ven- 
tilating hood embracing both apartments. The building 
is 97 by 100 ft. in extent, with an addition of 16 ft. to 
the engine room for the condenser and feed water appli- 
ances. The building has been erected in a position that 
will place the boiler side of the structure alongside a 
connecting portion of the modern coaling pockets when 
the latter shall have been erected. The boiler room has 
been equipped with two batteries of Babcock & Wilcox 
water tube boilers whose total horse power is 1,200, 



while space has been reserved for another battery of 600 
horse power when such addition shall become necessary. 
The breeching leads out to a brick stack 35 ft. from the 
wall of the boiler room in a location that will permit 




p ia 3— View Near Power House, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



49 




Fig. 4 — Interior of Condenser and Feed Water Pit 

Showing Condenser Pump, Condenser and Oil 

Separator, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 

of an economizer to be inserted in the line should such 

ultimately be deemed advisable. 

The engine room is equipped with two Nordberg cross- 
compound Corliss engines of 330 h. p. each, and direct- 



Fig. 5 — Interior of Condenser and Feed Water Pit 
Showing Feed Water Pump and Feed Water 
Heater, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 
connected to each of these engines is a Milwaukee 200 
kw. direct-current generator. There is sufficient reserve 
space for the installation of still another of these units. 
Sunday and night lighting loads are taken care of by a 




Fig. 6 — R. D. Woods' Hydraulic Riveter, 17- Ft. Gap, 
in Boiler Shop, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 



Fig. 7 — Interior of Riveting Towek Showing R. D. 
Woods' Accumulator, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 



50 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 




^IdVnW' 



Fig. 8 — Cross Section of Power House, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 



■••'.; 




Fig. 9 — Interior Engine Room, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 

Westinghouse verticle 160 h. 
p. engine, direct connected 
to a 100 kw. generator. At 
the opposite end of the room 
is an Allis cross-compound 
Corliss air compressor of 
1,200 cu. ft. free air per min- 
ute capacity. All these en- 
gines operate condensing 
normally, but the exhaust 
steam header has been pro- 
vided with connectidns that 
will allow any or all of them 
to exhaust, direct to the at- 
mosphere. In the condens- 
ing arrangement a novel 
adaptation of local condi- 
tions has been utilized. About 
300,000 gallons of water is 



consumed every 24 hours by 
the locomotives passing 
through the roundhouse and 
for other purposes. A steel 
storage tank of 200,000 gal- 
lons capacity has been erect- 
ed near the power plant. A 
Wheeler surface condenser 
has been installed in the 
apartment adjoining the en- 
gine room, as indicated in 
Fig. 2. The city main bring- 
ing water to the storage tank 
is connected to the condens- 
er so that the latter is inter- 
posed in the line of the main, 
and all water passes through 
the condenser on its way to 
the storage tank. In this way 
three requirements are at 
once accomplished — neces- 
sity of a water-cooling 
tower is avoided, a high 




Fig. 10 — Generating Units, C, M. & St. P. Ry, 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



51 





Fig. 11 — Niles-Bement-Pond Two Spindle Rod Bor- 
ing Machine in Second Story of C, M. & 
St. P. Ry. Shops. 
vacuum is obtained, and the general water supply is 
supplied with a certain amount of heat which otherwise 
would be wasted. Tests have not been made, but a 
thermometer on a May day showed 27 degrees differ- 
ence between the water in the storage tower and that in 
die mains before passing through the condenser. In this 
pit are also located a Cochrane 1,250 h. p. feed water 
heater and a 24-in. oil separator. Also a feed water 
pump of 104 gallons per minute capacity. 

Fig. 12 shows a Niles crosshead boring machine 



Fig. 12 — Niles Cross Head Boring Machine, C, M. 
. & St. P. Ry. Shops. 

equipped with a very handy tool or bar for boring a 
taper hole of any dimension. Any machine having a 
revolving spindle can be used with this bar. The 
principle upon which the tool works is that of a taper 
slide upon which the tool holder moves. As the bar 
moves the tool holder moves by means of a screw and 
nut, and fed by a star wheel coming in contact with 
a trip dog fastened to the machine. 

Further improvements at this plant will be presented 
in our next issue. 



Railroad Shop Tools 

By Charles H. Fitch 
X. 




MODERN Virgil would no doubt sing of 

A man and machines, instead of men and arms, 
and although Russia has a vast army and is 
preparing to take military issue with Japan, 
the conflict for supremacy among modern na- 
tions will be decided by their machine shops. 
The rule is — the more machinery the less 
men. I have been through a large flour mill 
from top to bottom, machinery all going and 
no man to be found. Railroad shops are industries of a 
different class, obviously requiring many men because the 
product does not admit of a continuous process ; but 
within my observation locomotive works for substantially 
the same product have reduced need of men about 3 to 1. 
We now consider, however, a class of machines in 
which large capacity was realized at an early stage of 
the history — punches and shears. Any gains in capacity 
have been made in attachments for feeding the work, and 
these are not applied to ordinary punches and shears. 
.Automatic devices displacing human attendance are not 
considered necessary except for continuous work on large 
boiler plates. 

In the generality of machine tools the work clone is 



not a maximum. When the limitation of work was in 
tool steel, strength of framing was often excessive. As 
tool steel has been developed capable of heavier cuts at 
higher speeds, greatly increasing the application of power 
at the tool point, the framing for stiffness to ensure 
practical inflexibility of position must be made much 
heavier. Hence a development now in progress in tool 
design which is of great significance. But this does not 
apply to punches and shears because they have already 
reached a design in which we have the greatest stress 
at the tool point consistent with its endurance, and are 
supposed to have the strongest cast iron framing practica- 
ble to meet this stress. 

The paring cut is an action in which the work is dis- 
tributed in time by rate of speed, and in space by rate 
of feed, and while time cannot be annihilated in any 
operation it is hardly a considerable factor in the work 
of a punch, in which the work is done all at a stroke. 

The limit of stress which tool steel can stand is found 
in the punching of thick crucible steel plates with small 
holes. Then it is steel meet steel, and the small punch 
breaks — if not at once, after a few repetitions of the 
severe stress which crushes its internal structure and rcn- 



5^ 



ttAlLWAV MASf£& MECHANIC 



February, 1964. 



ders it brittle. Punching steel has not received the same 
attention as cutting steel. Punches, shears and dies are 
usually made from a grade of steel costing less than one- 
third the price of high speed tool steel, and not given 
so high a heat for hardening and tempering. Mr. H. J. 
Hinde specifies a special grade of "Carpenter" steel, Mr. 
F. K. Bremer an extra annealed tool steel made by the 



value for large punches such as are used in railroad work. 
A feature characteristic of punches and shears is that 
they are liable to be overloaded, and broken. We often 
see notices upon the lighter machines warning men that 
the machines must not be used for sizes and thicknesses 
above a specified maximum, under penalty of discharge. 
Break pins to save the frame may be used in the power 




Fig. 1 — Miles-Bement-Pond Co., Punch and Shear. 



Colonial Co., Chicago, in fact every tool steel maker and 
user has his recommendations and preferences on a sub- 
ject like this which does not admit of close comparisons. 
On fine punching such comparisons might be made based 
on durability under severe service, but the result would 
be at best only a tool steel costly out of proportion to its 



mechanism, but the condition shows that the punch, un- 
like the lathe, is a completely loaded machine liable to be 
stalled or broken. They are commonly installed for work 
of limited strength, for which they are sufficient, but too 
much stiffness can hardly be brought to the tool point in 
heavy punching and shearing, and the frames take the 




Fk 



^^■lUftlilli:i!.i,i:ii.i;,i.i:.i k ' , ; ' . : : i I ,; 1 / 1 

2 — Single Machine with Screw-feed Spacing 



Table, Long & Allstatter. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASITBR MECHANIC 



53 



immensely massive forms of which an impression is con- 
veyed by the words "punching bear." These forms are 
given such a large factor of safety that the treachery of 
cast iron is covered by their strength, and the forms are 
little liable to the breakage incident to initial strains set 




Fig. 3 — Boilermakers' Combined Punch and Shear, 
Geo. Whiting Co. 

up by unequal contraction. We can point to these forms 
as ultimates towards which we must approach in other 
tools, as these are made so swift and powerful in action 
that we are brought to a simple trial of the penetrating 
power of an edged material against the resistance in com- 
pression of a framing material. 

The demands of railroad shops for punches and shears 
are simple and involve less variety than is requisite in 
ship-building. Owing to the disposition of foreign manu- 
facturers to design independently where American manu- 
facturers are less concerned with unique patterns than 
with effective designs, our machines conform to a few 
types. What I may style single and double "bear" fram- 
ing is all but universal, the double machines having a 




punch at one end, and a short shear at the other, while for 
longer shear blades or gate shears a pair of these frames 
are set side by side. 

Many types of machines are peculiar to other classes 
of work, such as beam punching and coping machines for 
structural work and multiple punches for 
perforated metal work, armature notching, 
machines, billet and bloom shears, but in 
railroad shops we find the vertical bearing 
frame punches and shears and horizontal 
punches, beveling and splitting shears, as 
well as the almost universal Lennox rolling 
shears for bevel and irregular work. The 
tools necessary are those for making firebox 
boilers, and in addition to these there is us- 
ually much car iron work to be handled 
which requires some small quick-acting 
punches and bar and angle-iron shears. 

A characteristic tool is the punch and 
shear with automatic spacing table. For 
punching boiler plates geared spacing 
tables and multiple punches economize 
time and labor, two men punching 1,000 
holes in an hour. Spacing is usually 
effected by pawls and escapement gearing similar 
to that used in gear-cutting machines. Fig. 1 shows 
such a machine by Bement, Miles & Co. (now Niles-Be- 
ment-Pond Co.), arranged for bevel shearing the edges 
and rapid punching of rivet holes in single or double 
rows. Fig. 2 shows a machine for punching holes in 
boiler plate, and having a screw-feed spacing table. This 
is made by the Long & Alstatter Co., Hamilton, Ohio. 




'jo. 4 — 20-inch Throat Punch, Motor Driven, Geo. 
B. Sennett Co., Youncstown. 



Fig. 5 — Double Punch, Motor Driven, Cincinnati 

Punch & Shear Co. 
The screw is diagonal to the bed and causes the travel of 
a nut moving in a slot in a revolving spacing table. The 
table set at zero will space the pitch of the screw, and set 
either way from zero will space greater or less, even 
sixteenlhs being fed through a ratchet. At the movement 



54 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 



of punching the plate is clamped automatically upon the 
die, the same device serving" for a stripper. 

It is the embarrassment of riches to attempt to illus- 
trate the designs of different American builders and give 
their features of design adequate justice in so short an 






Fig. 6 — Punches, Dies & Couplings. 

article. Most of them build full lines covering all usual 
requirements. In Fig. 3 is shown the No. 8 combined 
punch and shear, 42-in. throat, built by George Whiting 
Co., Chicago, expressly for boiler makers. It shows the 
Whiting strippers, and the machine has a special form of 
throat for punching small flanged heads, though made 
with other forms of throat. 




Fig. 7 — Bar Shear, Cleveland Punch and Shear Co. 

The Hilles & Jones Co., of Wilmington, Del., are 
among the oldest makers of these tools and build them 
in great variety. In Fig. 4 we show a motor-driven hori- 
zontal punch of their manufacture. These punches can 
be used to great advantage on some classes of suspended 
boiler and flange work. Motor drive presents no difficul- 
ties. The machine has two punches, each provided with 
a gag. This is a simple and usual device for making 
connection between the punch proper and its driving 
mechanism. If for example it were required to use only 
one of these punches the gag of the other would be 
lifted out. 

Fig. 4 shows _ a class 7-20-in. throat punch with 7^ 
h. p. induction motor built by the George B. Sennett 
Co., of Youngstown, O. It has automatic and friction 
clutch, and the three punches may be operated by foot 
lever or independently, or together, by pushing in or 
pulling out gags which are provided with convenient 
handles. 

Fig. 5, by the Cincinnati Punch & Shear Co., shows a 



double end punch and shear of a type in very common 
use, direct-driven by a 5 h. p. motor. These double tools 
economize in gearing, but have some disadvantages inci- 
dent to most combination tools. If work is moving con- 
tinuously through the shop, an end to end arrangement is 
not always handy, though for occasional work this makes 
little difference. One end is also usually in a poorer light 
than the other, although our modern facilities in lighting 
may be made to remedy any such difficulty. I prefer, 




Fig.^ 8 — Wickes Bros., Punch. 

however, to see a tool made and placed for its work, 
rather than to subordinate convenience of work to any 
pre-arrangement in tool design. 

It is interesting to note what may be called equiva- 
lence in shear and punch capacity. Solid contents 
punched in cubic inches is from 1-5 to 1-10 cross section 
sheared at a single stroke, in the larger (2-in plate) and 
smaller (J/^-in. plate), respectively. The circumferential 
area punched is less than the straight area sheared. 

In 1880 it was noted that two' designs for actuating 
the shear or punch were in vogue, the eccentric with large 
area of rubbing surface to distribute the pressure, and 
the lever driven by double-acting cam, obtaining a quick 
return and also bringing the punch to the very end of 
nosing so as to punch within an inch of flange or comer. 
Now nearly all presses are of the eccentric type. 

The die has a hole slightly larger than the punch 
(see Fig. 6), which is held in place by a screw coupling 
securing it to the punch stem. The shearing action 
whether of shear proper or punch is made by the cut- 
ting of the skin metal, and thereafter by the local com- 
pression under the punch tearing and forcing out the 
blank, and enlarging the hole downward by about r in 
10 on either side. The metal is thus hard treated and 
must be annealed after punching, or else the holes must 
be punched small and reamed out. The Dietz system of 
step punches was invented 20 years ago. It left the 
metal strength unimpaired and was an excellent device, 
but was never pushed in practice. 

Shear blades are secured to head and die by blocks. 
They conform to the section to be sheared, being angular 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



55 



for cutting angles, and round for rounds, but for flat bars 
are applied at an angle of relief or inclination as are 
scissors. Alligator shears are much like scissors, but 
the guillotine type with shears between vertical guides 
is suited for finer work. Fig. 7 shows such a shear 
built by the Cleveland Punch and Shear Works 
Co. and driven by independent engine. This company 
builds a full line of punches with dies for flue holes, hand 
holes and all heavy boiler work. 

Fig. 8 shows the framing of a punch or shear made by 
VVickes Bros., Saginaw, Mich. This frame has two 
heavy ribs instead of one as usual, giving greater 
strength and a section like that of an I-beam. As the I- 




Fig. 9 — Punch and Shear, Bremer Machine and 
Tool Co. 

beam owes its form to convenience in rolling, and these 
forms are cast, and require the greatest strength it seems 
strange that no builder has adopted the box section. To 
resist strains frames with deep throats have bolts between 
the jaws. The VVickes frame has provision for such 
bolts to be let in sidewise like the bolts of Cornish pump 
valve box covers. The VVickes drive is through gear, 
shaft, coupling, eccentric and cam. Position of work 
may be tried before punching by hand wheel lowering 
gear in front of eccentric shaft. Regular flue hole dies 
furnished are 2, 2}i, 2 l / 2 , 2^, 3, 3^ and 4 inches. 

Fig. 9 shows a No. 4 shear 18 inches in throat, single 
built by the Bremer Machine & Tool Co., Kalamazoo, 
Mich. Fig. 10 shows details of eccentric, connecting rod 
and crosshead as built by this company. 



In general throw of eccentrics or levers is varied by 
several simple adjustments such as eccentric sleeves, or 
screw elevation of lever bearings. In the ordinary ec- 
centric press the eccentric is overhung, but greater 
strength can be obtained by the double connection ec- 
centric press which is easily built to exert 200 tons 
pressure. 

Clutches are thrown in by treadle, and can easily be 




Fig. 10 — Construction of Crosshead and Connect- 
ing Rod, Bremer Machine & Tool Co. 
arranged for automatic throw. Rams are caused to stop 
at the highest point of their stroke by springs which 
throw the clutch out when this is permitted by an escape- 
ment at the proper point. 

Guards, strippers (which prevent work from lifting 
when the' punch rises), gauges, distance pieces, shear 
holders for cutting off or slitting sheets along the edges, 
etc., are shown in the various illustrations presented, and 
are tools of such obvious purpose as to require little ex- 
planation. 

Shears and punches do what may be termed roughing 
out work, and their province has been somewhat en- 
croached upon by the heavier cuts of modern finishing 
tools. 



Convertible Sleeping and Parlor Car for Electric Railway 



THE Holland Palace Car Company of Indianapolis, 
Indiana, has had two convertible sleeping and 
parlor cars built to be operated over an electric line by 



their own motors. They are to be used as compartment 
sleeping cars at night and as parlor cars during the day. 
The first Qf these cars, designated as the "Theodore," 




Fig. 1 -Convertible Parlor and Sleeping Car for Electric Railways. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, ioxH- 



has been received by the company, and the second, the 
"Francis," is expected within a snort time, They were 
built under tne noiiand patents at tne piant ot tne Har- 
lan & noinngswortn Company, Wilmington, ueiaware, 
under tne direction ot tne Holland Company's mecnan- 
icai engineer, Mr. Mason -ficicert. it was tne original 
intention to Duild Dut a single car and use it tor exnibi- 
tion purposes, but tliere was an immediate demand tor 
two cars to be put in practical service and the cars here 
referred to have been built tor that purpose. The car 
illustrated herewith is 56 ft. 4 in. long over all and 8 tt. 
ioJ4 ins. wide. It is driven by lour Westinghouse 
motors of 150 horse power each, making a total horse 
power of 600 per car, geared for 65 or 75 miles per 
hour. The exterior ot the car is painted maroon, a 
color which has been adopted as standard by the 
company. 

^-vs snown by tne accompanying interior views, when 
arranged as a parlor car trie inferior presents a pleasing 
appearance and all comforts of day travel are available. 
One of the views shows also the appearance of a part 
of the car when arranged into compartments. The 
compartments are on each side of a center ailse, there_ 
being in each car ten compartments 6 ft. 10 in. long 
by 3 ft. 6 in. wide. There is one lower and one upper 
berth in each compartment each 27 in. wide (regular 
steamer size), allowing a 15-in. dressing space between 
berth and aisle. The partition which forms the com- 




Fig. 2 — Part Sectional Rear Elevation, Convert- 
ible Sleeping and Parlor Car. 




Fig. 3 — Floor Plan, Convertible Sleeping and Par lor Car. 



i 


-. 
-■• ■•mm 


ffpf Hi fP 




Fig. 4 — Interior of Convertible Car when Used as 
Parlor Car. 



Fig. 5 — Interior Convertible Car Showing Portion 
of Compartments Arranged as when Used as 
Sleeper. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



57 



partment is of the same material and is operated on 
the same principle as a roll-top desk and is entirely out 
of sight in the day time, which arrangement gives an 
open parlor car with 20 revolving parlor car chairs. 
The inside of the partition is covered with handsome 
tapestry, the window shades of pantasote with green silk 
face and the curtains in the doorways of double faced 
velour, which makes an exceedingly handsome com- 
partment. 

The cars are heated by the Peter Smith Heating Com- 
pany's system of hot water heating for the body of the 
car, the motorman's cab being heated by three of the 
Consolidated Car Heating Co.'s electric heaters. Hot 
and cold water is provided for the wash stands, 
the hot water being heated by an electric hot water 
heater. 

The interior decorations- are of inlaid mahogany and 
bronze. The smoking room and men's toilet are at one 



end and the ladies' toilet at the other. The minor equip- 
ment includes electric curling irons for the use of lady 
passengers ; electric cigar lighters in the smoking room. 
Electric fans are located at each end in the main body 
of the car to be operated during the day. 

It is not the purpose of the Holland Company to sell 
their cars of this type, but instead to operate them for 
the electric roads in the same manner as sleeping cars 
are operated on the steam roads, the Holland Co. to 
own all cars. The officers of the; Holland Palace Car 
Co. are : Harris F. Holland, president ; Amos K. Hol- 
lowell, vice-president ; Joseph W. Selvage, secretary and 
treasurer; Amzi L. Wheeler, assistant secretary and 
treasurer, and Judge James E. McCullough, general 
counsel, all of Indianapolis, Ind. 

The principle of the car here illustrated was presented 
in the October, 1902, issue of the Railway Master Me- 
chanic, on page 372. 



The Western Railway Club 



By J. W. Tay 

THE western Railway Club was organized on 
April 16, 1884, in Club room A of the Grand Pa- 
cific Hotel, Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Joseph Townsend, master car builder of the 
Chicago & Alton Railroad Company, was chairman of 




Mr. D. F. Crawford, President of the Western 

Railway Club. 
the first meeting, and Mr. Wm. Eorsyth, mechanical 
engineer of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail- 
road Company, its first secretary. Mr. I>. K. Verbryck, 
master car builder of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pa- 
cific Railway Company, was elected its first president. 



lor, Secretary. 

Among those who were also interested in the forma- 
tion of the club and were present at its first meetings 
are the names of Allen Cook, H. L. Cooper, Chas. D. 
Ettenger, H. C. Buhoup, Willard A. Smith, C. E. 
Smart, Jacob Jbhann and J. G. Riley. 

As is usual in such organizations its beginning was 
on a small scale, but the organizers were enthusiastic, 
earnest men, devoted to the business of railroading, 
who realized the necessity of an institution where, by 
the exchange of ideas, a better knowledge might be 
had of the safe and economical operation of railways, 
where a means might be taken to bring about uni- 
formity and interchangeability of the different parts of 
cars, and mutual understanding be arrived at for the 
adustment of differences growing out of the inter- 
change and repairs of cars engaged in through traffic. 
The personnel of the club was made up of men inter- 
ested in railroad matters generally, and from a nucleus 
of ten charter members in 1884 it has grown until now 
its membership is nearly twelve hundred, composed of 
men in every department of railway service. 

The roster of its presiding officers includes: B. K. 
Verbryck (1884), C. F. Pierce (1885), W. A. Scott 
(1886), G. W. Rhodes (1887-8), John Hickey (1889), 
J. N. Barr (1890), P. H. Peck (1891), W. H. Lewis 
(1892), Wm. Forsyth (1893), Geo. Gibbs (1894), 
G. L. Potter (1895), A. M. Waitt (1896), F. A. De- 
lano O897), C. A. Schroyer (1898), H. G. Hetzler 
(1899), A - F. Manchester (1900), Prof. W. F. M. 
Goss (1901), F. H. Clark (1902), D. F. Crawford 
(1903). 

The successive secretaries are Wm. Forsyth, Angus 
Sinclair, W. I). Grossman, W. PI. Marshall, C. F. 
Street, F. M. Whyte. 

With such prominent men at the throttle and guided 
by a host of others equally well known, it is but natural 
that the club's influence should become national in 



5* 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 



character. As expressed by President Lewis at our 
World's Fair banquet, on Sept. 19, 1893, "the work of 
the club, its contributions, recommendations and de- 
liberations are conspicuous in the technical literature 
of the clay and in the perfected methods employed on 
our railroads." 

The papers presented . and the discussions thereon, 
since the club's inception, cover practically every detail 
of railway construction and operation, but more par- 
ticularly the locomotive and car. 

Were I asked to- name the most prominent work of 
the club I would reply, the development of the rules of 
interchange. Situated as we are in the greatest rail- 
road center in the country, with roads diverging in 
every direction, the movement of their constantly in- 
creasing traffic through the Chicago, gateway with the 
least congestion possible has ever been a live question. 
To it the Western Railway Club has devoted a great 
deal of attention, with the result that the rules adopted 
for the handling of this traffic have been adopted as 
part of the interchange rules of the Master Car 
Builders' Association. 

The club is the possessor of an up-to-date mechanical 
library (the legacy of Mr. D. L. Barnes) second to 
none in the west, and in order to retain this property 
it became a corporate body in March, 1897. 



Regarding the Handling of Scrap 

COMMUNICATION. 

To the Editor of the Railway Master Mechanic: 

I have read with interest the articles written by Mr. 
J. F. Murphy, general storekeeper of the L. S. & M. S. 
R. R., and Mr. John Burke, general storekeeper of the 
Choctaw, Oklahoma & Gulf R. R., on the handling and 
disposition of railroad scrap, and take pleasure in con- 
tributing this paper, on the subject, as it appears from 
our more westerly point of view. I desire to say in the 
beginning that I entirely approve of this interchange of 
ideas between the stores department of the several rail- 
roads as contributing to a better and more intelligent 
administration of the department. There is no depart- 
ment in the railway organization that can contribute 
more to a satisfactory balance sheet than a store depart- 
ment, well organized and administered, but it has been 
only during the past few years that the great railroads 
of the country have given it the importance it justifies, 
but there seems now to be an awakening to the fact, 
that if supplies are a necessity to the operations of the 
railroads, it is equally necessary that those supplies be 
as carefully surrounded by safeguards, as to their proper 
uses and accounting for, as the revenues of the roads are, 
and what road is there that does not see the importance 
of guarding most rigidly its earnings ? There is a wide 
field for the discussion of the manifold advantages in 
having a stores department of a railroad, but as this. is 
not the fitting time for such a discussion, I will confine 
mv paper wholly to the topic under consideration, viz : 
The proper handling of scrap. 



The Southern Pacific Railroad, Pacific System, which 
I have the honor of serving as general storekeeper, is 
probably affected by conditions which do not operate 
upon roads of the east, in that it is situated on the utter- 
most western rim of the continent, far from the base of 
supplies and manufacturers, and has perforce been 
compelled to be self-reliant, so that much of the scrap 
which eastern roads dispose of by selling, is devoted by 
the Southern Pacific to its own manufactures. This 
company has large shops situated at Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia, employing about four thousand men, and not the 
least important of which is its large foundry and roll- 
ing mills. It manufactures all its iron and brass cast- 
ings (excepting malleable iron), including car and en- 
gine wheels, locomotive and steamboat cylinders, struc- 
tural castings, the most of its bar iron, "I" beams, all 
of its angle bars, track spikes and bolts, much of its 
nuts, and everything, in fact, that is necessary to a rail- 
road, but rails ; therefore, its immense accumulation of 
wrought and cast scrap is used again through its 
foundry and rolling mills by being converted into serv- 
iceable material, so the only scrap the Southern Pacific 
Company sells is such as it cannot use, as cast steel, 
steel rail, steel fire box and boiler plate, very light sheet 
steel and iron. 

Scrap iron rail, angle bars, spikes and bolts are re- 
rolled and worked up into angle bars. Spikes and bolts 
are not considered as No. 1, wrought scrap, which 
scrap — the accumulation from locomotives, cars, build- 
ings and bridges — is devoted wholly to the manufacture 
of the better grades of iron, for like purposes. The 
accumulation of scrap from the various departments is 
turned over to the stores department on the several divis- 
ions, and is then, with the exception of steel rail (and 
some steel rail is utilized in the manufacture of brake 
beams by this company) shipped to Sacramento, where 
it is carefully gone over, in unloading into its proper 
place, and anything serviceable put into the way of again 
being used as such. There is a good deal, doubtless, 
goes into the scrap pile which might, by expending 
labor; be used again, but at the same time, unless your 
facilities for doing this are such as to reduce the cost 
to the minimum, taking the cost of its being converted 
again into serviceable, and practically new material, we 
are not justified in attempting to recover it, but rather 
let it go the course of scrap, and be worked over. Very 
much depends upon the facilities given for the eco- 
nomic handling of scrap, and as our facilities are re- 
stricted, unquestionably much goes into scrap, which 
under more favorable • conditions could be used. I have 
no doubt that a good amount of track spikes, from that 
turned in as scrap could be saved, and be again used 
as such, but as our organization on this road is a new 
one, in the multiplicity of duties incident to effecting an 
organization, we have not had the time to look into the 
matter, but upon a visit I made the Union Pacific Rail- 
road last year I learned that they found it paid to look 
particularly after this point. We endeavor on our dif- 
ferent divisions to have the scrap segregated and kept 
separately in bins provided therefor, and when a carload 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



59 



shall have been accumulated, load and ship it in to Sac- 
ramento; loading so that the cost of unloading may be 
reduced to the minimum, as the different grades have 
to be unloaded at different points, and if care is not 
exercised in its separation, and loading at the initial 
point, much unnecessary expense is incurred in its un- 
loading at its destination. 

Borings must be kept clean and put into barrels, for 
these borings are now (under the able direction of Mr. 
H. J. Small, general superintendent M. P. Dept.) put 
through the foundry cupolas and converted into a good 
grade of pig iron suitable for many purposes, and as 
carefully looked after as any other class of iron, but 
which for many years simply served to fill holes, as no 
use could be made of, and no one would buy it. As 
Mr. Murphy says, most of the responsibility for the 
proper saving of material of all description from cars 
and engines undergoing repairs, or demolition, rests 
with the mechanic or laborer doing the work, for he 
should be sufficiently familiar with the mechanical side 
of it to know whether the material is serviceable or not: 
if serviceable, it should be put aside as such; if scrap, 



into the scrap bin, but it should always be borne in mind 
that such scrap should be in the first place segregated 
and kept so, for every time you rehandle it for the pur- 
pose of segregation, you just that much add to its un- 
necessary cost and resultant expenditure of money in 
labor. These things seem to some, infinitely small, too 
small to be worthy their consideration, but in these days 
of economies it is these little things that make a great 
aggregate, and are indeed worthy the attention of the 
management of the great roads, where the little things 
would be great ones, to roads of lesser magnitude. As 
I said in the beginning of this paper, I entirely endorse 
all Mr. Murphy says, but as I am afraid I am prolonging 
this beyond your patience, I will conclude. 

Much may be said upon the affairs of a store depart- 
ment, and as it is almost a new one to most roads, much 
may be learned by each, from the exprience of the oth- 
ers, and the interchange of ideas, and I shall look for- 
ward with interest to the appearance of other articles in 
your valued journal. Yours truly, 

W. R. Ormsby, 
General Storekeeper , Southern Pacific Co. 



The Proper Location of TelUTale Holes 



£k RECENT criticism suggesting discrepancies in the 
location of tell-tale holes in staybolts, prompts us 
to present the accompanying line drawings illustrating 
the practice followed in drilling staybolts in a division 
shop of one of the prominent western systems. The 
criticism in view would imply that tell-tale holes are 





j /"(._ Centering Thimble 



The Proper Location of Tell-Tale Holes. 



often drilled so hurriedly and that so little care is ob- 
served in their proper location at the centre of the end of 
the bolt that the hole fails to insure immediate indica- 
tion of the presence of a crack in the bolt to which it is 
applied. 

That this careless practice can not be general and that 
the central location of the tell-tale hole is considered es- 
sential is evidenced by the use of the arrangement here 
presented, by means of which each staybblt may be 
drilled quickly and the central location of the hole in- 
sured. The appliances used are simple in application 
and construction. An "L" shaped stand is so construct- 
ed that it may be securely bolted to the table. In the 
vertical side of this stand is a semi-circular groove ma- 
chined to accommodate the bolt. The bolt is maintained 
securely in a vertical position within this groove by a 
clamp which extends through the vertical plate and 
which terminates in a thumb-nut by means of which the 
clamp may be tightened and the bolt drawn securely 
against the plate. When the bolt is securely fastened a 
thimble is placed over the upper end and in the centre of 
this thimble is a hole of such size as to guide the drill to 
the centre of the end of the bolt and insure against the 
drill working away from the centre. This method may 
be followed very rapidly and the accuracy with which 
holes are located is clearly evident. The details of the 
several parts are presented in the engraving. 

In presenting these illustrations we acknowledge the 
courtesy of Mr. J. P. Peach, general foreman of the Ft. 
Madison shops of the Atchison, Topcka and Santa Fe 
Railway. 



6o 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904, 



Committee on Subjects — Master Mechanics' 
Association 

The Committee on Subjects of the American Railway 
Master Mechanics' Association has sent out the follow- 
ing : "The duty of the above-named committee is to rec- 
ommend to the next convention what subjects it believes 
desirable should be discussed by the association during 
the year 1904-5. The committee considers that the mem- 
bers in general should have some voice in the selection 
of these subjects, and therefore requests that you advise 
the chairman of what, in your opinion, should be investi- 
gated under the following heads : 

"1. Committee Work. — The investigation of a great 
many subjects requires that tests and experiments be 
conducted, which can best be done by the co-operation of 
several members, and therefore it is advisable that the 
question be referred to a committee. 

"2. Individual Papers.; — In a great many instances, the 
presentation of a subject through individual members of 
the association is found desirable, because of the writer's 
familiarity with all its details. You probably know mem- 
bers who have made a careful study of some certain 
feature of locomotive or shop work, and the presentation 
of a paper by such member forms an instructive part 
in our program. 

"3. Topical Discussions. — The noon-hour discussions 
have become an interesting part of our conventions. 
Where we have good, live topics, with sharp, snappy and 
to-the-point discussions, allowing each member five min- 
utes to express himself, much valuable information is 
obtained, which otherwise would not be brought out. 

"Please send your replies as promptly as possible to 
Mr. Henry Bartlett (chairman), superintendent motive 
power, Boston & Maine Railroad, Boston, Massachusetts. 
Henry Bartlett, chairman, J. F. Deems and A. W. Gibbs, 
committee." 



Cleveland Style "B-A" Punching Machine, Built 

by the Cleveland Punch & Shear Works 

Company 

The fly wheel and shaft of this machine run continu- 
ously, and by means of an automatic gag which operates 
on the plunger only, the plunger can be stopped at any 
stroke of the machine at the highest point in its travel. 
The gag which is shown on the front of the cover plate 
is very quickly and easily operated by the small lever 
marked "A", which throws out automatically, stopping 
the entire plunger. By this means the punch can be 
operated at a high speed without any shock or jar. . 

The punch holder and die socket are adjustable, and 
the die block of the machine is so designed that all kinds 
of structural shapes, bars, plate, etc., may be punched. 
Shearing tools can be easily substituted for the punching 
attachment. The cast iron base on which the machine 
is mounted may be dispensed with, and the punch 
mounted on a bench. 

The maximum punchng capacity of this machine is 



Ys-'m. hole through ^-in. plate, or y 2 -'m. hole through 
^2-in. plate. Speed about sixty to seventy strokes per 
minute. Frame is of the solid Cleveland type. 

In this machine, the makers have disposed of the clutch 
mechanism, which invariably gives trouble on a high 
speed punch, and have a means of operation which is 




"B-A" Punching Machine. 

quick and sure. This punch is designed for use in small 
boiler shops, blacksmith shops and iron works, where 
a low priced tool is desired. 



A Grant to Purdue University From the Car- 
negie Institution of Washington, D. C. 

At the regular convocation of students and faculty of 
Purdue University, at La Fayette, Indiana, President 
Stone announced that a grant of $5,000 had been made 
by the trustees of the Carnegie Institution to Professor 
W. F. M. Goss to promote research in locomotive testing. 
In making the announcement, President Stone called at- 
tention to the large amount of research work in science, 
in agriculture, and in engineering, which has already 
been accomplished at Purdue, and expressed his apprecia- 
tion of this added evidence of the confidence in Purdue's 
ability to do things well. 

The Carnegie Institution was established and endowed 
by Andrew Carnegie for the purpose of extending aid to 
scientists whenever found in advancing important lines 
of scientific research. At the second annual meeting of 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



61 



the trustees, which was held at Washington, December 
Qth, more than a thousand applicants were considered* 
sixty-six of which received favorable action. Among 
these latter was the Purdue grant. Hitherto, aid has been 
chiefly given to workers in pure science, and generally 
in comparative small amounts. The grant to Purdue is 
probably the most significant gift yet made for work in 
an Applied science. 

Purdue has long been distinguished for its work in 
locomotive testing. In 1890 and 1891, in the process 
of developing an engineering laboratory for the instruc- 
tion of students, a full sized locomotive was mounted 
upon a testing plant as a part of the laboratory equipment 
in such a way as to permit its performance to be accu- 
rately determined. Previous to this time, it had been 
extremely difficult to determine by means of tests on the. 
road either the power or the efficiency of a locomotive, 
or to ascertain the effect upon the factors of minor 
changes in the adjustment of its mechanism. The ad- 
vent of the testing plant solved the problem of locomotive 
testing. By its use the locomotive in operation becomes 
in effect a stationary engine and may be subjected to 
the same scrutiny and surrounded with the same acces- 
sory apparatus. This system of testing locomotives origi- 
nated at Purdue and thus far the Purdue plant has re- 
mained the only one of its kind in the world. Since its 
installation, engineers from many countries have visited 
the university to acquaint themselves with its character. 
At the present time, the Pennsylvania Railroad is install- 
ing in the Transportation Department of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, a plant which is practically a dupli- 
cate of the Purdue plant for use during the exposition. 

The specific purpose of the grant which has been made 
by the Carnegie Institution is to aid in carrying out an 
elaborate study of the value of high steam pressures in 
locomotive service. A few years ago locomotive boilers 
were designed for a pressure of 150 pounds. At the 
present time, 180 or 200 pounds pressure are common, 
and designers are asking the question whether it will 
prove economical to still further extend the limit. In an- 
ficipation of such a study, the boiler of the present experi- 
mental locomotive of Purdue University was designed 
for 250 pounds, and it is in connection with this locomo- 
tive that experiments will be made. 

The recipient of the grant, Professor Goss, the Dean 
of the Schools of Engineering of Purdue University, is 
the originator of the locomotive testing plant and has 
long been identified with the engineering work of Purdue. 



Personals 



Mr. L. E. Hassman has been appointed general fore- 
man of (lie Illinois Central at Carbondale, Til. 

Mr. C. E. Bishop has been appointed road foreman 
of engines of the Chautauqua division of the Pennsyl- 
vania rial road. 

Mr. A. Becker, general master mechanic of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad at New Decatur, has resigned, 



taking effect February 1st, and will reside in Dayton, 
Ohio, where he has business interests. 

The headquarters of Mr. J. W. Records, master me- 
chanic of the Santa Fe Central, have been removed from 
Torrance to Estancia, N. M. 

Mr. O. J. Kelly has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Ohio division of the Baltimore & Ohio, with 
office at Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Mr. W. J. Bingley has been apoointed assistant super- 
intendent of machinery of the Western Maryland, with 
headquarters at Hanover, Pa. 

Mr. W. T. Lambert has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Jonesboro, Lake City & Eastern, with 
headquarters at Jonesboro, Ark. 

Mr. S. A. Hurd has been appointed assistant road 
foreman of engines of the Buffalo and Rochester divis- 
ions of the Pennsylvania railroad. 

Mr. W. L. Calvert has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the first division of the Denver & Rio Grande, 
with headquarters at Burnham, Denver, Colo. 

The office of Mr. Alfred Lovell, assistant superintend- 
ent of motive power of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa 
Fe, has been removed from Topeka to Chicago. 

Mr. A. P. Prendergast, master mechanic of the Balti- 
more & Ohio at Grafton, W. Va., has been transferred 
to Riverside, Baltimore, Md., in a similar capacity. 

Mr. W. G. Wallace has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power and cars of the Duluth, Missabee & 
Northern, with headquarters at Proctor, Minn. ; effective 
on January 1. 

The office of master mechanic on the Duluth & Iron 
Range Railroad was recently abolished, and the office 
of superintendent of motive power created, Mr. H. S. 
Bryan being appointed to the latter position. 

Taking effect February 1st, Mr. H. Swoyer, hereto- 
fore assistant superintendent of machinery of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville R. R., has resigned to become general 
manager of the Rogers Locomotive Works, at Paterson, 

N. J. 

Mr. L. L. Collier has been appointed general foreman 
of machine shops of the Arkansas Southern, with head- 
quarters at Ruston, La. Mr. Collier formerly held a 
similar position with the Southern Railwav at Columbia, 
S. C. 

Mr. J. J. Dowling has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Great Northern at Everett, Wash., to succeed Mr. 
F. J. Clark, who has been appointed master mechanic of 
the Spokane Falls & Northern, with headquarters at 
Spokane, Wash. 

Mr. J. E. Anderson, who resigned about two years 
since as master mechanic of the International in Mon- 
terey, Mex., and engaged in the foundry business in El 
Paso, has given up his business there and returned to 
the service of the International as master mechanic at 
Monclova, Mex. 

Mr. Peter Maher, master mechanic of the Indiana, Illi- 
nois & Iowa Railroad, has been appointed superintend- 
ent of motive power of the Lake Shore & Michigan 
Southern, west of Toledo, and the Indiana, Illinois & 
Iowa, lie is to have charge of the road work, and Mr. 
Cross, master mechanic, will have charge of the shop 
work. 

Mr. W. P. Garabrant, air brake inspector of the Penn- 
sylvania 1\. P., sailed for Europe a few days ago for 



62 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 



the purpose of bringing to this country the De Glehn 
compound constructed especially for the testing plant 
at the St. Louis exposition, and afterwards to be put 
in commission on the Pennsylvania R .R., whe^e oppor- 
tunity will be given for the demonstratinfoots ithm hmb 
tunity will be given for the demonstration of its good 
points in actual competition with the best power built in 
this country. 

There has been a rearrangement of the territory of 
the superintendents of motive power on the entire Bal- 
timore & Ohio system. Mr. E. T. White in the future 
will have charge of the entire main line territory which 
includes the old lines of the Baltimore & Ohio east of 
the Ohio river with the exception of the Wheeling sys- 
tem and the Pittsburg division, with office a\t Balti- 
more, Md., and A. Kearney will have charge of the 
Pittsburg division and the Chicago grand division, while 
Mr. G. A. Schmoll will look after the Wheeling grand 
division, and will have his headquarters at Wheeling, 
W. Va. 

♦ « » ■ 

Friction and Lost Work ik Machinery and Mill Work, by 
Dr. It. H. Thurston, lato director of Sibley College, Cornell 
University. The .seventh and enlarged edition of this work 
contains a considerabe amount of new matter, and something 
in the nature of a summary has been added, bringing it up 
to date. The methods of the author and' the apparatus long 
ago devised by him for the purpose of researches in this direc- 
tion have meantime found constant and fruitful use, both at 
home and abroad. In some instances dealers and makers of 
lubricants have furnished copies of past editions of the book 
to their actual or prospective customers to give them a sound 
knowledge of the principles underlying a good practice and 
of the facts revealed bv the experiments of scientific inves- 
tigators. A new chapter has been added, in the present edi- 
tion, in which the most important of the later researches, so 
far as they have become known to the writer, have been ab- 
stracted. Much new information has also become available 
in relation to the classes of lubricants, old and new, which 
have been found suitable to special uses, and the adaptation 
of its special lubricant to every rubbing part, its load and its 
velocity of rubbing being considered. The rsearches de- 
scribed in the ;idded text relating to the high-speed work of 
electric generators and motors and of the turbine, have 
pculiar interest at this time and must have permanent in- 
fluence upon future designing in this department of mechan- 
ical engineering. The work of Lasche has been summarized 
with exceptional detail. The continuation of the work of the 
earlier investigators and its smooth connection with the later 
researches is exhibited graphically in accompanying engrav- 
ings, and the graphical method is utilized, when practicable, 
in giving clear and realizable presentations of the laws 
underlying the data obtained by experiment. — Published by 
John Wiley & Sons, New York City. Price, $3. 



Notes of the Month 

The Ajax Metal Company, of Philadelphia, Pa., have pur- 
chased the business, plant, good will and fixtures of the late 
Bates Metal Co., of Birmingham, Ala., and will continue the 
metal business in all its branches under the name and title 
of the Ajax Metal Company of the South, Birmingham, Ala. 



Forging and special machinery, punches, shears, etc.. are 
the subjects illustrated and described in a carefully arranged 
catalogue of 110 pages which is being distributed by Wil-' 
liams, White & Company, Moline, 111. Those interested in 
forging work and desirous of observing same of the form 
quickly made by modern machines will do well to procure a 
copy of this catalogue. , 



The Detroit Graphite Manufacturing Company, of Detroit, 
Mich., have issued a handsome booklet regarding their 
"Superior Graphite Paint," telling "WHAT IT IS," "WHAT IT 
DOES," "HOW IT'S MADE," "WHAT IT'S FOR," "WHERE IT 
GOES," etc. The booklet is handsomely illustrated and is 
worth sending for to the company, who will furnish them on 
request. 



Some of the finest work in the way of railway advertising 
matter has just been issued by the passenger department of 
the Frisco System. In a publication under the title of "There 
is Something to See along the Frisco System" are given some 
exceedingly handsome and artistic illustrations of the scenery 
along the line of their road. Judging from the beautiful pic- 
tures in their booklet, there is certainly something to see in 
the country through which runs the lines of the Frisco Sys- 
tem. The passenger department is certainly to be congratu- 
lated on the fine manner in which their literature is being 
published. 



Adreon & Co., of St. Louis, Mo., is a recently organized 
company dealing in railway supplies. The officers are E. L. 
Adreon, Jr., president; E. W. Hodgkins, vice-president; D. R. 
Niederlander, secretary and treasurer. The formation of 
their company is for the sale of general railway supplies and 
equipment and iron and steel. They will be the southwestern 
sales agencies for the following manufacturers: American 
Brake Shoe & Foundry Company, Railway Appliances Com- 
pany, the T. H. Symington Company, Railroad Supply Com- 
pany, American Rolling Mill Corporation, Dressel Railway 
Lamp Works, Paul Dickinson, Diamond State Car Spring 
Company, Universal Oiler Company. 



The Cleveland Twist Drill Company, of Cleveland, 0., have 
just issued a booklet on "Twist Drills, Their Uses and 
Abuses," and in the introduction their aim is told as follows: 
"It is the aim in this little leaflet to present to our friends a 
brief and comprehensive collection of ideas, based on our 
own practice and observation, on the use of twist drills, and 
to assist them in obtaining an increased cutting capacity 
combined with maximum durability and a general satisfactory 
performance. We are aware that this pamphlet contains 
very little that is new or original with us, and trust that ad- 
vanced mechanics and artisans into whose hands it may fall 
will- be fair in their criticisms, bearing in mind that while 
they are familiar with all that it contains, there are a large 
number of users of such tools who have not had the oppor- 
tunity to acquire the needful information, and it is es- 
pecially for this class of workmen that the leaflet is in- 
tended." 



"Dallet Pneumatic Tools" is the title of a pamphlet just 
issued by Thos. C. Dallett Company, York street and Sedgley 
avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. The Dallett Company was estab- 
lished in 1883 and has been engaged in the manufacture of 
pneumatic tools for the past six years. From the establish- 
ment of the company to the present time it has been their 
constant aim and? endeavor that their products should repre- 
sent the highest development that the most skilled labor and 
talent Avere capable of producing. As this has been their 
policy in the past, so it shall be in the future, and no ex- 
pense or pains will be spared to promote the excellence of 
their tools or the kindly feeling now existing between their 
patrons and themselves. Their business has grown far beyond 
their expectations and their success is attributed directly to 
the high standard of their tools and fair treatment of their 
customers. Their facilities for manufacturing are unsur- 
passed and are constantly being increased to meet the con- 
tinually growing demand for their products. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



63 



Fig. 2- 



Ainoug tLe recent sales made by the 
Hicks Locomotive & Car Works are the 
following: One 45-ton locomotive to the 
Wisconsin & Arkansas Lumber C; one 
switch engine to the Pullman Company;' 
one 55-ton engine to the Middle States 
Construction Co.; one 17x24 locomotive 
to the James Mullins Coal Co.; one 40- 
ton locomotive to the Patton & Gibson 
Co., contractors; one 65-ton and two 55- 
ton locomotives and five box cars to C. 
the Des Moines City Ry. Co.; twelve 
dump cars to the Chicago Portland 
Cement Co.; ten tank cars to the Hol- 
landale.Oil Co.; one flat and two box cars 
to the Tremont Lumber Co.; four dump 
cars and one flat to the Western Electric 
Co.; four logging cars for the North- 
western Cooperage & Lumber Co.; four 
barrel cars to the Omaha Cooperage Co.; ten flat cars and one 
tank car to Patton & Gibson Co.; one box ear to the Owen 
Lumber Co.; four flat cars to the Bon Air Coal & Iron Co.; 
ten flat cars to the Carolina & Western R. R. Co.; six box 
cars to the Wichita Valley Railway; four flat cars to the 
Himmelberger Lumber Co.; twelve box cars, three flats, one 
caboose to St. Louis, El Reno & Western Railway; ten box 
cars, twenty cordwood cars to the Valley Railroad; five flat 
cars to W. N. Sharp, contractor^ seven tank cars to the 
United Zinc & Chemical Co.; eight flats to the Kane & Elk 
Railway; two passenger coaches to the Vancouver, West- 
minster & Yukon Ry.; one theatrical car to C. E. Beyerle; 
two flat cars to the Ohio River & Columbus Railway; one flat 
to the Electric Construction Co., Cleveland, 0.; two flats to 
Winona & Warsaw Ry. Co.; two locomotives to Callahan 
Bros. & Katz, contractors; one passenger 
coach to the Illinois Terminal Railway; 
two passenger coaches to the Toledo, St. 
Louis & Western Railway; one theatrical 
car to Mrs. Harry Ward; one coach to 
St. Louis & Hannibal Railway; one coach 
to Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railway; 
one dining car to Chas. H. Gates, mgr. 
Gates Tours; one combination car, one 
passenger coach to Northwestern R. R. 
of South Carolina. 



—7Z=?r- 




-Adjustable Pipe Stocks and Dies in Use. 

can be resharpened, and the stocks are made of a variety 
of different lengths for the work required. 

The experience of years in the manufacture of threading 
tools for both bolt and pipe has demonstrated to the manu- 
facturers that a plate made on the principle of the one illus- 
trated, at a moderate price, will be appreciated by the me- 
chanic who is looking for a serviceable tool. 

These plates are made to cut all sizes of pipe from y s to 
2 inches inclusive, and the assortments are made in the most 
convenient way, some of them not only including the stock 
with right hand dies, but left hand dies and taps for each 
size in the different assortments are conveniently arranged 
in the cases to which we have already referred. 

The manufacturers would be pleased to place in the hands 



Improved Bushing Pipe Plates 




Attention is called to the illustration 
given of an improved bushing pipe plate 
which is at present being introduced 
into the market by the well-known 
manufacturers of screw cutting tools, , 

Wells Brothers Company, of Greenfield, 
Mass. 

The manufacturers claim superiority in the tools illus- 
trated, from the fact that the adjustment of the dies is sim- 
plified by doing away with screws and bolts, as are used in 
a great many plates at present in the market. 

Fig. 1 represents the stock used in these plates, the die 
being held in same by bevel both on the die and in the 
stock itself, while the bushings are held in a guide and can 
be changed very readily from one size to another. 

The handles are made of pipe, 'so as to get lightness, and 
at the same time they are of ample length to give leverage 
for the different sizes used in the stock. They are packed 
for shipment in elegantly furnished cases, each stock having 
a compartment for the dies and bushings used in the assort- 
ment for which the box is intended. 

Dies are adjustable to overcome variation in fittings; they 




Fig. 1 — Stock and Rushing Guides. 



of all inquirers a copy of their catalog, giving prices and de- 
scription of the goods. 

Fig. 2 shows stock, complete, in case. 



Reversible Ratchet Wrench 

Greene, Tweed & Co., of New York, have placed on the 
market a very compact wrench and ratchel drill. This 
wrench is particularly well adapted Cor all kinds of work 
on account of being able to apply or remove the nut by a 
continuous motion. The quI can be screwed down any dis- 
tance on account of the bolt passing through a hole in the 
top of the die. The mil is encompassed on ail sides and thus 
cannot slip or Injure the out, Reverse motion is instantan- 
eous by simply turning pawl from rlghl to icfi or vice versa. 



6 4 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 




Reversible Ratchet Wrench. 

The handles are of such size that they take from three to 
five sizes of bolts. However, these same handles can be 
used for drilling by applying a drill head to the handle. 



McCord Journal Box 

One of the chief objections made by mechanical officials to 
the usual designs of patented journal box and lid, is the 
matter of inefficient dust guards, and in the" effort to obviate 
this difficulty a new complete journal box has been placed 
upon the market by McCord & Co., Old Colony building, Chi- 



boss is cast which is ground to a plane surface. Flanges 
extending for about two-thirds of the height of the box and 
%-inch wide are cast on the sides of the box at the rear. 
The dust guard itself consists of a grey iron ring turned to 
fit the dust guard seat of the axle enclosed and carried by a 
malleable iron shell which is held to the back of the box by 
springs encased in the hook lugs overlapping the box flanges. 
The surface of the dust guard ring next the journal box is 
ground to a plane surface. The action of the guard is as 
follows: 

The springs force the malleable iron shell against the grey 
iron ring and the grey iron is in turn forced against the 
ground surface of the boss around the rear opening of the 
box. The springs are strong enough to carry the, entire 
weight of the guard so that no weight rests upon the axle. 
The guard is free to move with the axle in any direction. A 
machined joint connection is therefore obtained between the 
box, the guard and the axle in all positions. 

It will be noticed from the illustrations that the surface 
of the grey iron ring in contact with the malleable shell is 
beveled and that there is a corresponding bevel on the shell. 
It is obvious that the grey iron ring can be made in sections 
if desired and if so made the beveled surfaces of the malle- 
able shell and the grey iron segments coming in contact 
under strong pressure tend to force the segments towards 
the center of the circle and to take up any wear which might 
occur. The advantage of the compensating feature with this 
guard, however, is more or less theoretical, as there is so 
little wear on the solid guard that in service it would prob- 
ably never have to be renewed during the life of the car. 
Tests of this guard in passenger and engine tender service 
have shown a mileage of upwards of 100,000 miles with less 
than 1-64 of an inch wear. The dust guard seat on the axles 
used in this test were turned with a rough cut and the tool 




Fig. 1 — McCord Journal Box With Outside Dust 
Guard. 

cago. This device, which is illustrated in the three accom- 
panying engravings, is understood to give superior protection 
to the journal at the rear of the box as well as the front. 
In its design the attempt to make a dust proof and oil-tight 
joint between a rough casting and a wood or metal guard 
has been, abandoned and the problem solved in the manner 
set forth in the following description: 

The dust guard slot is cut entirely off from the standard 
«ox. Around the opening for the axle in the rear a slight 



Fig. 2 — Sectional View, McCord Journal Box. 



marks were still visible at the last examination, showing no 
wear on the dust guard seat. The mileage so far made dem- 
onstrates that the dust guard will undoubtedly last as long 
as the ordinary freight car. 

Among the advantages claimed for the guard are the fol- 
lowing: It consists of fewer parts than any other dust guard, 
four pieces forming a complete guard. It is composed en- 
tirely of metal and cannot be destroyed by a hot box. It 
raises the oil level at the back of the box as high as the 
center of the journal, amounting to from 3% to 4 inches. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



65 




Fig. 3 — Outside Dust Guard for McCord Journal 

Box. 

The dust guard slot being eliminated the guard cannot be- 
come clogged. If the compensating guard is used there is no 
possibility of dirt interfering with its action. It gives % of 
an inch more clearance between the back of the guard and 
the hub of the wheel than exists in the box with the dust 
guard slot, this additional clearance eliminating hub wear 
on the back of the box. 

The same malleable iron shell is interchangeable for either 
compensating or solid dust guard ring. If it is ever neces- 
sary to apply new wearing rings, they can be made by the 



railroad company or purchased at a cost of about five cents 
per box. On account of the saving in the weight of the box 
proper, the cost of the box complete with this guard is very 
little in excess of the ordinary box with wooden dust guard. 
The McCord box with the outside dust guard has been 
specified on about 5000 cars, among which are 1000 New 
York Central & Hudson River R. R. and 100 Denver, North- 
western & Pacific now being built. 



Automatic Car Ventilator 

The accompanying line drawings show a recent invention 
for car ventilation. The details of the ventilator are plainly 
shown in the drawings. 

When the car is%in motion the air striking the extended 
double wing is deflected, without a particle of smoke, cinders, 
dust, rain or snow, into the forward airway. The slanting- 
louvres in the inner end of the airway project the air to the 
roof of the car, precluding all draft. The action of the air 
on the extended double wing maintains a partial vacuum 
behind it which produces a strong suction through the rear 
airway. When the direction of the car is changed the action 
of the ventilator reverses. The shutter provides perfect con- 
trol of the intake of air, but requires no attention, except 
that in very cold weather it is partly closed. An entire 
change of air in from sixty to ninety secorfds can be made if 
desired, and without draft. The ventilators are installed in 
the deck sash, ten sets being required for an ordinary coach. 
They are made of chilled steel, japanned; and there is no 
possibility of their getting out of order. 

They have been successfully tested on a number of electric 
roads, but our readers will be more especially interested in 
the fact that they have the endorsement of the New York 
Central, have been specified by the Delaware, Lackawanna & 
Western for the new dining cars building for them, and have 
been adopted by the Central Railroad of New Jersey as stand- 
ard on their system. Further information will be furnished 
by the Automatic Car Ventilator Company, 39 Cortlandt St., 
New York City. 





Verf/co/ 3ide-<5eG?iono/ Y/eiv 

Automatic Car Ventilator. 




A/rrroy - front - Open 



| ] 




"1 














V 











Side View 




Top //cry 

Automatic Car Vkntii.a ij»u. 




Fro/// //er/ 



66 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 



Taps and Dies 



The accompanying illustrations represent some of the 
specialties of the Wiley & Russell Manufacturing Company, 
Greenfield, Mass. These screw cutting tools, which they 
first introduced when the "jam plate" was the only thing in 
general use, are now approved and adopted on a large scale. 
The work they do is much better, and it is done with far 
less difficulty than by the old methods. The adjustable tap 
wrenches will be found to be well fitted and serviceable; the 
stocks are drop forged and the dies milled out of the best 
tool steel, so as to grip the squares of the taps evenly and 
firmly. 

Figures 1 and 2 show sets of their regular screw plates 



divided to show the mechanism. The cup-headed screw on 
the left holds the halves firmly together, acting as a hinge, 
while the size is regulated by the wedge-shaped (taper-head) 



Fig. 6 — Hand Taper Tap. 

screw on the right, the whole being damned in the elastic 
stock shown in Fig. 3. 

For cutting close up to a shoulder, use the face side of die 
after starting the thread with the guide side. 

The tap wrenches are made thoroughly strong and dur- 






Fig. 3 — Patent Elastic Stock. 

and dies. There are three tops to each size, taper, plug and 
bottoming, instead of one to a size. 

Fig. 3 illustrates the elastic stock used with all "Green 
River" screw plates. The quality of the "Green River" screw 
plate, both as to material and workmanship, is up to the 
company's standard, and its simplicity and durability, with 
its moderate price, make it particularly attractive. Like the 
"Lightning" plate, it does its work at a single cut. The die 
is adjustable for wear, and to make bolts or nuts fit tightly 
or loosely, as may be desired. The stock used is similar to 
the "Lightning" and the taps the same. 

The principle of the die will be understood by an examina- 
tion of Fig. 4. One of the illustrations of this figure repre- 
sents a die and guide complete; the other a die and guide 



Fig. 4 — Complete Die and Guide. 



steel 



able. The stocks are drop forged, the jaws of tool 
closely fitted, the handles of best bicycle tubing. 

Both handles are firmly fixed, the motion to the jaw being 
given by means of the knurled thumb nut through differen- 
tial screws. 

♦-•-* 

The Porteous Injector 

The important duty of an injector in the operation of a 
boiler and the annoyance consequent upon the failure of 
this appliance render it worthy of the greatest care both 
in its selection and the condition in which it is kept after 
being placed in service. It is necessary that the injector sup- 
plies the requisite amount of water to provide for the 
evaporation within the boiler, that it can be depended upon 




p ia 1— Wiley & Russell Taps and Dies. 





p IG 2 — Wiley & Russell Taps and Dies. 



Fig. s — Adjustable Wrenches. I 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



67 



to supply tills water and with certainty. To do its maximum 
amount of work the injector must be in perfect condition and 
must be kept in perfect condition with all passages free. 

The Porteous injector is one for which its manufacturers 
claim that it is automatic and tnoroughly reliable under 
extreme conditions, while retaining the utmost simplicity of 
construction. When this injector is working and forcing 
the water to the boiler and the current of water is sud- 
denly broken by any cause, such as a sudden jar or jolt, 
the injector will pick up the water and again establish the 
current to the boiler automatically without the least atten- 
tion from the engineer. 

When this device is being applied it is well to bear in 
mind the following suggestions: 

First— All the pipes, valves and fittings must be of the full 




-~^L 



The Porteous Injector. 

size to correspond with th.e size of the injector, except when 
the water must be drawn from a long distance, then the 
ordinary suction pipe should be a size or more larger than 
the injector fittings call for. 

Second — All the joints and connections must be perfectly 
air tight. 

Third— A strainer should be fixed on the end of the water 
supply pipe to prevent the admission to the injector of for- 
eign matter, such as chips, shavings, weeds, etc. 

Fourth— A globe valve and check valve is necessary on the 
steam supply pipe between the boiler and injector. Between 
the injector and the boiler it is also necessary that the 
connections should have as few bends as possible and they 
should invariably be round. 

Fifth— All pipes and connections must be blown out clean. 
This is of vital importance, as dust and pipe cuttings cause 
nine-tenths of the leakage in new valves. 

Sixth— Take steam from the highest point of boiler possible 
and never connect with any steam pipe used for any other 
purposes. 

.Seventh— Repack stem of globe valve, as nine out of ten 
leak. Put the ,«;lobe valve near the injector, so thai it slnils 
against the supply; thai is, so the water comes up under the 
seat. Many people put these on just the reverse. II' water 
supply comes from water pressure of over 25 lbs., we advise 
a smaller valve and water supply pipe than Injector 
couplings; that is, for a one-incli injector use a three-fourths 
inch globe valve and water supply pipe Never use ,1 pipe 
smaller than the injector connections when water supply is 
taken from a lift If more than ten feet, the suction pipe 



should be one or two sizes larger, reducing to injector size as 
near injector as possible, and have the globe valve the same 
size as the large pipe. If you have a long pull in addition 
to a very long lift, a pipe two sizes larger is preferable; 
this pipe must be tight. When forcing water through a 
heater, place a check valve between the heater and the 
injector. 

Eighth— On a lift of over ten feet, a foot valve on the 
lower end of the water supply pipe is a great advantage in 
starting the injector and a great saving in steam. 

Ninth— Place a check valve at least two feet from the in- 
jector if possible, and be sure the valve lifts freely. 

Tenth— A short piece of pipe may be screwed into the 
overflow, to carry off waste. A long piece interferes with 
the vacuum and must not be used on a long lift or draw. 
Place a large piece of pipe under overflow as shown in the 
cut. 

Fleventh— A pet cock or tee with globe valve anywhere 
between the check valve "C" and the injector will help very 
materially in starting on low steam pressure. Leave open 
until the injector is started, then close. This is also con- 
venient for draining discharge pipe in winter. 



New Barrett Geared Ratchet Lever Jack of 30- Ton 
Capacity 

The demand for a quick, positive and durable lifting jack, 
for handling loaded freight cars, heavy passenger and Pull- 
man coaches, etc., has been met by the Duff Manufacturing 
Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., in their new Barrett geared 
ratchet lever jack of 30 tons lifting capacity. 

This jack is designated as the No. 30 Barrett jack, and 
has many features which will commend it to those having 




Barret 30-T0N Geared Ratchet Lever Jack. 



heavy loads to be raised quickly and easily. It is made of 
refined malleable iron and steel throughout in a substantial 
manner, and is operated in the same manner as the well 
known No. 19 Barrett jack. The jack is single acting and 
automatic lowering. 

The lifting bar or rack is of high grade open hearth steel, 
and is raised by a machine cut steel pinion. This pinion is 
integral with a large steel gear having ratchet teeth on its 
eircumference. The gear is rotated by means of a socket 
lexer and pawl, and the retaining pawl together with the 
automatic lowering device is the same as is used in the No 
10 Barrett single acting automatic lowering jack. 

All parts are accessible by removing the shield and gear 
cover, the removal or which does not in any way Impair (ho 
working of the jack. 



68 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 



The direction is controlled by an eccentric at the side of 
the frame. 

The method of rotating the gear by a socket lever and pawl 
requires no special care on the part of the operator, as it 
is not necessary to pull the socket lever out a short distance 
in order to engage the next tooth of the gear. The method 
of operation is simply raising and lowering the socket lever, 
as in the other sizes of Barrett jacks. • 

This new Barrett jack is an improved quick acting jack 
for the rapid handling of heavy loads of any character. It 
has the simplicity of an ordinary lever jack, the leverage 
being especially compounded to permit ease of operation and 
quick action. The jack has no complicated features and 
canot get out of order. 

This jack displaces the slow cumbersome hydraulic jacks, 
as it lifts rapidly and easily. It is reliable with no intricate 
parts, and is less expensive in first cost and cost of operation. 
There are several important features of this new jack covered 
by patents. 

The Duff Manufacturing Company will make several de- 
signs of this geared ratchet lever jack in sizes to meet all 
heavy lifting purposes. 



stationary, but can be adjusted horizontally to compensate 
for wear of board. 

By this arrangement of sliding boxes and horizontal mo- 
tion, the movable roll advances in lines with the center of 



Automatic Friation Board Lift Drop Hammer 

The pi'incipal improvement in the hummer here illustrated 
consists in a new design of head, or lifter, which is claimed 
to be the simplest and most effective yet offered. The ham- 
mer can be made to strike either a heavy or light blow, at 
the will of the operator; or, by the automatic attachment, a 
succession of heavy blows can be given without raising the 




Fig. 1 — Drop Hammer Head. 

foot. The weight of the ram, the height of the uprights, or 
the distance between them can be varied to suit those in- 
stalling the machine. 

In this new head, or lifter, the brass eccentrics formerly 
used have been discarded, and a forged steel cam shaft has 
been substituted, which is fixed solidly at both ends into the 
head casting, and connected to a wooden rod by a lever forg- 
ing. This straight wooden rod entirely prevents any shock 
being received by the lifter. 

The friction roll shafts are babbitted into sliding boxes. 
The front boxes are connected by links to the steel cam 
shaft, which, when rotated through a small angle, moves the 
front roll in a horizontal direction, to and from the lifting 
board attached to the ram. In use, the rear roll boxes are 




Fig. 2 — Automatic Friction Board Lift Drop 
Hammer. 
the opposite fixed roll, which insures the pressure of each 
roll against the lifting board, being directly opposite. 

Furthermore, in case the friction rolls should not be prop- 
erly adjusted, it is impossible for the rod to fall far enough 
to allow the cam to pass beyond the center, and thereby 
causing the rolls to bind and throw off the belts. 

The rolls are a driven fit to the shafts, and keyed to the 
same. 

The lifting board is fastened in the hammer by means of 




Fig. 3 — Drop Hammer Lifting Frame. 
wedges, which permit the use of straight boards as received 
from planing mill and without further preparation. Further 
information may be obtained from the manufacturers, Mer- 
rill Bros., Brooklyn, N. Y. 



February, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



69 



Railroad Paint Shop 



Edited by 

CHARLES E. COPP j&jS>& 

General Foreman Painter B. (8b M. Ry. 

Official Orsan of the Master Car and Locomotive Painter* 



De-voted to the Interest of 
Master Car and 
Locomotive Painters 

Association. 



M. C. & L. P. A. Portrait Gallery 

Fred W. Bowers. 
Mr. Bowers, who succeeded Mr. Robert McKeon, in charge 
of the Kent, Ohio, paint shop of the Erie, was born at Colum- 
bus, 0., Sept. 21, 1862, and served his apprenticeship as car 
and locomotive painter at the Hocking Valley R. R. shops at 
Columbus; and, after a six years' term of service, he left 
that company and served in the capacity of journeyman for 
the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry., which latter position 
he resigned to accept the foremanship at the Connotton Val- 
ley (now W. & L. E.) shops at Canton, 0., which he retained 
for three years, leaving this road to accept a similar position 




Mr. Fred W. Bowers. 
on the Valley R. R. (now B. & 0.) at Cleveland, 0., and 
stayed there two and one-half years, when he accepted the 
foremanship of the Erie R. R. paint shop at Cleveland, 0., be- 
ing employed there eleven years, when he was transferred 
to the Kent shop to fill the position made vacant by our 
worthy secretary, Robert McKeon, he having resigned October 
1, 1901, and has been located there since. 

He serves as a member on the Board of Education of Kent, 
with Bro. McKeon; also lie was re-elected the 11th inst. to 
serve as president of the Kent Shops and Round House Relief 
Association for the second term. 

Mr. Bowers became ;i member of the M. C. & L. P. A. in 
1889 at the Chicago convention held thai year, rind is a mem- 
ber of the Committee on Informal ion lor the present year. 



The Advisory Committee will meet in Pittsburg, Feb. 20. 
at the Hotel Lincoln. All railway foreman painters who. can 
attend will be welcome.— J. IT. Kahler, Chairman Advisory 
Committee. 



A Visit to Another Convention 

Mr. "Sam" Brown, of the New York & New Haven road, 
and the writer, were invited guests at the convention of the 
Society of Master House Painters and Decorators of Massa- 
chusetts, held at the American House, Boston, January 13-14. 
We were very cordially received, being escorted to the plat- 
form by Secretary Wall and introduced to the president and 
vice-president, and in turn to the assembly, by the president, 
and invited to address them, which we did, Brown first — 
"age before beauty." It really seemed as though we had 
awakened from sleep and dreams to one of our own conven- 
tions, as the members were all ablaze in the usual badges. 
They rather discount us in many ways, and from them we 
might learn some things to our advantage and follow suit. 
Though only a state association, and bad winter weather, 
there were 140 members in the hall by actual count, and Mr. 
Edward Hurst Brown, representing the Painter's Magazine 
there, told us that at the National convention, which is to be 
held at Toronto next month, there would doubtless be 195 
members present from Canada alone. We were invited by 
Secretary Wall to give him the addresses of any of our mem- 
bers in that vicinity that he might send them invitations to 
attend. 

The Boston convention had a good program with excellent 
papers on several subjects, that upon "Substitutes for Tur- 
pentine" in particular, which brought forth much discussion, 
in which we were invited to take part, and did so. There is 
no doubt in our mind but that there is much material parad- 
ing under the name of the pure article that would properly 
be labeled "Substitute." We are told that one concern in 
Boston receives 1 and distributes the pure product and that 
every barrel is tested on the wharf before it is received. If 
this product is obtained one gets a good article; but it has 
to be paid for. It is about 70 cents per gallon— more than 
twice its price of a few years ago. , Now there is much 
hypothecated or sophisticated turpentine, or whatever you 
may call it, that comes from the Keystone state. We wondu- 
if the long-leaf Southern pine abounds in that locality? The 
gentleman who presented the paper tested many substitutes 
and has promised us an analysis of one we are interested in. 
It would certainly be a great boon to the trade and a damper 
on trusts and combines if chemistry could come to us with 
a good substitute for this important article in the paint shop, 
at about half its price. We should divest ourselves of all 
prejudice and look into these things candidly and see if 
something else will not do equally well. We are informed 
that a certain street car system in Massachusetts is using a 
substitute with good success and we may try it ourselves to 
see what it is like. During the Civil War somehow the rail- 
roads North got along without turpentine, because they had 
to. We may have to again— from lack of the product on ac- 
count of the depletion of the forests, if for nothing else. 
There is a book, or rather pamphlet, on this subject, Ilia I 
would interest painters generally, and may be obtained by 
writing one's own Congressman at Washington, no doubt. It 
fs "A New Method of" Turpentine Orcharding," and published 
by the Department of Agriculture. It is "Bureau of Forestry 
Bulletin No. 40," and by Dr. Ohas. TT. Hertz, 1903, illustrated. 

To return to the convention, this society hires a large ban- 
quet hall of the hotel people and divides it up into floor 
snnce for exhibitors of painting materials, who have some 
fine booths, and thus more than $600 Is gathered In to the 



70 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 



good of the society's treasury. In another room is another 
display of the handicraft of members, in graining, marbling, 
etc. Mr. Wall, the secretary, is an expert grainer, having 
received first prizes at two Massachusetts State Mechanics 
Exhibitions, and also at the World's Fair, Chicago, 1893. 

It seems that the M C. &. L. P. A. might copy this last 
feature to good advantage. Supposing cars are plain now, let 
"the boys" show what they can do if called upon, and paint 
some nice scrolls, letters, designs and even pictures, and get 
up a good exhibit, with a tool appliance show also. They 
have extensive exhibits from supply men at Saratoga; why 
not with us on a smaller scale? Many things might be shown 
to good intent and advantage to all concerned. We make 
the suggestion for what it is worth. 

All in all, the convention was a good one and took a large 
room for its meetings. A delegation of ladies came in during 
the business session and remained through— quite a novelty. 
We advise our members to fraternize with these associations 
and conventions when convenient as much may be learned 
from the house painters. No one knows it all. 

The officers have a distinctive, official badge, very hand- 
some, bearing the title of each office on a bar at the top. 
These are a permanent feature and are passed along to others 
as they are elected. What friend of the M. C. & L. P. A. will 
get up three badges for president, vice-president and secre- 
tary, and present them to the association "for the good of 
the order" in the near future? Here's an opportunity. Also, 
there's another— badges for past presidents. The M. C. B. 
Association past presidents received the latter some years 
a S°- _ ^ 

The Essentials of a Modern Railway Paint Shop 

By W. 0. Quest, Master Painter, P. & L. E. R. R. Co. 

The twentieth century is truly a wonderful railway age. 
As seeming betterments we have the merging of the great 
railway financial interests. We have the beneficial influence 
of the modern railway club and technical association, zeal- 
ously fostered by the progressive railway official. We also 
have the especially devoted railway publication, which is the 
many tongued voice and beacon light of that Avorld of inter- 
ested people. We have the palatial million dollar railway 
depot and a worldwide noted, cultured, traveling public, ever 
willing to pay for the best railroad comforts and accommo- 
dations. To cater to this exacting class of pleasure loving 
people, the railway company must ever be on the alert, with 
the newest novelties in the way of the fast locomotive and 
modern passenger equipment. To take care of this vast 
equipment, involves large expenditures of time and money. 

In our favorite journal we read accounts of the great mod- 
ern railway shop plants that are being erected all over the 
country; how the A. B. C. and X. Y. Z. companies are in- 
stalling a group of shops as good as brains can devise and 
money buy, and in a friendly way are vying with each 
other for the supremacy points in completeness. We also 
read the valuable opinions and view the photographed details 
of the specially designed machinery, illustrating the many 
particular fads and kinks of our country's most noted me- 
chanical engineers, also of the recognized railway shop ex- 
perts, a class of men always seeking and working in the 
unexplored territories for progressive knowledge, which, 
when found, is usually imparted to the railway reading world 
in able mechanical papers. 

As a part of these new shop systems comes the advent of 
the modernly proportioned, arranged and equipped car and 
locomotive paint shop, which, in some long neglected locali- 
ties, are hailed as a twentieth century innovation, and as 
such, are creating a great deal of interest among the readers 
of the car painting fraternity. 

The installation of the new era railway paint shop, we 
judge to be synonymous with the coming of the almost won- 



derfully beautiful passenger equipment of today, which, as a 
matter of greatest economy, requires the greatest of care. This 
betterment of rolling stock, which is almost general, seems 
to have evolved a more liberal paint shop policy, especially 
liberal where compared with the almost drastic economy 
measures practiced in the past, which, with few exceptions, 
were to the effect that the paint shop was a good place to 
originate all shop retrenchment, also that some old building 
not fit for other use was good enough to convert into a car 
paint shop. It is a matter of history that there has existed 
a limited class of hard headed, old time shop officials, whose 
policy was such as to make one believe they thought a loco- 
motive or passenger car should be painted like a fence or 
barn, and that a shop with a sky roof was good enough for 
the purpose. Modem times seemingly has obliterated all 
such characters. The conservative man of today is fully 
aware that it takes a dollar to catch a dollar and, as a con- 
sequence, the painting and maintaining of railway equip- 
ment has been stimulated to the extent, that there is a de- 
mand for better paint shops, better materials, better work, 
better facilities and appliances, and, last, but not least, that 
the foreman of painters be also an up-to-date betterment, 
that he may be equal to the demands of modern times and 
conditions. 

The matter of locating a car paint shop is, in our estima- 
tion, one of much moment. It should be so placed as to 
obviate all unnecessary handling of unfinished work, from 
fact that the practice of transferring passenger cars, which 
are undergoing paint repairs, about a shop yard, can be very 
readily attended with bad after results, caused by half dried 
coatings coming in contact with flying smoke-stack water, 
soot, coal and cinder dust, also the greasy, dirty hand of yard 
help, or the knock of the careless, or the touch of the inquis- 
itive fellow always in evidence about large plants, who will, 
regardless of signs, surreptitiously leave his trade-mark in 
ascertaining whether or not the applied coatings of paint 
and varnish are dry enough to be fool proof. 

In grouping the shops, the car building and painting de- 
partments should be as close together as possible, from the 
fact that there is much of the priming and surfacing work 
that can be brought up in building shop, which, if located 
at too great distance, involves the expense of much lost time 
in having men travel back and forth in the many coating 
operations. The location should also be such as to avoid all 
unnecessary vibratory motion, such as the running of heavy 
machinery, or train service, or other concussive elements 
calculated to keep the finer particles of shop dust in circu- 
lation, much to the detriment of clean work, especially the 
clean applied garnish, which is usually much sought for by 
the ambitious foreman, who is delighted when his shop en- 
vironments are such as to permit him to produce that beau- 
tiful interior polished finish, always so critically admired by 
the cultured mind and eye. 

THE ESSENTIAL CAPACITY OF A RAILWAY PAINT SHOP 

would be, in our estimation, a shop large enough to monthly 
accommodate ten per cent of the company's passenger equip- 
ment, as a shop of this capacity would permit the entire 
equipment to remain in service during the busy passenger 
traffic season of mid-summer months, which is a shopping 
system that we have been given to understand affords very 
satisfactory results to railways having somewhat similar 
shopping schedules. In anticipation to the question as to 
what we would do with the car painting force during the 
unemployed months, we would answer by saying that we 
would employ the time and force in rushing the rapidly in- 
creasing caboose and freight equipment through the shops 
and repair yards. Such systematizing of freight car repairs 
would result in having all equipment which is to be repaired 
in good condition for the busy fall- and winter freight traffic. 



January, 1904 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



71 



As viewed from a car painter's standpoint, the chief advan- 
tage of such freight shopping system would be that the best 
of results could be expected from both labor and paint ap- 
plied out of doors in the good drying weather. 

THE NATURAL LIGHT ESSENTIALS OF THE RAILWAY PAINT SHOP, 

should be that of a steady volume of natural light radiated 
into shop, the amount being equal to if not greater than any 
kindred department shop in the group. The light should be 
so distributed as to cast as little shadow reflection as pos- 
sible, also to shed a uniform light > over the entire interior, 
regardless of number of cars standing in shop. A controlled 
sunshine should be invited into the building through an 
ample skylight, and as much side and end wall glass sections 
as would insure at least 60 per cent of glass openings. In 
order to shed a low floor line light, all shop window sills 
should have a line elevation not to exceed thirty-six inches 
above floor line of shop. As a mechanical help to both nat- 
ural and electric light radiation, the paint shop interior 
should be white coated— white paint for the whole interior 
preferred — but, in any event, that the ceiling should invari- 
ably be coated with a good honest white lead paint, used to 
insure against all flaking up and falling down, a trouble that 
inevitably occurs where the water mixed gypsum (sulphate 
of lime) or common whitewash (carbonate of lime) coatings 
are applied on the usual dressed lumber surface of a modern 
shop ceiling, which, we presume, is caused by the alternating 
atmospheric changes in heat, cold and moisture, which is 
said to cause this class of white coating to lime and disin- 
tegrate, especially where used on ceiling. 

The essentials of heating and ventilating a railway paint 
shop according to requirements, should be so mathematically 
adjusted as to conform to interior shop space in such a man- 
ner as to prevent these opposite elements from conflicting 
with shop cleanliness. A controlled volume of circulated air 
should be secured through a series of easily manipulated 
ventilator openings located in the ceiling, or other similar 
mechanical appliance that will insure a fresh air supply, and 
at the same time prevent the generated heat from being car- 
ried away from work line of shop. Without question, all 
heat should be either generated or discharged at a low floor 
line, in order that all moisture resulting from car washing, 
etc., will quickly dry up. Piped dry steam and hot water, 
the re-circulating system of hot air, for heating the car paint 
shop, all have their interested and enthusiastic advocates. 
According to the available practical authority, the installation 
of the re-circulating system of hot air heating and ventilat- . 
ing, the shop should be so constructed as to insure a fifty 
to sixty per cent foul air displacement in a given time, as it 
is claimed that the constant churning over of foul air of a 
paint shop, without taking in at least fifty per cent of fresh 
air hourly from outside, will be productive of bad results in 
the form of both moisture and a poisonous gaseous air, which 
are extremely injurious to both fresh applied paint and var- 
nish and to the health of the men compelled to work under 
such conditions. There is an inevitable law that all heat 
ascends and never descends only when in such volume as to 
entirely displace the pure air, showing conclusively that all 
heat should be generated as near floor line as possible, which 
will, with necessary top ventilation, produce an ideal shop 
atmosphere on an old established law which, when put to 
the test, usually shows that it is the most practical, and not 
the most scientific of heating and ventilating system that is 
wanted in the railway car paint shop. 

As time and labor saving essentials, regardless of first cost, 
the following facility appliances and tools should be installed 
in the railway paint shop. 

First.— That the entire machinery painting department, re- 



gardless of capacity, be equipped with a light, strongly built 
stationary, quick adjustable scaffolding, which is, as a shop 
convenience and labor saving device, hard to equal, espe- 
cially where compared with the old time scaffolding system, 
which includes the old cumbersome antiquated trestle and 
plank. 

Second— That an ample compressed air supply be delivered 
at such shop and yard points as will insure greatest labor 
economy in its manipulation. 

Third.— That the tool equipment includes an up-to-date 
pneumatic atomizing paint machine, which on class work, 
regardless of all craft prejudice and opposition, is one of the 
greatest time and labor saving devices ever introduced into 
the railway car and locomotive paint shop. 

Fourth.— That the tool equipment includes a modern sand- 
blast machine, operated by compressed air, which is a full 
two hundred per cent labor saving investment, especially 
where compared Avith hand labor cost in cleaning the iron 
and steel parts of the locomotive. A labor saving factor 
that can also be relied upon in figuring up the future paint 
maintenance problem of the modern steel car. 

Fifth.— That the railway car painting department be fully 
equipped with a modern glass etching, mirroring and em- 
bossing plant, to economize and better facilitate the mainte- 
nance of the coach lavatory mirror, the acid cut deck light 
and silver embossed gothic; also for the etching of the brass 
sign and for the cutting out of the shop standard zinc plate 
freight car stencil. 

ffhe main essentials of a railway paint shop call for a 
foreman always on the alert in keeping abreast of mod- 
ern times. He should not only be master of his calling, but 
of himself, also have the executive ability to control men 
under his charge, who, as a rule, soon learn that if the wel- 
fare of the shop is to be made a mutual success, they must 
respect the authority of their foreman, held for general re- 
sults—but who are also quick to discover the weak places 
in his character, which if not corrected will soon destroy his 
usefulness as a foreman. To fit the requirements of a gen- 
eral railway paint shop, the foreman should be ever courte- 
ous and never overstep the bounds of reason in his dealing 
with his kindred fellow employees, who, perhaps, through not 
knowing the extent of his material worries, damage some 
unfinished work, which, when done, can never be remedied by 
any amount of growling on part of the foreman. He should 
be ever ready to consult with his superiors on labor and 
material matters, which never should be shrouded in craft 
mystery from the fact that there are no trade secrets that 
will warrant any such arbitrary action. 

As the conclusive essential to paint department's success, 
the official management should see that the foreman's posi- 
tion is the co-equal of all kindred departments. He should 
have full control of his department, hire and dismiss his men 
when such action is warranted. If his efficiency will not war- 
rant the full confidence of superiors as an executive and 
craftsman, another man should be put in his place, but never 
over him while acting as foreman. In all instances the official 
should see that there is no superficial bossing in the paint 
shop by the class of foremen who still cling to the old 
antiquated practice, when the opportunity is afforded, to 
continue this sort of nagging interference. The painter 
should be firmly fixed in his position, which can be done 
without the least curtailment in power of the official, who, 
if up-to-date, knows he is simply transferring the authority 
to where it belongs, thus providing the chief essential— 
namely, the recognized brains which operate the Modern 
Railway Car and Locomotive Paint Shop. 
(To be continued.) 



72 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



February, 1904. 



Notes and Comments 

Mi: Win. E. Dyer, formerly foreman painter for the C. V. 
R. R. at St. Albans, Vt., and later working f or G. W. Lord at 
the Fitchburg shops of the B. & M., went to the Lyndonville, 
Vt. shop of the B. & M., Jan. 25, as foreman painter, condi- 
tioned upon the recovery of Mr. F. C. Steele, who is an in- 
valid with little hope of resuming the position again. 



"What say you, Mr. Foreman, guilty or not guilty V" Our 
associate, "Davy" Little, of Altoona, is foreman of the grand 
jury as well as of the Juniata paint shop. 



A foreman painter in Maine writes: "Speaking about cold 
weather, the 3d, 4th, 5th and 6th of January the thermometer 
stood at 20, 22, 20 and 26 below zero respectively." How's 
that, you thin-skinned Southerners? 



The editor was, Jan. 11th. elected to his fifth term as 
President of the B. & M. R R. Relief Association, which was 
rather a red-letter day in its nineteen years of history, inas- 
much as the President of the road was present and made a 
rattling good speech in its indorsement and announced a 
donation of $5,000 from the road to its reserve fund, with 
more to follow annually. The' Comptroller of the road was 
also present and spoke in its favor. It is a voluntary insti- 
tution under the management of the employes, among whom 
it originated. 



The total output from the paint shops of the Boston & 
Maine was 178 cars of its passenger equipment for the month 
of December. This was only one car less than for the same 
month of preceding year. Of this number 14 were burnt off 
and four resheathed, 141 were cut in. They are still 106 cars 
behind the preceding year for the six months ending Dec. 31. 
This "is largely on account of equipping the balance of its 
cars with M. C. B. couplers in place of the Miller hook during 
the months of October and November. This deficiency will 
likely be made up by the end of the next six months- 
June 30. 



Our associate, John T. McCrackeii, of Wilmington, Del., 
seems to be having more than his share of ill-fortune. Since 
resigning his position as Foreman Painter at the Jackson- 
Sharpe Co. plant he has lost his wife by sudden death, and 
now he has had his paint store burned out which he so 
recently established, Ave are informed. Our sincere sympa- 
thies go out to him. 



The Trunk Line Agreement.— "It is announced that the 
trunk lines have renewed for the coming year their agree- 
ment, first made in 1902. to refrain from issuing passes to 
the officers of other railroads. It is stated that in general 
the agreement has proved satisfactory, although it is ad- 
mitted that there are some exceptions to the rule." We clip 
the above from an exchange and hope that one of those excep- 
tions is railroad convention trips. Still, from the same ex- 
change, we get the following, which shows that the "frost" 
has struck the west as well as the east: "The Pass Agree- 
ment. About seventy railroads have adopted the western pass 
agreement, which will take effect Jan. 1 next, to regulate and 
draw lines closer on the issuance of free transportation. The 
object is to prohibit as far as possible annual and trip passes, 
and special tickets of all kinds." However, when the time 
comes ask' for your transportation to Atlantic City just the 
same; a man doesn't get what he doesn't ask for. 



We clip the following from an Altoona paper concerning 
the discussion of trades unionism at the convention of Master 
House Painters and Decorators recently held there: When 
business was resumed, Delegate A. Yeager, of Wilkesbarre, 
told some yarns apropos of the union differences. The loud- 
est laugh was raised by the narration of the episode of the 
woman who went to the butcher's to buy a calf's head. "Is 
it a union head?" she asked when the meat was exhibited. 
"No ma'am," said the butcher, "wait a minute." He went 
back to the ice house, returning in three minutes with the 
head. "Isn't that the same thing?" asked the woman. "Oh 
no," said the butcher, "it's a union head now— it's had the 
brains taken out." 



In temperature below zero look out for that newly painted 
old tin roof of a car that you had shifted out of a warm 
shop yesterday before it gets away today. When all the signs 
are right, i. e., when the old paint underneath, put on a dozen 
or fifteen years ago, has lost its adhesion, the action of the 
new paint just put on and the sudden chill and contraction 
from a chop at 60 to 70 degrees to an outside temperature 
of zero, or below, is bound to so act on that tin as to throw 
the paint off, if it has lost its grip. We have recently had 
two such cars. But we have the remedy: We whip them 
with a hoop iron beater, with a handle wound on it of cloth, 
as you would beat a carpet, and the old paint flies off of the 
tin like chips. Then the tinsmith looks it over a little with 
solder and we apply the roof paint and no further trouble 
will be had with that car for another dozen or more years. 
But the roof must be whipped while cool — indoors in sum- 
mer and outdoors in winter — or it will not fly off readily. 



Obituary 



The following note, and clipping from an Altoona paper, 
came to us from Assistant Foreman Gearhart, of the P. R. 
R. paint shops at Altoona, and will be read with sadness by 
all, as Mrs. Ball was a well-known attendant at our conven- 
tions. The editor of these columns has enjoyed the hospi- 
tality of her home. Mr. Ball will have the sympathy of a 
wide circle of friends. 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop: It is with sincere sorrow that 
I send you the enclosed notice of the death of the wife of 
our esteemed friend and fellow member, Mr. F. S. Ball. Last 
September she attended the Chicago convention with Mr. 
Ball. Her health at that time was poor, and has been failing 
ever since. 

Yours truly, 

John T. Gearhart. 

Altoona, Jan. 13th. 

MRS. LIZETTA BALL. 

At 3 o'clock Monday morning, January 11, Mrs. Lizetta 
Ball, wife of Foreman Frederick S. Ball, of the car shop paint 
department, died ^it her home, 707 Lexington avenue, of can- 
cer. She had been ailing for some time. Deceased's maiden 
name was Lizetta Greison, and she was born in Philadelphia, 
April 29, 1843. On February 5, 1867, she married Mr. Ball 
and had since resided in the city. She was a member of St. 
Mark's Catholic church, was esteemed in a wide circle of 
friends and besides her husband is survived by four sons- 
Herman, superintendent of motive power of the Lake Shore 
and Michigan Southern railroad, at Cleveland; Frederick. 
Edward and William, all of Altoona. She also leaves one 
brother, Anthony Greison, of Altoona, and two sisters, Mrs. 
F. D. Casanave, and Mrs. Louisa Kime, both of Philadelphia. 



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Bit. 


Bit 


Bit. 


Wood 


8it 


Bit 


Bit 


Bit 


B,f. 


B/t 


Bit- 


Bit. 


Bit 


0/t. 


B/t. 


Bit. 


B/t. 


Bit 


Bit 


Bit 


Bit 


Bit 


Bit- 


Bit 


Bit 


B.t 


Bit 


Tape of Locomotive 


o-e-o 


0-4-0 


0-6-0 


o-6-o 


0-6-c 


o-e-o 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


-6-d 


O-6-O 


O-.6-0 


0-6-0 


O-6-0 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


O-6-O 


O-6-0 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


O-6-O 


0-6-O 


0-6-0 


C-6-0 


0-6-O 


0-6-O 


0-6-0 


0-6-O 


-6-0 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


0-6-c 


O-6-O 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


O-6-0 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


-6-0 


-6-o 


0-6-0 


9-6-0 


0-6-O 


OS -O 


9-C-c 


0-6-C 


0-6-0 


0-6-0 


rear of Construction 


1SSO 


rsso 


IS8I 


/88I 


1882 


I88Z 


1883 


1883 


1884 


1884 


1S8S 


I88S 


/8X& 


1886 


1887 


/8S7 


1388 


/S88 


/889 


1889 


/890 


1390 


1891 


1891 


i89Z 


1892 


1893 


'893 


18 94 


1894 


18 9s 


I81S 


1896 


1896 


/896 


'897 


/8 98 


'3 93 


/899 


1399 


/900 


1900 


190/ 


190/ 


1902 


1902 


/903 


1903 


/9C3 


Tupe of 80 iter 


strgnt 


Sfrght 


Strip 


Waq.Tof, 


Strqtrt 


Waglcp 


Strghf 


v/ag.Top 


Sfrgbf 


rYag.Top 


Sfrght 


vYaglop 


Strdtif 


Sfrght 


Sfrght 


Strdht 


Strgnt 


Sfrgbf 


Be/p. 


Strt/m Strg/if 


5 trpbt Strqnf Sfrght 


Stmgbf StrtjHf Sfrgnt 


Sfrq/it Sfrght. Strqht 


S from •Sir ■ ant Strati r 


Strg/n 'Strdhi " f %^- 


Strg/11 Strghi sfrght 


Strqitt 


Strgtn Strghi Strght 


'trdht 


Strvhi 


Strqm 


SfrW 


%fP 


•-fryrf 


Type offireboz 


Harrow 


Warrovr 


Wdrroit 


ttorro* 


Harrow 


Harrow 


Harrow 


//arrow 


//arrovt 


Harrow 


Harrow 


Harrow 


//arrow 


Harrow 


Harrovt 


//arrow 


Harrow 


Harrow 


Harrow 


Harrow Harrow 


Z/arron 


Harrow 


Harrow 


Z/arron Harrow Harrow //arrow 


Harrow Harron Harrow i/arron Warrov> Harro* Warrow 


Harrow Warron Harrovt Harron Harrow 


yod-Wii Harron f/qrron Harro» A'orroi 


Varron 


"/arrois 


Harrow 


farrow 


Ti/pe of Engine 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simp/e 


Simp/e 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simp/e 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simp/e 


Simp/e 


Simp/e 


Simp/e 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple Simple 


Simp/e 


Simple 


Simple 


Simp/e 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple 


Simple Simple Simple Simple 


Simple 


D/a. of Driving Wheels -ins. 


46 


46 


46 


48 


46 


48 


30 


48 


SO 


48 


48 


48 


44 i 


49 


49 


SO 


SO 


so 


so 


SO 


so 


SZ 


SO 


S14 


32 


44i 


S2- 


Si ■ 


SO 


SI 


so 


SO 


SI 


so 


s/ 


s/ 


so 


s-o 


so. 


So 


SI 


Si 


S7 


Sf 


sz 


SI 


so 


49 


s/ 


Oia. of Cylinders -ins. 


tS 


/S 


/? 


77 


/6 


17 


17 


/7 


18 


/7 


/s 


17 


/6 


16 


/8 


17 


iS 


19 


18 


19 


/8 


/8 


18 


/?■ 


■ 18 


16 


18 


/8 


18 


18 


1? 


/9 


/8 


18 


/8 


79 


20 


/8 


19 


Zl 


20 


20 


19 


21 


ZO 


20 


19 


19 


20 


Lencft/7 of Stroke -ins. 


22 


Z4 


Z2 


24 


22 


24 


24 


24 


2Z 


24 


22 


24 


24 


24 


24- 


24 


24 


24 


Z4 


Z4 


Z4 


24 


2* 


Z4 


2.4 


24 


24 


Z4 


24 


24 


24 


24 


Z4 


24 


24 


24 


24 


24 


2C 


l-G 


24 


z& 


26 


26 


26 


26 


26 


26 


26 


Volume of Both Cgls. -Ci/.Ef. 


4.49 


4.9 


7.Z/ 


6.3 


S./t 


6-3 


6.3 


6.3 


6.47 


6-3 


4.49 


6.3 


S.S8 


S.S8 


7-OG- 


6-0 


706 


7-87 


7- 06 


7.87 


7.06 


706 


7. 06 


7.87 


7.06 


ST38 


7-oe 


7. 06 


7.06 


■ 7. oe 


7-8 7 


7-87 


7.06 


7.06 


7-06 


7.87 


8.72 


'7.06 


8.33 


10-4 


8.72 


9-44 


8. S3 


10.4 


9-44 


9-44 


8S3 


8- S3 


9-44 


Kind of fa f ye 


Slide 


Slide 


Slide 


Slide 


St/de 


S/ide 


Slide 


Sf/de 


Slide 


s//de 


Slide 


S/ide 


S//de 


Slide 


suae 


Si,de 


s/ide 


Slide 


Slide 


Slide 


S/ide 


S//de 


Slide 


Slide 


3/,3/e 


Slide 


Slide 


S/ide 


suae 


Slide 


Slide 


Slide 


"Slide 


Slide 


Slide 


S//de 


ISiidd 


Slide 


S/ide 


Slide 


Piston 


Slide 


Slide 


Slide 


Pis tori 


5 ii° 


Slide 


Slide 


s//de 


Steam Pressure - /bs. 


135 


IJS 


I3S 


13S 


/38 


133 


/40 


/3S 


/40 


Z3S 


/40 


/3S 


/3S 


IJS 


/40 ' 


/40 


14 O 


fb3 


ies 


/so 


'60 


/so 


/So 


ISO 


Z4S 


I60 


160 


/so 


16 


16o 


I6S 


160 


16 


/so. 


I6s 


/80 


■180 


ISO 


/SO 


I80 


180 


180 


/SO 


180 


ISO 


200 


ISO 


200 


/SO 


Oia. ofSotlerShel/af front 1 ■ tns. 


43% 


46 


sz 


48 


47 


48 


so 


48 


sz 


48 


46 


48 


■j-/ 


3-0 


S3 


S/ 


S3 


32 2 


S6 


s+ 


34 


S3>j 


S6 


' S6 


SZ 


j-a 


S6 


S6 


S4 


sz 


S3' 


6 Of) 


S4 


S6 


S6 


S8 


64 


60 


64 


68 


60 


68 


6Si\ 


67$ 


64$ 


68 


62 


6/i 


68 


Height CtrofSoi/erAboyeffail-EWi. 


i 




























6-2%. 


6-4 


6-S 




7-4i 


6-9<£ 


7-0 


6-7 


6-7 


7-3i 


6-4 


S-lli 


7-0} 






6-6i 


6 -Si 


6-7 




6-4 


£-toi 






'7-Si 


7-Si 




7-IOi 






8-2 






8-4 






Total Wat. of L ocomof/re - lbs. 


7ssoo 


ssooo 


S3S00 


67000 


78000 


6400O 


Ssooo 


6S900 


82800 


63900 


7SOO0 


66OOO 


80000 


7030C 


87OO0 


83O0O 


87ZOO 


840OO 


/0 730C 


/007/O 


9O0OO 


90000 


9OO00 


9 39 20 SSOOO 


8OO00 


970OO 


99000 


9/000 


90O00 


10060C 109000 


94ooo 


90000 


lo/ooo 


'/099S 


120000 103000 //900C I37O80 122000 144930 


/29900 


137300 


139001 I34S30 


I2700OZ38O00 


I3466C 


Wgf. on Drivers - lbs. 


73S0O 


ssooo 


83300 


67000 


78000 


64000 


Ssooo 


63900 


82800 


6S90O 


73-000 


66000 


80000 


7030C 


8 7 OOO 


SSOOO 


87 2 OO 


84oOO 


10 730c 


loo 7IO 


900OO 






939 20 






9 7 OOO 


99OO0 


9/000 


90000 


/OObOV/09000 


94000 


90000 


10/000 1/0993 120000 I0300C 1/9000 


13708c 1 2200c I449S0 


129900/37300 


I3900C I34S30 


I270OL 138000 '3*660 


Humber of Bolter Tubes 


90 


126 


134- 


I40 


/OS 


140 


144 


/40 


/34 


/40 


9o 




I6Z 


/48 


134- 




Z42 


12 Z 


i?o 




167 




/60 


18O 


//S 


163 


194 


200 


180 


18S 


134- 


232 


I8G 


I60 


173 


Z.Z4 


Z70 


I7A 


27/ 


323 


204 


324 


160 


17S 


Z79 


3 7.3 


238 


291 


z88 


Dia. of Boiter Tubes -tns. 


u 


2 


n 


2 


2 4 


Z 


2 


Z 


H 


Z 


z* 


2 


Z 


Z 


zi 


U 


Z 4 


2-i 


Z 


2 


2 


2 i 


2j: 


n-i 


2 i. 


Z 


2 


2 


2. 


z 


3i 


z 


2 


24 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


H 


Z 


1 


2 


2 


2 


1 


2 


Z 


Length of Boi/erTubes-FWns. 


It-t 


10-/0 


/3-J 


IO-O 


/3-Si 


/o-o 


/3-H2 


/O-O 


/i-9i 


/O-O 


/3-6i 


/o -0 


/2-4i 


/3-2i 


13- /% 


13-l0i 


/3-/0i 


14 -9 i 


n'li 


// 


/O -S 


/4-6 


13 -id 


13-9 


/4-2 


12-4 


//-/ 


//-O 


/3-3 


14 


14-4 


II -0 


14 -O 


13-10 


'3-9 


//-6 


/o -//$ 


12 -/0 


/0-6 


1O-S 


14-6 


/0-6 


17-6 


//-/ 


/S-Of /o -s 


12-3'i 


11-3 


/0-7 


length of Tube Di/idedPg D/a. 


S9.I 


&s 


7f.S 


60 


72 


60 


83.7 


60 


7J.S 


60 


77. Z 


60 


74. Z 


79.3 


70 


74 


74 


71 


66'. S 


66 




87 


73-7 


73.3 


68 


74 




66 


79s 


84 


68.8 


6Q 


84 . 


73 7 


22.S 


69 


&S.8 


77 


63 


62.2 


87 


63 


73 


66.S 


90 


62-2 


74.S 


67.S 


63.S 


Tube Heating Surface -Sg.Ft. 


704 


709 


/OSS 


7Z6 


832 


728 


/OS2 


7/96 


/088 


723 




728 












118/ 






9// 












///7 


//47-S 


/24 / 


/2Z/ 


1249.74 1332 .S I3S4.6 


/303 


/24-S 


/339S 


/S40.3 


1/80 


'4 78 


7 7J8.J 


/73X. 


77638/69/ 6 


/S8#.$i2tgS6. / 744.3 


7338 


1708 


/S76 


Firebox Heating Surface Sg. Ft 


68 


S3 


84 


63 


76 


63 


91 


sz 


/00 


63 


74 


63 


7/ 


74- 


39.6 


S/.3 


90 


104.8 


/2 2 


127.4 


ill 


/0 9.3 


93-S 


112 


90 


7/.I 


94 


/3/2 


98 


/08S 


108. 77 


I6S.S 


12 


93 -S 


98-6 


/37. 64 


Z43.7 


132 


/44 


169.7 


/06 


209.1 


/SO -6 


160 


/23.SI /6 9- 7 


1 70 


164 


187 


Total Heating Surface -Sg. Ft 


772 


76Z 


II4Z 


791 


908 


79/ 


//43 


77Z.& 


//88 


79/ 


791 


79i 


//Z/ 


/0 93 


1/24.6 


/086.3 


/2S0 


I28E.8 


/2 2 


/4o6 


1022 


/3SS-3 


'396.3 /SS8S 


/'69 


//I 2.1 


/2// 


/ i 76.7 


/339 


/329.S 


I3SS.S/ 1498 


I474.H396S 


Z343.6 


/476.6i'/684 


1312 


/62 2 


/908 


/838 


/9 7S 


1842. 2P48.88 '2329-Jt 1914 


/708 


/872 


1763 


Grate Area -Sg. Ff. 


12.39 


/0.3 


/S.34 


14-.I 


12.04 


/4./ 


/4./G 


/S. 7 


/6.Z9 


/4./ 


13. 22 


/4./ 


9. 9/ 


/Z.S 


/4./ 


/Z.7 


/4.I 


14.97 


/8.6 


/9.S 


ZO. 1 








/4.9 


9.9 


/9.S 


2 2.6 


/s-zs 


J6 


/7.ZS 


228 


17.1 


/3.9 


14.1 


2/ 


2S.4.3 


22 


22.9 


3I.S7 


27 


33-13 30. 18 


31.8 


28. Z 


3i.64 


23.8 


27.-2 


SS 


Wheel Base. Driving -Ft i Ins. 




7-0 




10 -0 




/O-O 




/o-o 




/O-O 




/O-O 




ZO-O 


9-/0 


ZO -6 


'O-S 


/O-'O 


// -// 


1/-0 


IO-O 


11-3 


/o -6 


10-10 


/0-/0 


9-0 


//■O 


1/-0 


/0-6 


/0-6 


//-0 


11-6 


/p-6 


ZO-6 


/0-6 


it-6 


II- 2 


11 -0 


11-0 


1/-0 


/0-/0 


Z/-0 


13 - O 


II- 


//-3 


//-o 

it-O 


// -0 

1/-0 


/o-9 

10-9 


// -0 
11-0 


Wheel Base. Total -Ft. tins. 

Tractive Effort bi/Formu/o- tbs. 


12300 


7-0 

I3S00 


19700 


10-O 

16300 


14 3 OO 


/O-O 
16300 


I6S00 


/O-O 

/6S00 


/6900 


/O-O 
/6Soo 


I230O 


/O-O 
I6S00 




/O-O 


9-/0 
/3800 


VO-6 
/7000 


iO-8 


/o-/o 

23200 


//-// 
2/SOO 


//-0 


/O-O 


// -3 


■io'-6 


/O-iO 


/O -co 


9-0 

/8800 


1/ -O 
2 0300 


// -O 
19300 


/0 -6 
2/ 100 


to-6 
20700 


t/-0 
Z4300 


11-6 
23SO0 


/0-6 ZO-6 
207OC /9800 


Z3300 


t/-6 
7600C 


29300 


23800 


28700 


33000 


2800031200 


2320034400 


306oo 346002870032SOC3/200 


Tractive Effort buiWatonDr/ve/i 


1887S 


Z3730 


2087S 


16 730 


/9SO0 


I60OO 


2I2SO 


16473 


2 07 00 


/64 7S 


/87S0 


/6J00 




/7S73 
























2 




2 7 7S0 


21S00 


2SIS0 


27 ISO 


23SO0Z2SD0 


IS2S0 


27749 


30000 2S7S6 


2 9730 


74270 


3 OS 00 


36231 


32473 J 4313 


34730 33631 


3/7S0 


34S0c 


334-lS 


*7t on Drivers DiridedbiprocfiveEffori 
Tract ire Effort Divided jbu 

Tora- leatinaSurforr 
total Wot Divided bu 

Total HeafingSarfare 
iota/ HeatinqSurface. 

Divided bci Grate Area 
Total HeaflngSurface Diyided 
-Cm Tube Heating Surface 
Mol Heating Surface Divided bi/ 
firebox Heatira Surface 
TupeHeaftna 5urfa:e Divided bo 
Firebox Hedtlno Surface ^ 

lube HeofingSurface Diyided 

bi/6rate 4reg 
F/febox Heating SurfaceD/videc 

r>u Grate fr/>a 

igtqi HeatinaSurface D/ylde 1 % 

Volume offfot/iCt/ti(i<fers 
fate trea Ovidedbu 

Volume nfBot/iCu/inderf 

o'o ■ i.S. Divided bu vYq'Sie Co/. 
- Steam a f Boiler Pressure 


6./ 3 

/4.6 

97.7 

62.3 

/.09 

/1. 3 

/0.3 

36.8 

S.48 

17/ 

Z. 7S 

II3S 


4.07 
Z7.7 
72./ 
73.9 
Z07 t 
Z4.3 
/J. 3 

eg. 8 
s./4 
/ss 
z./o 

/029\ 1 


4.23 
/7. Z 
73./ 
74.4 
/■0 7 
/3.S 

/z.s 

68.9 

J. 47 
/SB 
Z./2 
/047 


4.06 
20.8 

84.7 

S6 
l.o 8 

tz.s 

l/.S 
S/.6 
-4.46 
/2S 
2.23 
823.9 


S.4S 
/S. 7 
8S.9 
73. 4 
Z09 
/'■ 9 
/0.9 
69./ 
£.3/ 
177 
2.3S 
//■49 


3.87 

Z0.8 
80.9 
SG 
/.OS 

/Z.S 

//.s 
S/.6 
4-46 
1ZS 
2.23 
823.9 


s-./s 

I4-.4 
74.3 
80-7 
1.08 
12. S 

l/.S 

73. S 

6.42 

18/ 

2.24 

//S4 


3.99 
Z/.3 
83. 4 
49./ 
/.07 
/4.8 
/3.8 
4S./ 
3.3/ 
122 
2.49 
SO 3. 7 


4.86 
/4.Z 
69. 7 
72.9 
/.09 
11.8 
iO.8 
66,. 7 
6.13 
/83 
2.s/ 

//64- 


3 99 
20.8 
83.3 
SS 

/■oe 
12. s 

il.S 
S/.6 
4. 43 
/2S 
2. 23 
823.9 


6.o9 

vs. 8 

94.8 

S9.8 

/./O 

/O.G 

9.6 

S4.Z 

s.sp 

/7& 

Z.94 
/ //S 


4- 

zo-S 

S3.4 

S6 

/.OS 

/Z.S 
//.S 
S/6 
4. 46 
Z2S 
2. 23 
8 03.7 


S.06 
/4 
7/. 3 
ZZ3 

Z. 06 
/S. 7 
14.7 
/OS 
7./ 6 
ZOO 
/■ 77 
/3/8 


4.88 
/3./ 
64.3 
S7.4 

Z.07 
14. 7 
/3. 7 

S/.s 

S~.9Z 
Z9S 
2.24 

ZZ8S 


4.62 
/6. 7 
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Supplement to the Railway Master Mechanic 
February, 1904 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



73 



ESatabllaaed 1878. 

LWAY 
MASTER 
MECHANIC 

Bkuce V. Ckandall, Publisher Charles S. Myers, Manager. 
Maham H. Haig, Editor 

Office of Publication : Rooms 501 and 502 The Plymouth Bldg., 

305 Dearborn Street. 

TELEPHONE: HARRISON 3357. 

Eastern Office: Eoom 716, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 

A Monthly Railway Journal. 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 
solicited. 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 
Company. 

Vol. XXVIII. CHICAGO, MARCH, 1904. No. 3'. 

WHILE the steel car is proving satisfactory on a 
number of roads, and its operation and main- 
tenance are largely considered more economical than 
the wooden car, still there are certain existing condi- 
tions which make the wooden car more of a paying in- 
vestment. This is dependent upon the location of the 
manufacturing plant and the territory covered by the 
purchasing road. For if these be in close proximity 
to a good supply of timber, the advantage of location will 
reduce the cost of lumber to a. minimum. The situation 
of a car building establishment in easy reach of good tim- 
ber, reduces the price of timber by eliminating freight 
chatges, and in the event of a road covering a territory 
which permits its orders to be placed with such a build- 
ing plant situated on its line there is no cost of delivery. 
A prominent southern road advises us that these and 
other conditions affecting the wooden car, together with 
the cost and facilities for maintenance, so increase the 
earning capacity of a car of this type, as compared to a 
steel car, as to enable them to operate the wooden car 
20.8 per cent cheaper, when the interest and depreciation 
on the additional capital required for a steel car is taken 
into consideration. 



THE effect upon questions constantly at issue in rail- 
road work is so frequently changed by circum- 
stances and environment that the standpoint from which 
a given subject is viewed is dependent upon different 
conditions ; and criticisms offered are naturally dissimi- 
lar as they aie prompted by the teachings of experience 
which vary more or less according to surroundings. For 
this reason we wish to induce discussions through our 
columns in order to bring out the important features of 
the several sides of questions. Following the presenta- 
tion of a subject we are sometimes told by our visitors 
or correspondents that the practice we advocate is prov- 



ing quite successful and is identical with the lines along 
-which they are working, while others advance objections 
that the same course is not suitable to their conditions 
and others again suggest modifications of different prac- 
tices. 

We like to see experiences exchanged and therefore 
advocate discussions. We feel that an- editorial or com- 
munication which excites discussion is productive of good 
results, as it induces an exchange of views among men 
who have given a subject deep consideration by whose 
experience others may benefit. 

In this connection the railroad clubs might be consist- 
ently reminded of the benefit of critical discussion. We 
know men who have been disappointed at the reception 
of papers presented, not because of any lack of appre- 
ciation of their efforts or of the value of their papers, but 
because of the seeming lack of interest in the subject 
through absence of discussion followed by accepting the 
ceremonious disposition of the paper. When presenting 
a paper it is not uncommon for the author to prepare to 
meet arguments which may arise during the considera- 
tion of the subject matter, by bringing with him data and 
statistics with which to convince those who may take 
exception to his statements or may not agree with theo- 
ries advanced. Furthermore the treatise of a subject not 
in accordance with generally accepted practice, yet based 
on practical demonstration, is valuable in drawing forth 
criticisms and suggestions for further research. 

It is of course impossible to treat all papers alike, yet 
a critical discussion and the presentation of the same sub- 
ject from several vantage points, will seldom fail to bring 
out more than the original paper contained and add mate- 
rially to the information gathered. Mr. Forney once ap- 
propriately compared a railroad club meeting to the action 
of flues upon each other while in a rattler; discussion 
removing the scale, and contact brightening the minds. 



IT is sometimes the way of a master mechanic when 
entering upon new duties, to disregard the methods 
by which his predecessor met existing conditions and 
substitute new directions which served for the exigencies 
to which he had previously been accustomed. The pecu- 
liarities of different roads, and those of the several divi- 
sions of the same road, are so unlike as to render such a 
custom impractical. From the very fact of his having 
observed local conditions and studied results, a man who 
has been in .charge of a division for a number of years is, 
perforce, in a better position to judge its requirements 
than one who is assuming new duties. Therefore, rather 
than disregarding previous practices and discouraging 
attention along certain lines which have been previously 
watched with much care, would it -not be safer to follow 
carefully in the footsteps of one's predecessor and con- 
tinue his methods until we become familiar with existing 
peculiarities, gradually changing instructions which we 
see fail to meet conditions and continue those which are 
proving satisfactory? 

We know of a division on which a master mechanic 
followed fine troubles so closely as to make engine fail- 



74 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



ures from this cause almost unknown, having gradually 
reached this condition in spite of the fact that engine 
failures had been previously a serious trouble. Upon his 
removal by promotion to another position, engine failures 
on his old division suddenly increased and it was found 
that his successor had lost no time in introducing his 
own system of management with but little regard for the 
past practice of this division. 

It is not unusual that the personal influence and close 
attention of a master mechanic, or superintendent of mo- 
tive power, are responsible 
for the success of a given 
division in overcoming 
small defects which when 
permitted to continue cause 
much trouble and expense, 
such as leaky flues, oil 
wastes, steam leaks, frame 
breakages, recording fail- 
ures of parts thus evidenc- 
ing weak points which 
might be improved by re- 
design, etc., etc. 

It is also good policy for 
him in assuming new duties 
and authority over a new 
set of men to show consid- 
eration and respect for the 
custom and method which 
they have in practice. By 
so doing he will win their 
regard and confidence and 
find that they will more- 
readily accept his new 
methods and' conform to 
such changes as he may 
introduce. 




them. The road which is giving the public the very 
best service possible for the money is certainly to be 
commended, but the railroad which spends its money 
in looking after the comfort of its employees is to be 
even more highly commended, and while it is often 
looked at as somewhat of a matter of charity, the fact 
is that it is fast becoming recognized that for the rail- 
road to treat its employees in the best possible man- 
ner is good sound business policy, and the company 
who spends a few thousand dollars in looking after 

the comforts of its men is 
going to be repaid many 



Mr. William H. Bancroft. 

GENERAL MANAGER OF THE UNION PACIFIC R. R. 



THE Chicago, Burling- 
ton & Quincy Rail- 
way' has recently opened a 
new rest house for engi- 
neers and firemen in Chi- 
cago. The company owns 
the ground and building 
and will maintain it solely 
for the benefit of the men who do not live in the city 
and who are waiting for their return trips. The house 
is fitted out with large reading room, bath room, lock- 
ers, dormitory, etc. The company pays all expenses 
of the maintenance and the men make this house their 
ftome when in Chicago. This goes to show that the 
railroads are not only continually offering better serv- 
ice to the public, but are each year taking more 
thought for the comfort of their employees. Many 
of the railroads are contributing either wholly or in 
part toward expenses of various Y. M. C. A. buildings 
and reading rooms along their lines, and some of the 
roads have adopted the pension system, which is such 
a decided advantage to the employees who stay with 



Mr. Bancroft was born at Newberg, O., on October 20, 
1840, and began his railway career in April, 1S56, as tele- 
graph operator and ticket clerk on the Michigan Southern 
Railway. He has been connected with the Erie, Santa Fe, 
M. K. &.T., D. & R. G., and other roads and is one of those 
who has risen from the ranks to the top of ,the ladder. For 
the past seven years he has been vice-president and gen- 
eral manager of the Oregon Short I-iine, which position he 
left a few weeks ago to take up his new duties as general 
manager of the Union Pacific.' 



times over by more effi- 
cient and better service. 



COMMENTING upon 
the adoption of the 
pension system by the At- 
lantic Coast Line as a 
means of providing for 
superannuated employes, 
the Atlanta Constitution 
devotes an extended edi- 
torial to "The Right Kind 
of Paternalism" and com- 
mends the principle in- 
volved as not only humane 
but one which tends to in- 
duce a better understand- 
ing between capital and the 
wage earner. While the 
pension system has been 
already instituted on sev- 
eral railway systems and 
its consideration is there- 
fore no new feature, we 
deem the broad-minded 
view of the "Constitution" 
worthy of repetition and 
here present some of its 
words: "* * * * No 
doubt within a few years 
the corporation pension 
system will have become 
quite a matter-of-fact in- 
stitution in the United 
States. Already the plan is in successful operation in 
several branches of industry, and the result is beneficent 
in more ways than one. Men who believe the system of 
individualism which supports the great material fabric 
of our modern civilization is absolutely essential to con- 
tinued progress, are not blind to the justice of the con- 
tentions of the collectivists in some phases of the social 
question. They recognize the fact that a wage-earner 
who must necessarily exhaust his annual income in the 
proper support and education of his family is in sorry 
shape to meet the burdens of advanced age. * * * * 
WTien capital recognizes the true inwardness of the labor 
question — what is implied in the 'Master and Man' hypo- 
thesis of Tolstoi — there will be an end of class wars and 
strikes. * *'* *" 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



75 



Shop Improvements of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway 

at West Milwaukee 



(Continued from page 47.) 



HE improvements of the machine and erect- 
ing shop comprise the addition of a two- 
story structure 154 ft. in extent. The side 
of the first floor adjacent to the transfer pit 
has been supplied with seven new pits, mak- 
ing a continuation of the pit system existing 
in the old shop and a total number of 26. 
This structure, in common with all the new 
buildings, has brick walls, steel roof truss- 
ing and is roofed with slate. The walls and ' cohimns 
and deck members for the upper floor are exceptionally 
heavy, as the second floor is being equipped with ma- 




and pits, a supply car track also running through this 
central bay which connects with a cross track at the 
center of the shop. Four of the largest machines, driven 
with individual motors, are located in the central bay, 
at the end of the old section of the shop. One of these 
is a new frame slotter, which has been equipped with 
a balance wheel to take the crest of the load otherwise 
thrown on the motor at the moment, of head reversals, 
particularly at the lower point of the stroke. Another 
of these machines is a specially built tire lathe, which is 
the largest that has come to our notice and which Ave 
illustrate herewith. This machine is built in massive 




Fjg. 1 — Flanging Furnace, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 



chine tools of capacity for all but the very heaviest 
character of work. The two rows of columns divide 
both the new and old departments into two bays. The 
erecting pits extend into the center bay, and two vertical 
traveling cranes are thus enabled to serve the machines 



proportions and soon after its installation a number of 
tool men were invited to compete thereon. One result 
of the trial was the substitution of a 20 horse power 
1110(01- for the original one of 15 horse power. We have 
been favored with the results of two of these tests which 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



we reproduce herewith and it is but fair to say that 
the work here shown is being fulfilled as an every-day 
matter. 

Tests of 100-in. Wheel Lathe. 
Cutting- speed i2 l / 2 ft. per minute 



Size of motor. 20 h. p. 220 volts. 

Speed , 600 to 850 R. P. M. 

Kind of tool steel Novo on right ; Zenith on left. 

Cut >2-in. deep ; 5-32-in. feed. 

Total average h. p. required 15.5 

r 




March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



17 



H. p. required to operate lathe ., 3.4 

H. p. required by the two cutting- tools. 12. 1 Work 

Note — Zenith tool in Ai condition after cutting acios-s Speed 

the tire; Novo steel tool in fair condition. Tools. 



Cutting Speed i8>4 ft. Per Minute. 

Pair of 84-in. Blind Tires. 

18^2 ft. per minute. 

Novo Steel on right ; Zenith steel on left. 




f 





1 






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t 

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78 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



Average cut 5-16 in. deep ; 3-16 in. feed. 

Average h. p. required . 16.5 

Maximum h. p. at hard places 22.5 

Zenith tool cut across the tire and was in good condi- 
tion; Novo Tool gave out after cutting i]/ 2 in., 2d tool 
gave out after cutting 4 in. Right tire was finished with 
Zenith tool just as it came from the left hand tire. 
Time of cutting across tire 1 hour and 3 min. 




Fig. 6 — Sheet Rolls Driven by Individual Motor 
C, M. & St. P. Ry. 
The entire upper floor of the new section is equipped 
with machine tools, so that while increasing the erect*- 
ing department by seven pits, the machine shop has re- 
ceived three times such increase in capacity, or even 
more, as the wheel and axle work for engine trucks 
and tenders is being removed from the machine shop 
and -placed in the lower floor of the new addition to the 
tank shop across the transfer table. The upper floor of 
the new addition is served with two elevators, one elec- 
tric located in the center of the floor, and one hydraulic, 
for heavy material, located outside the 
building at the corner, as indicated in 
Fig. 4. The list of new machine tools 
being installed in this shop and in the 
lower floor of the tank shop addition 
mentioned, is as follows: 

1 84 x 84 ins. x 14 ft. Pond cylinder 
planer. 

2 Foote, Burte & Co.'s No. 4 Four 
spindle drill presses. 

1 48 x 48 ins. x 16 ft. Putnam planer. 

1 Three spindle Foote-Burt locomo- 
tive frame drill. 

t Bement & Miles three bar cylinder 
boring machine. 

1 42 ins. Pond steel tire car wheel 
lathe. To be put in tank shop. 

1 25 ins. x 10 ft. Bullard engine 
lathe. 

2 25 ins. x 14 ft, Bullard engine 
lathes. 

1 Whiting Fdy. & Equipt. Co.'s walk- 
ing jib crane. ■ 



2 37-in. Bullard double head vertical boring and turn- 
ing mills. 

1 No. 2 Kearney & Trecker universal milling machine. 

1 No. i^-in. Acme triple head bolt cutter. Talked 
of going in tank shop. 

1 15-in. Swing, 6- ft. bed Putnam back geared lathe. 

2 20-in. Barnes upright drills. 

1 Hendey-Norton 24-in. swing, 10-ft. bed lathe. 

1 24 x 24 ins. x 6 ft. Gray planer. 

2 34-in. Barnes upright drill presses. 
1 42-in. Barnes upright drill press. 
1 42-in. Barnes upright drill. 
1 26-in. Barnes upright drill press. 
1 76-in. Bullard double head vertical 

boring and turning mill. 

1 300-ton Schaffer car wheel press. 
Going in tank shop. 

1 Schumacher & Boye 36-in. swing, 
heavy pattern engine lathe, 14-ft. bed 
with taper attachment. 

I 30-in. 10-ft. bed back geared Schu- 
macher & Boye engine lathe. 

1 3 1 -in. 20-ft. bed back geared Schu- 
macher & Boye engine lathe. 
1 30-in. 12-ft. bed back geared Schumacher & Boye 
engine lathe. 

1 14-in. stroke Niles single head slotter. 

3 18-in. 8- ft. bed Hendey-Norton lathes. 
3 20— in. 8-ft. bed Hendey-Norton lathes. 

2 15-in. swing 6- ft. bed back geared Putnam lathes. 
1 15-in. swing 6- ft. bed back geared Putnam lathe. 
1 No. 2 American turret lathe. 
1 Dresses 5 ft, arm full universal radial drill. 
1 Foote-Burt No. 2 four spindle multiple drill press. 




Fig. 7 — Showing Arrangement of Motor Drive for 
Group of Machine Tools, C., M. & St. P. Ry. 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



79 



1 style "F" Yankee wet tool grinder. 

2 14-in. Gouild & Eberhardt single geared crank 
shapers. 

1 60-in. Bullard boring and turning mill. 

1 30-in. Bullard vertical turret head boring mill. 

2 30 x 30 ins. x 8 ft. single head Putnam planers. 

2 48-in. Safety Emery Wheel Co. wet tool grinders. 
4 No. 5 Safety Emery Wheel Co. wet tool grinders. 
1 Safety Emery Wheel Co. open side surface planer. 
1 26 x 36 ins. x 12 ft. Ingersoll slab milling machine. 

1 No. 1 Harrington four spindle multiple drill. Go- 
ing in boiler shop. 

2 Cincinnati 18-in. double head traverse shapers. 
1 No. 9 Bement & Miles vertical milling machine. 
1 Niles 24-in. single head slotter. 

1 Bement & Miles two spindle rod boring machine. ! 
1 18-in. stroke Bement & Miles single head slotting 
machine. 

3 37-in. Bullard double head vertical boring mills. 
1 42 x 42 ins. x 10 ft. Pond planer. 

I Bement & Miles two spindle horizontal boring 
machine. 

1 2,y 2 -in. Acme double head bolt cutter. 

2 36 x 36 ins. x 10 ft. Pond double head planers. 

In addition to these it is intended to order another 
tool grinder, three bolt centerers, a 16 ins. back geared 
friction head monitor lathe, a 10-ton hydraulic press, 
and a 35 ft. 10- ton hydraulic press. All the machine 
tools are group driven in units of 30 h. p. electric motor 
located overhead. The motors are supplied with excep- 
tionally wide bearings and pulley faces. A few of the 
very largest tools are individually driven with motors of 
a size adapted to the particular machine. Before leav- 
ing the machine shop it may be remarked that driver' 
removals and replacements are carried on by use of an 
electricially operated drop table, and as the stripping is 
done at the same time, lye vats are located in the apart- 
ment which encloses the table. 





mm 




i 


JM ^\ 




*»-> 










\ 








Fig. 9 — Heavy ioo-Incti Wheel Latiii<:, C, M. & St. I'. Rv. 



Fig. 8 — Individual Motor Drive Applied to Plate 
Punch, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 

To the boiler shop end of the building constituting tank 
and boiler shops has been added ,a wing at right angles 
to the main building. This is a high single story struc- 
ture. At this end of the building a new riveting plant 
has been installed in the corner opposite the new addi- 
tion. The old machinery has been rearranged, and a 
number of new machines added. Many of the new ma- 
chines are driven by individual electric motors. A very 
satisfactory furnace installed in the new wing is illus- 
trated herewith by a line drawing. In this illustration 
will be observed a series of openings under the hearth in 
front. These are closed with loose brick and mud nor- 
mally, but when working the sheet the amount of heat 
delivered at any portion of the sheet is controllable by 
the removal of these loose bricks, and thus allowing a 
cooling current of air to play over any portion of the 
sheet. 

The new machinery in this shop in- 
cludes the following : 

1 Scully 40 - in. throat automatic 
punch. 

1 set of Niles 12-ft. bending rolls. 
1 R. D. Wood & Co. 17-ft. gap triple 
riveter. 

1 R. D. Wood & Co. 12 ins. x 15 ft. 
hydraulic accumulator. 

1 duplex steam pump 20 x 4^ x 15 
ins. 

1 R. D. Wood & Co. 10-in. gap, 50- 
ton mud ring riveter. 

T Pawling & Harnischfeger 25-ton 
25-ft. span electric tower crane. 
T No. iT.aird stay bolt cutter. 
1 Wangler rotary bevel shears. 
t Baird 80-in. throat tank riveter. 
t No. 2 Hilles & Jones horizontal 
punch. 

t No. 4 Hilles & Jones single punch. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



1 Foote, Burt & Co. six spindle boiler shop drill. 

1 Scully rotary splitting shears. 

1 36-in. Scully single punch. 

A new two-story structure 80 ft. by 154 ft. has been 
built at the opposite end of this building. The second 
story of this addition is to be used for incidental depart- 
ments and the following machines have been added for 
the copper and tin shop : 



1 


1 II I I£h JuHHhII 

1 ' 1 ' 1 Ri "Li! !■ Stan 




■ 1 






tT 


M| B^ 1«U IOPV l Oft 


; 


-- ». gMpV^KEQB ■§ 






> < 




Fig: 12 — 76-lNCH Boring Mill, Bullard Machine 
Tool Co., in Service at C, M. & St. P. Ry. Shops. 

1 No. 2 P. D. Q. C. pipe threading machine. 

1 No. 2 Hill, Clarke & Co.'s 20-in. improved friction 



Fig. 10 — Bement-Miles 3-Spindle Boring Machine drill press. 

1 Niagara No. 4 sheet iron folder. 



at C, M. & St. P. Ry. Shops. 



y-r-r-h-r- r 




Fig. ii— Plan of Boiler Shop, C, M. & St. P. Ry. 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



1 Niagara No. 644 gap power shears. 

1 D. Saunders' Sons No. 7 standard pipe threading 
and cutting off machine. 

The blacksmith shop has been extended by continuing 
the present single story building 200 ft. The equip- 
ment for this shop is generous, as the work therein in- 
cludes the manufacture of axles, frames, etc., from scrap 
material and rolls small sizes of bar iron for bolts. 
The serving tracks of the old section have been extended 
to serve the new extension. The following include the 
new equipment for this shop : 

1 100-lb. Bradley rubber cushion Helve hammer. 

1 6,000-lb. Chambersburg double frame steam ham- 
mer. 

1 2-in. Ajax bolt heading, upsetting and forging 
machine. 



1 No. 1 y 2 -'m. Higley cold saw. 

1 No. 3 Higley automatic grinder. 

2 Safety Emery Wheel Co. No. 5 wet tool grinders. 
1 1,600-lb. Bement & Miles single frame steam 

hammer. 

1 3,000-lb. Bement & Miles double frame steam 
hammer. 

1 No. 5 Hilles & Jones double punch and shears. 

The transfer pit has been extended to serve the addi- 
tions to the machine and boiler shops. Further contem- 
plated improvements include a three-quarter circle round 
house with modern coal and cinder handling plants, a 
scrap bin 50 by 600 ft., a pattern storage building 60 by 
150 ft. and a frog shop 80 by 200 ft. for the engineering 
department. 



Piping For Hydraulic Machinery 



By Frank B. Kleinans 



THE arrangement of piping is one of the most im- 
portant features of the installation of hydraulic 
machinery. Upon it depends much of the success of the 
machines installed. Where the accumulator and pumping 
plant are located some distance from the machines being 
operated, care should be taken to avoid undue drop in 
pressure resulting from friction of the surface of the 
pipes and elbows. Instances have been known where 
the pipes were of the proper size and located to good 
advantage and yet the valves were too small to> permit 
the free flow of water. The presence of a valve whose 
diameter is too small causes a slow operation of the 
machine, as the flow of water is throttled and its move- 
ment is therefore sluggish resulting in a correspondingly 
slow movement of the press table or riveting machine. 
As an illustration of the movement of hydraulic ma- 
chinery, let us take a case of an hydraulic flanging press 
with a ram 36 inches in diameter. The average stroke 
of a machine of this capacity is 36 inches and we will 
assume it to be supplied by a 2]/ 2 -inch valve. In this 
connection we are first to determine the velocity of the 
flow of water and then obtain the time which will be 
required to move the table through a distance of 36. 
inches. By the usual formula for the velocity of water 
in feet per second flowing within a pipe and neglecting 
friction losses. 

V = V 2 GH where 

V = velocity and 
H = head in feet 

The weight of a foot of water one inch in area is equal 
to .433, hence 
H is equal to P 

where I' = pressure per square inch 



•433 



therefore 

V = V2GP 

•433 



I2.I82VP 



Assuming a pressure of 1,500 pounds per square inch, a 
figure not uncommon in hydraulic work, we will have 
V = 12. 182 V 1500 = 470 feet per second 
From a number of experiments in frictional losses at 
this pressure under the ordinary conditions of piping, the 
actual flow has been found to be less than that given by 
the formula, 70 per cent being taken as the- average 
efficiency. 

The volume of water required for the ram equals the 
velocity of the flow times the internal diameter of the 
pipe times the number of seconds required to fill the 
cylinder. Our figures will therefore give 
1016 x 36 = 470 x 2.4 x N from which 
N = 1016 x 36 

— 33 seconds, and as the actual flow is 

470 x 2.4 
70 per cent of the figure just determined, we have a 
N 
— = 47 seconds, which is the actual time required to 

■7 

move the ram through a stroke of 36 inches. In many 
cases of actual practice this would be slow. Recourse 
should then be made to the use of larger pipes and 
valves. Therefore, by increasing the diameter of the 
supply pipes and valves connected therewith, any re- 
quired speed may be had within reasonable limits. The 
velocity in any given case may be determined in a manner 
similar to that which has just been explained, from 
which the most desirable size of valves may be decided 
upon. 

Machines of the inverted cylinder type have drawback 
cylinders for returning the ram, and in arranging the 
pipe connections to the two cylinders instances have been 
known of very annoying results being caused by dis- 
crepancies in the pipe connections. We here call atten- 
tion to an incident resulting from connecting the draw- 
back cylinder to the main supply pipe by a right-angle T. 
As there is no resistance to the motion of the ram dur- 



82 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



ing a portion of the stroke the water passes into the 
main cylinder very rapidly until the ram reaches a point 
at which it is called upon to exert a certain amount of 
power. During this rapid flow of water through the 
supply pipe into the main cylinder, the force of the flow 
passing the T connection induces the water from the 
drawback cylinder and consequently reduces the pressure 
therein. In the case in view the weight of the ram was 
such as to overcome the reduced pressure in the draw- 
back cylinder and it fell upon the work, where it rested, 
exerting no more pressure than that of its own weight, 
until the main cylinder became entirely filled with water 
and the force of the machine was exerted. The sudden- 
ness and uncertainty of such a performance on the part 
of the ram renders it very annoying in accomplishing 
satisfactory work and to alleviate this difficulty the better 
plan is to run the direct line of pipes to the drawback 
cylinder and arrange a branch to supply the main cylin- 
der. 

It is not uncommon to hear more or less "hammering" 
within the piping connected to- hydraulic machinery. 
This may be attributed invariably to one of two things : 
First, the sudden check of a volume of water flowing at 
high speed, is invariably accompanied by a sudden jerk 
or "thug," and if no provision is made to take care of this 
thrust, the hammering is likely to> occur ; second, as the 
drawback cylinders are proportioned for speed rather 
than for the mere return of the ram, it is usual to have a 
high velocity of water in the discharge pipes when the 
ram reaches. the end of its stroke. It is, of course, sud- 
denly brought to a stop. The water in the discharge 
pipe, however, continues to' flow for a short time, creat- 
ing a vacuum behind it. When this water has lost its 
energy it is forced toward the machine by the pressure 
of the atmosphere, and the vacuum just caused is filled 
with water whose return is at a high velocity and whose 
instant checking will naturally result in a blow. This 
objection can be easily overcome by connecting a vertical 
pipe several feet long and having a cap at its upper end, 
with the discharge pipe, so that the air therein will act as 
a cushion for the water upon its return. 

In view of the repairs which have been necessitated 
on hydraulic accumulators, hoists, etc., by water being 
frozen within the cylinders, ample provision should al- 
ways be made for draining them. To accomplish this 
end holes should be drilled through the wall of the cylin- 
der and tapped to accommodate a plug *4 or H of an inch 
in diameter. These holes, which practically take the place 
of drainage cocks, should be located at the highest and 
lowest points in the cylinder, the former is to admit air, 
while the latter drains the cylinder of water. When 
starting the machine the upper plug should be removed 
until the cylinder is filled with water, thus insuring 
against a cushion within the cylinder. 

With the hydraulic hoist the presence of an air cushion 
causes a vibration of the piston and hook during their 
travel so that a load can not be lifted carefully and with 
perfect safety. By an arrangement such as that just de- 



scribed the air present in the cylinder may be released 
Upon the admission of water and the motion of the hook 
will be perfectly steady. 



Inside Braces for Flat Bottom Gondola Cars 

THE accompanying line drawings illustrate a type 
of inside brace, to be used for staying the sides 
of flat bottom gondola cars. Where such cars are. 
used in transporting logs, it has been observed that 
the workmen are in the habit of breaking or cutting 
out tie rods supporting the sides of the boxes, and as 
a result of this practice the sides sag to such an ex- 
tent as to interfere with obstructions along the road. 
In order to overcome this difficulty, the Chesapeake 
& Ohio railway has designed the braces here repre- 
sented, in order to so brace the sides of the cars as 




Inside 'Braces for Flat Bottom Gondola Cars. 

to hold them rigidly, and at the same time offer no 
obstruction in loading the cars. A glance at the wedge 
shape form in the design would lead one to believe 
that the heavy logs jamming together would have a 
tendency to break the braces in the fillet; however, 
no difficulty has been encountered with this point, and 
the braces are giving good satisfaction. Three braces 
of this type are applied per side on forty-ton cars, and 
two are applied per side on twenty-five or thirty-ton 
capacity. They are of malleable iron. 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



83 



Ventilating System in Blacksmith Shop, Northern Pacific Railway 



ESPECIAL interest attaches to the ventilating 
system recently installed in the blacksmith shop 
of the Brainerd (Minn.) plant of the Northern Pacific 
Railway, because of the difficulty which has been ex- 
perienced in keeping this building free from smoke 
and gases. No trouble existed during the summer 
months when the doors and windows could be kept 
open, but during the extreme cold winters in that sec- 
tion of the country it is necessary to keep the building 
carefully closed to provide for the comfort of the men 
at work; and under such conditions the accumulation 
of gases in this building became a serious objection. 
The shop is equipped with the usual machines and ap- 
pliances for all classes of railway forging, and, being 
located at the principal shops of the company, is oper- 
ated to its full capacity throughout the year. The two 
steam generating scrap furnaces serving two larere 



forges and furnaces, an exhaust fan to draw the 
smoke and gases away from the fires and deliver 
them through a stack beyond the building, a hood 
over each fire to direct the smoke and gases into the 
exhaust ducts, and two systems of pipes, or ducts, 
to conduct the blast and dispose of the exhaust gases. 
The accompanying plan drawing shows the general 
layout of the system, together with the courses of 
tht blast and exhaust ducts. In designing the sys- 
tem it was endeavored to locate the fans as nearly 
central as convenient in the attempt to make the vari- 
ous branches as near the same length as possible. The 
exhaust duct serving the north end of the shop is 60 
by 36 inches, of brick construction near the fan, taper- 
ing to 30 by 36 inches, and beyond the brick work it 
consist of 30-inch tile, which varies in diameter to 
8 inches at the last foree. Branches of 10-inch tile 



bS-ca ■ 7 ~ Jo-~?i7f<£j7 7f?e 



S 



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ETM 



D 



il^sSSBft^i 



\looo/Aft 







wi 


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Mr 


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■■^=6£-- 



ml<_ «■ 







General Layout of Down Draft System, Forges, Etc., in Blacksmith Shop of N. P. Ry. 

at Brainerd, Minn. 



hammers have been the source of the greatest annoy- 
ance. A 9-inch blast pipe supplies each fire, and when 
full pressure has been applied large volumes of smoke 
and gases have previously escaped into the shop. 

After making several attempts to remove the objec- 
tionable gases resulting from the furnaces and forges 
the down draft system was finally installed, and this 
method has given very gratifying results. This sys- 
tem employs a blower to supply blast to the several 



lead from the main duct to the several forges. It 
was found necessary to run the exhaust line for the 
south end of the shop on the outside of the building, 
as it was impossible to pass the duct between the 
foundations of the scrap furnaces and the foundation 
of the wall. It was also equally impossible to pass the 
duct between the foundations of the furnaces and the 
foundations of the hammers shown in the plan near 
the furnaces, on account of the jar from the hammers. 




I 4 1 teFiMdii 



Forges in Blacksmith Shop Equipped with Down 
Draft Hoods, N. P. Ry., Brainerd. Minn. 



Forges Equipped with Down Draft Hoods, Brainerd, 
Minn., Blacksmith Shop, N. P. Ry. 



LWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



The exhaust duct to the south end is of brick construc- 
tion near the fan, 30 by 28 inches, continuing in 30- 
inch tile, being finally reduced in cross section to ac- 
commodate the forges. Each scrap furnace is supplied 
with two 10-inch branch pipes and one 6-inch branch 
pipe to cover the leakage at doors. In arranging the 
course of the ducts it was necessary to so locate 
them as to avoid various sewer, water and gas con- 
nections. On account of its extreme distance from 
the exhaust fan, forge No. 39 was provided with a 
special connection. It was deemed advisable to 




Etevot/on of 5 '/Tounaf Fo/ge 



Connections to Round Forge at Brainerd, Minn., 

Shop of N. P. Ry. 
carry a 9-inch exhaust line up to the forge and 
connect by an 8-inch "Y" to the hood, capping over 
the end of the "Y" with a 9-inch cap, as shown in 
accompanying drawing. This overcomes the addi- 
tional friction on this exhaust line and tends to equal- 
ize the draft for the other forges which are located 
nearer the fan. It will also be noted that on the ex- 
haust line various manholes are distributed through- 
out its length. These holes at all times give access 
to the exhaust duct and allow them to be cleaned of 
cinders which might accumulate therein. 

The main blast duct is of 12-inch tile, tapering as 
it approaches the end of the line. From this branches 



/food 




E /ever// on of 0// Furnace 
Showing Exhaust and Blast Connections to Oil 
Furnace in N. P. Ry. Shops, Brainerd, Minn. 

are led to the various forges and furnaces as shown in 
the drawing, the diameter of pipe to each forge being 

4 inches. 

The forges and furnaces in use before the installa- 
tion of the system were continued in service. The 



square forges are of cast iron construction and the 
round forges of the ordinary steel cylinder type filled 
in with clay. No changes were made thereon, with the 
exception of the addition of the hood shown in the ac- 
companying illustration, and all telescoping hoods 
previously leading to the roof were dispensed with. 

The ventilating system was designed by the Buffalo 
Forge Company, of Buffalo, N. Y., who furnished the 
fans, counter-shaft and the various draft hoods. The 




Square Forge at Brainerd, Minn., Shops of N. P. 
. Ry., Showing Connections for Down 
Draft System. 

hoods furnished to the forges were their standard patented 
construction cast iron, each hood being furnished with 
10-inch exhaust line. The tuyeres on the forges are 
fthe ordinary pipe tuyeres. The hoods for the various 
furnaces are of sheet steel construction and the ele- 
vation of the oil furnaces presented in the accompany- 
ing line drawings shows the details of construction. 
It will be seen that the hood is what might be termed 
a double hood ; the larger outside hood has false plates 
within, which intensify the draft around the outer 
edge of the hood, preventing the smoke and gases 
escaping outside of its confines. 



9"Cop 




Q'^Benc/ 



: -8"Y8ra/7c/? 

E3D 



Exhaust Connect /on for forse Ato. 39 

Connection to Forge Furthest Removed from Fan, 
Brainerd, Minn., Shops, N. P. Ry. 

All the hoods for the forges are identical to the il- 
lustration presented, with the exception of the central 
5-foot round forge No. i. This forge is used as a 
"frame" forge, requiring special height from the top of 
the forge to the underside shank of the hood, and at 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 





Fans and Electric Motor Driving Counter Shaft 
in Brainerd, Minn., Blacksmith Shop, N. P. Ry. 

times it is desired to have the entire height above the 
forge, consequently the hood was arranged to "break" 
and swing at the level of the forge, a damper being 
provided in the exhaust connection which could be 
closed, preventing ashes and coal from falling into the 
exhaust line. Of course the down draft cannot be 
used on the forge when the hood is swung back, but it 
is seldom that this is necessary. 



Forges Equipped with Down Draft Hood, N. P. Ry., 
Brainerd, Minn. 

The blower and exhausters are driven by a two- 
phase motor, power being furnished from the main 
power station. 

The building is heated by a hot air blast system, 
steam being furnished from two locomotive type boil- 
ers and the blast pipes run along the walls near the 
eaves. 

The supply of air for the heating system is drawn 





Scrap Furnace 

Scrap Furnace in Brainerd Blacksmith Shop, N. P. 
Connections to Cover Smoke Escaping from 

The blower furnishing the blast is a No. 11^ 
Buffalo steel pressure blower running at 1,700 revolu- 
tions. The exhaust fan which handles the smoke and 
gases is a no-inch Buffalo steel plate fan having blast 
wheel 78 inches in diameter, wheel overhung from the 
shaft. This fan runs at 425 revolutions. 



Ry., Showing 
Doors. 



Buffalo Down Draft Hood Applied to 
Old Forges in Brainerd, Minn., 
Blacksmith Shop of 
N. P. Ry, 



from the outside, thus materially assisting the ventila- 
tion of the buildings. The entire work of remodeling 
this shop was accomplished without the necessity of shut- 
ting down or stopping work in the shop, the work being 
done under the supervision of the Buffalo Forge Com- 
pany's superintendent. 





86 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



Renewal of the Car Department at the Portsmouth Shops—Sea- 
board Air Line Railway 



HE Seaboard Air Line Railway operates 
2,610.97 miles of road in the South Atlantic 
states and Alabama, owning 308 locomo- 
tives, 277 passenger cars and 10,117 freight 
and miscellaneous cars. " In May last the 
car department of the principal shops, lo- 
cated at Portsmouth, Va., was entirely 
wiped out by fire. The general lay-out of 
the shop is shown by Figure 1, and the 
section burned may.be readily seen by locating an im- 
aginary line between the check house and the office 




cars were placed thereon; by that night forty-four of 
these cars had been repaired and were again placed in 
service. Of course, however, the work done during 
that day constituted light repairs. Besides the old 
coach, shop, mill, storehouse and lumber piles, about forty 
flat cars and several coaches were lost in the fire. 

In order to continue the necessary repair to the car 
equipment, a temporary mill building was erected and 
a number of air motors and air tools, together with 
several wood working machines, were brought in from 
several outlying division plants, and the other roads 




Fig. 1 — General Layout of Shop Plant .of Seaboard Air Line at Portsmouth, Va. 



building of the works. The buildings shown in the 
present view, east of this line, are all new with the 
exception of the paint and varnish storeroom. 

The fire occurred one Friday night, and by the fol- 
lowing Sunday morning the debris was entirely re- 
moved. This work having been pushed very rapidly 
under the personal supervision of Mr. J. M. Barr, first 
vice-president and general manager. Mr. R. P. C. 
Sanderson, superintendent of motive power, was at 
some other point on the line on this occasion, and re- 
turned to Portsmouth by Sunday night, immediately 
assuming control of the reconstruction. Besides de- 
stroying all the buildings above referred to, the heat 
of the fire was so intense that the cross ties in the 
repair yard were burned and the rails badly damaged. 
These tracks were immediately replaced by temporary 
ones, and by 9 o'clock Monday morning forty-nine 



in the vicinity kindly offered their assistance by loan- 
ing light tools, etc. With this temporary equipment 
it was possible to maintain car repairs to some small 
extent. *Work was immediately pushed in preparing 
to renew the permanent buildings and equipment at as 
early a date as possible, and it was necessary to con- 
fine the cost of the new buildings almost to the money 
which was obtained from insurance on the previous 
buildings. Because of the imperative demand for new 
buildings, it was impossible to. take time to prepare 
elaborate plans, and the buildings were, therefore, 
erected from rough pencil drawings, and the work of 
erection continued during July and August. 

In arranging the plans for renewing this depart- 
ment, the entire equipment was made much more ex- 
tensive and convenient. A coach repair and paint 
shop 80 feet by 330 feet, containing sixteen repair 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



^ 




Fig. 2 — Showing Relative Positions of Coach Repair and Paint Shop, Transfer Table and 
Mill Building. The Mill is at Right of Illustration and Coach Repair Shop at Left. 



tracks, was erected. This building is served by a 
transfer table, operating in a pit 70 feet by 330 feet. 
In order to gain space, four tracks were arranged on 
the opposite of the transfer pit, for stripping and trim- 
ming coaches, so that, by the time the coaches are 
placed in the shop they have been thoroughly stripped 
and cleaned, thereby keeping the objectionable and 
dirty work outside of the shop. Connected with the 
repair and paint shop by a board, walk is a planing 
mill arranged in the form of an L, one leg of which 
is 44 feet by 165 feet, and the other 165 feet by 44 
feet, to which is added an engine and boiler room, as 
shown in the plan. The old oil house, which was 
located in the section of the plan given up to car 
work, escaped the fire, and this building still remains 
standing; it is no longer used, however, as an oil 



house, as a new building for this material has been 
erected in the locomotive department, as also shown 
in the plan. The old building is now used for a paint 
and varnish storeroom. The other buildings include 
a tin shop and burnishing room, a lumber shed, a 
blacksmith shop, and a small office for the foreman 
in charge of car repairs. 

The building used for the coach repair and paint 
shop is shown in the accompanying illustration, Fig. 
2. It is of brick construction to the height of the 
bottom of the windows, above which a wooden frame 
is covered by corrugated, galvanized iron. The high 
windows shown provide ample light, adding materially 
to the convenience of working within the building. 
The roof is covered with five-ply tar paper, over which 
is spread a coating of tar and pebbles. The large doors> 




Fig. 3 — Mill Building, Power House Annex Being Shown at Right. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



through which cars are taken into the building, are 
of theKinear rolling steel door type, and at the back 
of the building- there are double swing iron sheathed 
doors, eight feet high, through which trucks are rolled 
to the tracks extending about twenty-five feet beyond 
the building, on which truck repair work is done. In 
the roof of the building is a monitor, extending the 
entire length, with side window lights. In the east 
end of the building a section within the monitor is 
floored over, and constitutes a room in which up- 
holstery work is done. This is connected by a stair- 
way with the first floor, and a small hand elevator for 
delivering material. The flooring of the building is 
cement between the tracks, the cement extending to 
a jack beam on each side of the track and flush with 
the flooring; the space between the rails is left open 
above the cross ties, except at the end of the tracks 



the systematic location of the cars as they are brought 
into the shop ; by this method two or three cars are 
standing between those in which work is being done 
and those which are being varnished. 

The transfer table used in connection with this 
building is a decided improvement over .any facilities 
which were provided in the previous equipment. This 
table was prepared at an exceedingly small cost; the 
entire material of which it was constructed amounting 
to but $1,600. The table is carried on three old arch 
bar trucks, and is operated by two marine engines con- 
nected together. A clutch is so arranged that the shaft 
for propelling the table may be thrown out, and the 
engines connected with a drum for drawing cars to or 
from the table. The engines are operated by air, the 
table carrying a large tank of a capacity sufficient for 
two round trips. Several air connections are provided 




Fig. 4 — Showing Large Doors for Delivering Material to Machines in Mill— Skids for Deliv 
ering Sills and Lumber Piles Are Seen to Left of Illustration. 



near the doors, which is boarded over to provide for 
trucking material up and down the shop. Gutters are 
provided on each side of each track in such a position 
as to be immediately under the eaves of the car, so 
that water is drained towards the transfer pit. The 
building is heated by direct steam system, pipe radi- 
ators being arranged longitudinally between the posts 
and beneath work benches, which are supported by 
the posts, the arrangement being such that a radiator 
is located between each track. Cupboards for the use 
of the workmen are arranged along the ends and one 
side of the building, and these cupboards also include 
a set, which are numbered to correspond to the sev- 
eral working tracks, each large enough to hold the 
brass trimmings, lamps, etc., from one car. 

No separate department has been provided for paint 
work, 1 as i all varnishing, etc., is done within the coach 
repair and paint shop. The only provision made for 
working against dust, while cars are being painted, is 



throughout the length of the pit, so that the tank may 
be supplied at several points in its travel. 

The walls and roof of the mill building are of the 
same construction as that described for the coach re- 
pair and paint shop. In preparing for the foundations 
of this building quicksand was encountered, which 
added material difficulty in its erection. The build- 
ing is supported upon posts, each one of which rests 
upon two wooden piles driven deep into the ground. 
One L of the building is used principally for heavy- 
work, and an interesting feature is the provision of 
large doors for handling timber through the walls of 
the building. Car sills, etc., which require multiple 
operations, are entered at the east end of the building, 
and progress from one machine to another, until they 
are finally finished and delivered at the opposite end. 
In this connection it may- be mentioned that a pair of 
skids, upon each of which operates a small traveling 
carriage, is provided near the lumber pile ; by the use 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



89 




Fig. 



-Store House. 



of this arrangement sills may be delivered opposite the 
large doors, from which they are readily passed on to 
the machines. This arrangement is illustrated by the 
half-tone engraving, figure 4. Those pieces requiring 
less machining are delivered at the same end of the 
building, but through the doors on the other side of 
the floor, and they, too, pass through the building, and 
are delivered at the end of the leg toward the coach 
repair shop. The other leg of the building is given 
over to cabinet work, and the machines used there- 
with. By placing these machines near the cabinet 
shop, each man who has a small amount of machine 
work to do, upon the job in which he is engaged, finds 
the machines easily accessible, and loses but little time 
between the machines and his bench. The simpler ma- 
chines are operated in this connection by the cabinet 
workers, and operators are provided for the more com- 
plicated machines, who assist the cabinet workers in 
the heavier work, so that no time is lost by the men 
standing around while others are doing their work. 
Another feature of this building is that all shafts and 
counter shafts are placed in a basement beneath the 



flooring. These shafts are supported on special roller 
bearings, which reduce the friction to a minimum. The 
friction of the bearings amounts to so little that it is 
possible for two men to start the shafting by pulling 
on the belt, and it may be continued in motion by one 
man. 

Shavings are removed from this building by an air 
conduit system, which delivers them either to an auto- 
matic stoker, or to a storage tank placed near the 
boiler room. The shavings are taken care of system- 
atically. Several connections to the chutes are" placed 
at different points throughout the floor and kept closed 
until needed by small doors. When the heavy ma- 
chines are running these openings are kept closed, and 
shavings from the machines are fed to the boiler room ; 
when but few or none of the machines are running, the 
man employed to keep the floor thoroughly swept, 
sweeps a pile of shavings to each opening, which is in 
turn delivered to the boiler room, as heretofore ex- 
plained for the machines. 

In addition those heretofore mentioned, a large two- 
story building has been constructed for a storehouse. 



mmm, 



-V!' ;V 




Fig. 6 — Coach Repair and Paint Shop — Transfer Table is Shown in Foreground. 



9 o 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



The building is of the same construction as that de- 
scribed for the repair shop and mill. It is shown in 
the accompanying photo engraving, figure 5, its loca- 
tion being shown in the general lay out in figure 1. 
It is 70 feet by 225 feet, and located convenient to the 
main supply track. This department is under the 
supervision of Mr. R. E. Dickinson, General Store 
Keeper of the system. He has given careful attention 
to the equipment of the interior, in arranging racks, 
pigeon holes, etc., for the systematic storage of mate- 
rial, and special attention has been given to ease in 
locating material, and removing same from the several 



bins. At the east end, immediately south of the build- 
ing, are bins for the storage of car supplies, bolts, etc., 
and at the west end are racks with umbrella roofs, for 
the storage of pipe, flues, bar iron, etc. 

Narrow gauge side-tracks are being arranged about 
the plant to facilitate the transportation of material. 

But little change, which is worthy of mention, has 
been made in the locomotive department, although 
minor improvements and changes are constantly going 
on. More important improvements are in view for 
this department, but have not yet been sufficiently de- 
veloped to be commented upon. 



A Pneumatic Hammer for the Boiler Shop 



AMONG the many pneumatic tools designed in 
various shops for local use the tool herewith 
illustrated presents a simple design arranged in the 
Topeka shops of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Rail- 
way, which is noteworthy as a time and labor saver. 
The construction of the tool and the manner in. which 
it is supported while in use are shown in the accom- 
panying line drawing and half-tone engraving. The 
end of the chisel bar extends within the cylinder so as 
to receive the full force of the hammer blow. The 
operation of the hammer may be clearly seen by refer- 
ence to the line drawing, which shows the air connec- 
tions and operating three-way valves. By operating 



the three-way valves alternately the air may be ex- 
hausted to> the atmosphere while air is admitted behind 
the hammer, either to drive it against the chisel bar 
or return it to the opposite end of the cylinder prepara- 
tory to delivering a blow. To withstand the blow of 
the back stroke of the hammer a rubber cushion is 
placed at the end of the cylinder, as shown. 

While there are many uses in the boiler shop to 
which this hammer may be applied, the service for 
which it is. most appropriate is that represented in the 
illustration, where the staybolts are being cut in the 
right water leg of the boiler. 

The tool is operated by two men. One man manipu- 




A Pneumatic Hammer for the Boiler Shop. 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



91 



lates the valves controlling the hammer, while the sec- 
ond man, by means of a crank and drum, tightens the 
tackle which holds the tool against the work. 




A Pneumatic Hammer for the Boiler Shop. 
With this tool all the staybolts of a firebox may be 
cut in one day, while with the old hand method it took 



several days to accomplish the same result. The cylin- 
der is 5 feet long, of 3-inch wrought iron pipe, and the 
hammer weighs about 40 pounds. The plug at the 
forward end is screwed to the end of the cylinder, 
while the plug in the opposite end is welded, as it has 
to withstand and stop the return blow of the hammer. 
This tool is the design of Mr. Alfred Parfitt, fore- 
man boilermaker of the shops above mentioned,' who 
has covered the device by patents. 



Railroad Shop Tools 

By Charles H. Fitch 




N our treatment of the subject of milling ma- 
i chines we anticipate an objection or criticism 
which may be made, namely, that so far as 
railroad shop practice is concerned we scatter 
shot. Much that we have to say will relate 
either to old and outlived conditions, or to 
future and as yet unrealized conditions. But 
the reason for this is inherent in the facts of 
the case. Milling machines are of great utility 
in railroad shops, but their use and development is not 
nearly as characteristic of railroad shops, certainly not of 
railroad repair shops as it is of some shops devoted to 
other lines of manufacture. Yet we do not know of any 
machine-shop subject more interesting and suggestive 
than that of the development and field of work of the 
milling machine. It is more than probable that this field 
will be greatly enlarged in locomotive work. 

In presenting the subject of "Manufactures of Inter- 
changeable Mechanism" in the U. S. Census Report of 
1880 I proceeded by gradations from the small end 




Fig. 1. — Lincoln Milling Machine. 

of the horn in the order, watches, clocks, fire-arms, sew- 
ing machines, locomotives, stationary and marine en- 



gines. In watch factories the amount of stock tc be 
removed was so small, and accuracy so essential, 
that, the single point tool seeming to serve the purposes 
of precision the operations except automatic gear 
cutting were chiefly upon the lathe. But in the large gun, 
pistol and sewing machine factories whole floors were 
occupied with ranks of milling machines, and the type of 
machine used was modeled after that of Geo. S. Lincoln 
& Co., Hartford, Conn., shown in Fig. 1. 

This cut rshows a modern machine by Garvin Machine 
Company, of New York, who build a great va-riety of 
up-to-date plain and universal milling machines. We may 
as well say that the improved models of special and uni- 
versal milling machines produced by American tool build- 
ers are very numerous and embody more meritorious fea- 
tures of design than can be fully considered in a single 
article. The problem which appealed most strongly to 
early designers was to preserve the alignment of the mill 
spindle while adjusting it to different heights. Later de- 
signers made the mill spindle fixed in position and put the 
vertical adjustment in the table as shown in Fig. 2 by the 
Becker-Brainard Company, an excellent design of a type 
of tool made by many builders. Fig. 1 shows the under- 
neath gearing and the stop screws and nuts at the top 
for live spindle adjustment, also the automatic disengage- 
ment of work by causing a worm on a pivoted feed shaft 
to drop out of gear with its worm wheel. 

On heavy locomotive and engine work there was no use 
for these machines, and the planer and lathe were pre- 
ferred tools, the universal milling machines being, how- 
ever, most essential for the equipment of tool rooms. 

The milling machine is almost the alpha and omega of 
shop tools because it was one of the earliest machines in- 
troduced, and on the other hand in its present shape it is 
one of the most advanced of modern tools. Before planers 
were used, when approximately "plane" surfaces were 
made by clipping and filing, and were sometimes left so 
bad that slides had to be worked with heavy leaf springs 
to take up the slack of unevenness, milling machines were 
devised to make narrow plane surfaces, and these were 



9 2 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



fyj ' $ *> ^**r-- 




Fig. 2. — Plain Milling Machine With Non-Adjust- 
able Spindle. 

called slabbing machines. They were used in the gun 
works of Whitney before the close of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and when locomotives began to be built were used 
in making side rods. 

Another use of milling machines was in making forms 
neither plane nor cylindrical such as the fillets of connect- 
ing rods. These shapes appeared to defy the planer and 




Fig. 3. — Boring on A Milling Machine. 

the lathe in the then-existing state of the art, and the 
problem' was solved by rough milling. 

Slabbing machines were suggested by grinding which 



is historically older than lathe work as a stone is earlier 
than a good pointed tool. To rib a steel roll with teeth 
pantagraphic devices for making cutters so that they 
and harden it, or to file the teeth of a gear for cutting 
were early and obvious expedients. Much later came the 
could be sharpened without change of form, and the de- 
velopment of precise milling with which the names of 
Brown and Sharpe must ever be associated. 

Yet what for the practice of the future is more promis- 
ing than the milling tool ? The cutting edges unlike those 
of single tools required for lathes and planers are in use 
only for a moment and then cool through a revolution. 
Mills did rapid work without losing temper before the 
high speed steel was discovered. And with high speed 
steel they afford a possible field for greater rapidity of 
action and heavier work which has scarcely been consid- 
ered or entered upon. Machines contemplating such action 
would have to be designed with framing to resist very 
heavy stresses such as those imposed by punching and 
shearing. 

Such types of machine may be prophesied, but they have 
not yet appeared. No machine tool, however, is of such 
protean form as a milling machine. Wherever a spindle 
can be arranged to turn we can have a milling machine. 
Hence we have milling machines of what may be called 
the lathe type, the planer type and the boring mill type 
so far as framing is concerned. 

For boring the mill becomes a reamer, and the peculiar 
advantages of relief of action and repetition obtained by 
the mill in outside work disappear in boring. In Fig. 3 
is shown a boring mill job with the usual boring bar and 
tool rigged up on a planer converted into a milling ma- 
chine by. the Farwell system of the Adams Company of 
Dubuque, Iowa. This system permits the use of a ma- 
chine either as milling machine or planer by rigging upon 
the planer cross-rail without interference with the planing 
tool heads brackets constituting the live and tail stocks of 
a milling machine. 

Figure 4 shows one of these machines making a broad 
slabbing cut upon pieces in multiple using a long cylindri- 
cal mill with inserted cutters. This does the work in less 
than half the time required in planing, but will be seen to 
require considerable additional equipment and tool-making 
work, a special system in fact which few railroad repair 
shops would be ready to put into operation. Sometime 
with a different system for replacements and interchange- 
ability" of parts they will be ready and the tendency of such 
a system will be to remove machine work from local re- 
pair shops and concentrate it at large division shops. In 
such large shops two purpose machines will not be wanted, 
but in a small shop they serve a valuable purpose. 

The milling machine in its universal or simple form is 
its own tool maker, and in this connection we show in 
Figure 5 the method of grinding inserted tooth face mills 
on the Farwell system. 

The framing of any machine might be utilized for simi- 
lar applications. Separate arrangements for belt drive 
and tightening, and countershafts must be provided. A 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



93 




Fig. 6. — Variable Speed Countershaft. 



Fig. 4. — Slabbing Cut. 



countershaft mechanism is shown in Fig. 6 by which speed 
of table may be varied from o to 6 inches per minute 
either direction. A friction disc gives variable feed to 
worm gearing on the planer countershaft. This is prac- 
tically the same device as commonly used on planer 
frames, Newton cold sawing machines and many other 
machine tools. 




In Figure 7 we show the Ingersoll milling machine 
made at Rockford, 111., and in considerable use in railroad 
as well as in general shops. This is a machine of great 
power and rigidity designed for milling only. As shown 
it is arranged for vertical milling, but it is largely used 
for horizontal milling and slabbing cuts. It is obviously 
of the planer type. 




Fig. 7. — Milling Machine of the Planer Type. 



Fig. 5. — Grinding Cutters on A Milling Machine. 

The mill is a producer of all surfaces, round, flat, and 
curved cither by profile of the mill or by giving a move- 
ment to the work or the mill. Curved links can be milled 
by an attachment which swings the work as it is fed for- 
ward. Even keyways and corners may be worked with 
them, the Newton Company of Philadelphia having devel- 
oped an excellent practical system of keyway cutting, 
using a horizontal in combination with a small vertical 
mill 

The ordinary milling machine for use on comparatively 
small parts is of the pillar or box column type similar to 



94 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 




Fig. 8. — Universal Milling Machine. 

Fig. 2. The variations in design are not now so numer- 
ous as they were in New England in that gun and pistol- 
making period when America was sowing the seeds of the 
interchangeable system in foreign armories, and nearly 
every nation was a purchaser of American arms or Amer- 
ican tools, or both. A tool of this period of the lathe type 
manufactured at Worcester, Mass., had both head and- 
tail stocks with set over motions, a vertical feed for vise 
and work like an inverted radial drill feed, and a dividing 
disc with ratchet gear also applying to the vise. Of such 
a machine we would exclaim : What a weak-legged little 
tool to carry such a millinery of mechanical head-gear! 
No such design would be possible now. A vast improve- 
ment has been made in solidity both of framing, and of 
the bearings of all sliding and swiveling parts. 

Milling speeds range in the neighborhood of 30 to 40 
feet per minute peripheral for steel and cast iron (except 
hard shots) 45 feet for wrought iron, 80 feet for brass, 
depths of cut varying from 1-32 inch in hard steel to 2]/ 2 
inches in soft cast iron. A Newton internally-lubricated 
mill cut y% inch depth 9 inches feed, 50 feet per minute 
peripheral speed, each tooth taking off 1-100 inch chip. 
Wherever arrangements can be made for milling the 
economy of time over single tool cuts as in planing is very 
great. The Ingersoll Company show a practical illustra- 
tion of a rose mill finishing a recess in the periphery of a 
circular casting one-third faster than it would be done on 
a lathe. Such work requires a turning head or table. For 
work in repetition it secures duplication of recess with 



elimination of possible error on the part of 
the workman. 

The prince of milling machines, and the 
piece de resistance of every tool room is the 
universal. It was designed long ago, but has 
been steadily improved in solidity and in minor 
details of convenience. Its essential utility 
becomes ever greater as machine work passes 
from jobbing to manufacturing, what has been 
defined by another as "the revolution in ma- 
chine shop practice." 

About twenty-five years ago (June 21, 1879) 
the Scientific American contained a picture of 
a universal milling machine presented as an 
improved English design, and taken from "En- 
gineering," the well-known London publica- 
tion. It looked familiar to me, and on close 
comparison I found it to be substantially the 
same machine as designed by F. W. Howe, 
superintendent of the Robbins & Lawrence 
shops (now Jones & Lamson shops) of Wind- 
sor, Vermont, at least fifty years ago. It had 
come back like an echo after an exportation 
dating back a quarter of a century. In 1855 
eight of these machines were shipped by 
. Robbins & Lawrence to the Enfield Arm- 
ory and Royal Carriage and Laboratory 
Department of the British Government. 
They had the index head called universal piv- 
oted on slide in the front of the machine 

and the vertical central feed through swivelling table. 

Later the Brown & Sharpe Company of Providence made 

their improved machine a household word in American 

shops. 

The universal built by the R. K. Le Blond Machine 

Tool Company of Cincinnati is shown in Fig. 8, and em- 




Fig. 9. — Universal Head For Spirals. 
bodies quite a number of excellent and ingenious features. 
In point of rigidity for heavy work the jointing of the 
table swivel, and the feed through its center presents the 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



95 



weakest point in the universal machine. This can be 
guarded only by liberal proportions and large carefully 
scraped bearings. The ordinary universal head does not 
provide for cutting spirals over 50 degrees angle but the 
Le Blond Company make a new type of universal head 
shown in Fig. 9 available for use at any angle as the 




three steps usual in such suburban cars the new rolling 
stock will have four steps. Is is thought that this feature 
will not only prove a convenience to those who travel on 
suburban lines, but will also facilitate the rapid loading 
and unloading of cars, thereby saving time. Another in- 
teresting feature of their construction is the introduction 
of acetylene gas for lighting. The officers of the rail- 
road say : "This gas has been found so far superior as 
an illuminant that it is probable all surburban coaches 
of this road will be so equipped in future. For passengers 
desiring to read their papers on the way home good light 
is an important factor, and in deciding upon acetylene gas 
we claim that we are providing the best illuminant avail- 
able. Exhaustive tests have demonstrated the practicabil- 
ity of the gas, and the tanks in which it is carried are 
constructed in such a way that it is impossible for them 
to explode." 



Fig. 10. — Gear Box For Changing Feeds. 

cutter can be swung through 210 degrees. This can be 
applied to plain as well as universal machines. 

Other notable features are the friction-clutched double 
back gears, and the gear box drive. The gear box is com- 
ing to be considered essential to all types of up-to-date 
machine tools requiring numerous and frequent changes 
of feed. It requires less thought in the shop, and so far 
should be considered as a device which does some of the 
machinist's thinking for him. He does not have to figure 
out change gears, and sort and shift loose pieces. 

In details of gear boxes there are as many possible de- 
signs as in fire-arms locks. Imaginatively the require- 
ment is precisely the same as would be involved in shift- 
ing loose gears and bringing them into engagement with 
other gears on other shafts. This can be done by rota- 
tion of arms carrying some of the gears, coupled with 
sliding movements. Many forms of clutch are also used 
in effecting these combinations, and while the translation 
and^ engagement of cones and nests of gears presents an 
interesting rather than a specially difficult problem of 
machine dedsign, the net result is that this thinking once 
for all eliminates the need of solving a gear problem by 
the machinist leaving him to deal simply with the lever 
and pinholes of such a box exterior as shown in Fig. 10 
in which there can be no interference, double-meshing, or 
other possibility of error. The Le Blond is an admirable 
tool, but there is evidence enough in the machine tool 
product of many other American builders that brains are 
being put into new model machines to save time and 

thought in the shop. 

+—+ 

The increased suburban traffic on the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western R. R. has necessitated a larger equip- 
ment of modern passenger coaches, and the first consign- 
ment of ten cars is now being received. Instead of the 



Communication 

To the Editor of the Railway Master Mechanic: 

We have read with interest the article in your last 
number by Mr. Fitch, page 51, on "Railway Shop Tools." 
While same is not very much detailed, yet there are two 
points which might be misunderstood. First, the ma- 
chine illustrated of our make was a double throat, but 
we build them single throat also. Second, on page 55, 
just below figure 9, you state that it is "strange that no 
builder has adopted the box section." We presume that 
this refers to the frame and if so we state that we use 
the box section altogether and have never used anything 
else. 

Cincinnati Punch & Shear Company. 



The Railway Storekeepers 

A gathering of railway storekeepers met at the Audi- 
torium Hotel, in Chicago, on Feb. 16, and organized what 
is to be known as the Railway Store Keepers' Associa- 
tion. It has for its object the "exchange of ideas as to 
the betterment in methods of handling, caring for, and 
use of materials and supplies, in connection with the 
operation of railways, by discussion, investigation, and 
reports of experience of its members, and to provide an 
organization through which the members may agree on 
such joint action as may be required to attain the greatest 
efficiency in -the methods of handling, distributing and 
caring for material." The members elected the following 
as its officers to serve during the year ensuing from the 
first regular annual meeting, which will be held in Chi- 
cago within the next three months : President, J. P. 
Murphy ; first vice-president, N. M. Rice ; second vice- 
president, W. Josselyn ; treasurer, J. M. Taylor ; members 
of executive c mmiltee, J. C. Morris, Theron Higby and 
John Burke. 



9 6 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



Power Required to Drive Machine Tools 



THE extent to which electrical drive is being applied 
to machine tools in railroad shops, renders avail- 
able data regarding the amount of power necessary to 
drive the various machine! tools driven by individual 
motors, very essential to those contemplating new in- 
stallations or making provision for changes from belt' 
drive to individual motor drive. The following data has 
been collected by one of the principal manufacturers of 
electrical apparatus and the figures presented are inter- 
esting and worthy of careful consideration. In general 



it may be said that the size of the motor required to drive 
any tool must be determined largely by the conditions 
under which it is to be operated and while these tables 
are representative of the experience of an individual es- 
tablishment their, significance is readily appreciated. 

In large boring mills it has been found that the max- 
imum power is required of the motor when the tool is 
started from rest to get up to full speed, it being the 
greatest when starting on the point of direct drive. 



BORING MILLS DIRECT DRIVEN. 





Diameter 


Number 




Time in sec- 


Cutting 




Horse power 


Size. 


of 


of 




onds required 


speed in feet 


Material. 


required to 




Work 


Tools 


Inches. 


for 1 revolu- 


per 




drive 




Inches. 


Cutting. • 




tion of- table. 


Minute. 




machine. 


51 inch 


47.0 


2 


i/i6x 1/4 


i/i6x 1/4 


30 


24.6 


C. I. 


2.7 


51 " 


257 


2 


1/32 x 3/8 


1/32 x 3/8 


16 


25.2 


s. 


2.0 


5 feet 


34-o 


2 


i/i6x 1/4 


1/16x3/8 


25 


21.4 


s. 


4.8 


5 " 


28.0 


• I 


i/i6x 1/4 




25 


I7.6 


C. I. 


2.9 


6 " 


8.0 


I 


i/i6x 1/8 




6 


20.9 


C. I. 


2.0 


6 " 


59-o 


2 


1/16x7/16 


1/16x3/8 


■ 48 


19-3' 


s. 


6-5 


6 " 


32.5 


I 


i/i6x 1/4 




3 


I70.0 . 


Copper and 
Mica 


9-6 


6 


57-3 


2 


i/i6x 1/4 


i/i6x 1/2 


33 


27-3 


C. I. 


4-7 


7 " 


60.0 


2 


i/i6x 1/4 


i/i6x 1/4 


30 


31-4 


C. I. 


2.9 


7 '• 


53-o 


2 


i/i6x 1/4 


1/16x3/8 


46- 


18.1 


s. 


6.6 


8 " 


85.5 


2 


1/16x3/16 


i/i6x 1/4 


53 


25-3 


C. I. 


3-o 


8 " 


30.0 


I 


3/64x3/8 




25 


18.8 


s. 


3-3 


8 


40.0 


2 


1/64x1/4 


i/i6x 1/8 


29 


21.7 


s. 


4.4 


8 " " 


84-5 


2 


1/16x3/16 


i/i6x 1/8 


38 


34-9 


C. I. 


3-6 


8 


54-o 


I 


1/32 x 3/8 




24 


35-3 


C. I. 


3-7 


10 " 


70.0 


2 


i/i6x 1/4 


1/16x3/8 


43 


25-5 


C. I. 


3-4 


12 


12.5 


I 


1/32 x 1/32 




11 


17.9 


C. I. 


6-5 


12 


96.0 


2 


1/16x3/8 


1/16x3/8 


47 


32.1 ' 


C. I. 


3-4 


12 


84.0 


2 


i/i6x 1/4 


1/16x3/8 


57 


23.1 


s. 


4-5 


12 " 


123.0 


2 


i/i6x 1/2 


1/16x5/8 


101 


19.1 


s. 


7.2 


10-if " 


73-o 


2 


1/16 x 3/8 


i/i6x 1/4 


32 


35-8 


C. I. 


4-3 


10-16 " 


84.0 


2 


1/32 x 5/8 


1/32 x 5/8 


66 


20.0 


s. 


4.8 


14 " 


98.0 


2 


1/32x3/8 


1/32x3/8 


80 


19.4 


s. 


4.2 


14 " 


21.5 


I 


3/32 x 5/16 




17 


19.9 


C. I. 


2.4 


14-20 " 


172.0 


2 


i/i6x 1/2 


i/i6x 1/4 


114 


23-7 


C. I. 


2.4 


14-20 " 


132.0 


2 


1/16x1/4 • 


1/16x3/8 


103 


20.1 


s. 


5-o 


25 " 


220.0 


2 


1/8 x 3 /8" 


1/8 x 3 /8 


150 


23.0 


C. I. 


4.8 


25 " 


109.0 


2 


1/16x1/4 


i/i6x 1/4 


67 


25-5 


s. 


4.8 



PLANERS. 





Drive. 


Number 

of 

Tools 

cutting. 


Size of cut 
in inches. 


Cutting 
speed in 

feet 

per 
minute. 


Material. 


Ratio of 

cutting 

speed to 

return 

speed. 


H. P. to Drive. 


Size. 


Cutting- 
stroke. 


Revers- 
ing to 
return. 


Return 
stroke. 

~76~ 

4.9 

4.8 

4.4 
4.2 

5-6 
4-9 
6-9 


Revers- 
ing to 
cut. 


36 inch 

60 " 
84 " 

120 " . 

120 " 
120 l " 

120 " 
I20 " 


Belted 

Belted 

Belted 
Direct Driven 
Direct Driven 

Belted 

Belted 

Belted 


2 

2 

2 

I 

1 


3/64XI/2 3/64XI/4 

Heavy rough cut 
Running light 

3/16x1/2 3/16x1/2 
Running light 

3/16x5/16 
Running light 
Running light 


29.I 
18.O 
18.2 
18.O 
18.0 
16.O 
18.O 
18.7 


s. 

C. I. 
C. I. 
C. I. 


i:3 
i:3 
1=3 
i:3 

i:3 
i:3 
i:3 
i:4 . 


7.0 
7.0 ' 
2.4 

1 1 -3 
3-6 
6.6 

3-i 
3-6 


I0.3 
18.3 
197 

23-8 
24.4 
32.6 

34-7 

17.2 


7-i 
9.2 

17.8 
11.9 
11.7 
20.3 
20.0 
5-8 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

SLOTTERS. 



97 



12 inch 


Direct Driven 


1 


i/i6x 1/4 


12.0 


C. I. 


i:i>4 


1.8 


1.6 


1.4 


i-5 


12 " 


Direct Driven 


1 


i/i6x 3/8 


12.5 


C. I. 


1:1^2 


1.0 


1.1 




.8 


12 " 


Direct Driven 


1 


1/32 x 3/8 


13-5 


s. 


1:1/2 


1-7 


1,8 


i-5 


1.6 


18 " 


Direct Driven 


1 


i/i6x 1/4 


10.0 


C. I. 


1:4 


1.2 


2-3 


•7 


•7 


18 " 


Direct Driven 


1 


i/i6x 3/4 


7-25 


M. I. 


1:4 


1.1 


1.1 


•4 




24 " 


Direct Driven 


1 


i/i6x 1/4 


20.0 


s. 


i:i>2 


3-5 


1.1 


•9 


1.0 


60 " 


Belted 


1 


1/8 x iyk 




C. I. 


i:254 


7.2 


21. 1 


12.0 


9.1 


48 " 


Portable Belted 


1 


i/i6x 3/8 




s. 


1:1/ 


44 


5-3 


4.6 


5-o 


48 . " 


Port. Dir. Drive 


1 


1/16 x 3/8 


21 


C. I. 


1:3 


4-75 


8.8 


2-7 


2.J 


48 " 


Port. Dir. Drive 




Light 


21 




1:3 


" r -3 


8.8 


2.7 


2.7 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



H. P. to 

Drive. 



7 ft. Radial Drill. Belted. Drilling cast iron with 

3 in. drill 

8 ft. Radial Drill. Direct Driven. Drilling cast 

iron with 3 in. drill '• 

36 in. Drill. Belted. Drilling % in- hole in tool 

steel 

30 in. Drill. Belted (with tapping attachment). 

Drilling 1 in. hole in laminated iron 

26 in. Drill. Belted. Drilling }i in. hole in tool 

steel • 

Sand Sifter. Direct Driven 

200 lb. Compact Hammer. Belted: 

To start hammer ! J -3 

Striking 245 blows per minute 7-9 



2-5 
2.1 

i-3 
1.4 

i-3 
1.2 



72 in. Lathe. Direct Driven. Cutting cast iron 
1-16 in. x 3-8 in. (cut) with cutting speed of 
36.4 ft. per minute. Diameter of work 37 ins. 

Air Compressor. Direct Driven. Pumping 

against 80 lb. pressure 15.3 

Milling Machine. Belted. Cutter 3/ ins. wide x 
2}4 ins. diameter. Cutting tool steel 3/ ins x 
% in. cut with fastest feed 

Cold Saw. Direct Driven. Cutting heavy steel T 
rail. Feed T /z in. per minute 

42 in. Rotary Planer. Direct Driven. Cutting 
cast iron with speed of 39.7 ft. per minute. 
Feed 2% ins. per minute. Cut y 2 in. x 18 ins. 

Portable Key Seater. Belted. Cutting cast iron 
1-32 in. x I in. cut: 

Cutting stroke 2.0 

Return stroke 1.5 



3-6 



1.2 



2-3 



8.6 



February Meeting of the Western Railway Club 



The regular monthly meeting of the Western Railway 
Club was held Tuesday afternoon, Feb. 16. Mr. Geo. P. 
Nichols of Chicago read a paper on "Square Round- 
houses." Rectangular engine houses are used every- 
where in Europe, while the circular form is universal 
in this country. The nearest approach to the square form 
inihis country are the new engine houses of the St. Louis 
Terminal Railroad Association at East St. Louis and St. 
Louis, where transfer tables are used between rectangular 
buildings similar to ordinary erecting shops. Mr. Nich- 
ols showed by drawings and figures that the actual area 
required for circular houses is considerably larger than 
for square construction. The disadvantages of circular 
form are especially great in winter, when snow and ice 
impede the entrance to the building and make it almost 
impossible to keep it warm. Mr. Nichols' plan provides 
two parallel rows of stalls with a transfer table between 
them, the whole being roofed over. Where the character 
of the repairs made at the roundhouse makes it worth 
while, a traveling crane may be erected over the transfer 
table One disadvantage is that the engines cannot be 
turned in the roundhouse. This may be met by providing 
a turntable or a Y outside or by putting in a turntable 
under the transfer table, a design which Mr. Nichols is 
now working on. In the discussion there was pretty gen- 
eral agreement that the rectangular shape possesses many 



advantages and is worthy of consideration in planning 
new engine houses. 

The second paper was by Mr. A. Bement on "The In- 
fluence of Brain Power on Dividends." The object of 
the paper was to suggest the importance to railway com- 
panies of having "a new and special kind of worker, 
which the author would designate as a professional stu- 
dent, who, in the service of corporations would devote 
his efforts to the study in his own field, of existing meth- 
ods for the purpose of their own improvement, and to the 
discovery of new opportunities. Such man, or men, 
should not be burdened with any routine duties at all, 
but be free to carry on the work without interruption or 
hindrance, and instead of working under the direction of 
some particular official, it should be rather with the co- 
operation and assistance of all." 

The speaker mentioned some examples of the import- 
ance of careful study and investigation and the saving 
effected thereby. The discussion seemed to show agree- 
ment with the speaker's position in the abstract, but was 
rather indeterminate as to the possibility or practicability 
of anything being done. There was also some mention 
of the desirability of the services of consulting engineers 
or mechanical experts. 

The third paper was by Master Mechanic D. R. Mac- 
Rain of the Michigan Central on "The Lubrication of 



9 8 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



Locomotive Valves and Cylinders." Mr. MacBain's long 
and practical experience gives added weight and interest 
to his paper. We quote very briefly from his paper the 
following : 

"Fifteen or twenty years ago when the maximum 
steam pressure was about 140 pounds the question of 
valve and cylinder lubrication was not so much heard of, 
the low steam pressure and perhaps a little better class 
of cast iron used in cylinders and valves, made the matter 
of proper lubrication a simple one. * * * * 

"A long experience as a road foreman of engines and 
a most careful effort on the part of the writer to bring 
about the promised results, has failed to convince him 



that the oil can be delivered to the steam chest under 
'any and all conditions.' On the contrary, I am per- 
fectly satisfied that on long runs * * * * e ither one 
or the other of two things must be done, ease the throttle 
off frequently so that steam chest pressure will fall much 
below that of the boiler or run with a longer cut off and 
a throttle opening that will keep steam chest pressure 
down enough below the lubricator through the oil pipe to 
the steam chest all the time when the engine is working. 
The long cut off and short throttle has become the most 
acceptable method among enginemen and it is safe to 
say that this fact is responsible in a large degree for the 
increase in fuel consumption that has been pretty much 
universal." 



Simple Freight Locomotive N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. 



HE simple consolidation freight locomotives 
recently placed in service ^by the New York 
Central & Hudson River Railroad and built 
by the Schenectady Works of the American ' 
Locomotive Company, are among the heaviest 
engines built for fast freight service. They 
are designed to operate under 200 pounds 
steam pressure and burn bituminous coal. 
With their large drivers and free steaming 
capacity their construction is such that they might be 
use'd successfully in heavy passenger service should 
emergency require the transportation department to make 




such a demand. To aid circulation around the firebox 
the water space at mud ring is made 4^ inches wide and 
is an evidence of the current tendency towards provision 
of ample space in this particular. The frames are strong 
and well braced, as shown by the detail view, Fig. 2. 
The casting at the "front end which performs the double 
function of brace and center pin guide for the truck, and 
the casting forming the horizontal brace above the sec- 
ond axle, also supporting the transmission bar hangers, 
are light, yet well ribbed and strong. 

Expressed by the usual formula, these engines are cap- 
able of exerting a maximum tractive effort of 45,600 lbs. 




Fig. 1. — New York Central Consolidation Locomotive — General Side Elevation. 




Fig. 2. — New York Central Consolidation Locomotive — Details of Frame. 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



99 




'ti ' face j// Ping k Cen of Ctilinter 

Fig. 3. — New York Central Consolidation Locomotive — Longitudinal Section of Boiler. 



The ratio of weight on drivers to tractive effort is 4.37; 
the ratio of tractive effort to total heating is 11.5, and the 
ratio of total heating surface to grate area is 6.91. 

Further details of interest are presented by the fol- 
lowing table : 

General Dimensions. 

Fuel Bituminous coal. 

Weight in working order 219,000 lbs. 

Weight on truck 19,600 lbs. 

Weight engine and tender in working order 355,450 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving 17 ft 

Wheel base, rigid . . . . 17 ft. 

Wheel base, total 25 ft. 11 ins. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender 60 ft. 6% ins. 

Cylinders. 

Diameter of cylinders 23 ins. 

Stroke of piston 32 ins. 




Horizontal thickness of piston .'. .6% ins. and 7 ins. 

Diameter of piston rod 4 ins. 

Kind of piston packing Cast iron. 

Kind of piston rod packing 

U. S. metallic with Gibbs vibrant cup. 

Valves. 

Kind of slide valves Piston. 

Greatest travel of slide valves 6 ins. 

Outside lap of slide valves 1 in. 

Inside lap of slide valves . in. line and line. 

Lead of valves in full gear 

Line and line at front %-in. lead at % cut-off. 

Kind of valve stem packing U. S. metallic. 

Transmission bar - With. 

Wheels, Etc. 

Number of driving wheels Eight. 

Diameter of driving wheels outside of tire 63 ins. 

Material of driving wheel, centers Cast steel. 

Thickness of tire 3% ins. 

Tire held by Shrinkage. 

Driving box material Cast steel. 

Diameter and length of driving journals 

9y 2 ins. and 10 ins. dia. x 12 ins. 

Diameter and length of main crank pin journals 

(Main side 7% ins. x 5% ins.) 7 ins. dia. x 7 ins. 



Fig. 4. — New York Central Consolidation Locomo- 
tive — Rear Elevation and Sections. 




Fig. 5. — New York Central Consolidation Locomo- 
tive — Sectional and End View of Boiler. 



IOO 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



^ 


°/Pa 






1 1 






*ct£/?ea 










Fig. 6. — New York Central Consolidation Locomo- 1 

tive — Sectional View of Boiler Shell and 

Frame. 

Diameter and length of side rod crank pin journals 

(Inter. 5y 2 

ins. x 5 ins.) (F. 5 ins. x 4 ins.) B. 5 ins. dia. x 414 ins. 

Section of rods Main, I; Side, I. 

Engine truck kind, 2-wheel, C. S. frame, swing center 

bearings pedestals .Wrought iron. 

Engine truck journals 6% ins. dia. x 10 ins. 

Diameter of engine truck wheels 33 ins. 

Kind of engine truck wheels 

..«.....'.. .Krupp No. 3, Cast iron spoke center 3%-in. tire. 
Boiler. 

Style Straight top radial stay. 

Outside diameter of first ring - Inside, 80 ins. 

Working pressure , 200 lbs. 

Material of barrel and outside of fire box Worth. 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of fire box 

13-16-in., 9-16-in., 1-in., %-m., %-in. 

Horizontal seams Butt joint sextuple riveted. 

Circumferential seams '. . Double riveted. 

Fire box, length 105 1-16 ins. 

Fire box, width 7514 ins. 

Fire box, depth Front, 79% ins.; back, 63y 2 ins. 

Fire box, material Carbon. 

Fire box plates, thickness 

Sides, %-in.; back, %-in.; crown, %-in.; tube sheet, 9-16 in. 
Fire box ' . . .Water space, 4^-in. and 

53^-ih.; front, 4 1 / ^-in. and e^-in.; sides, 4 1 / 4-in. and 6%-in. 

Fire box, crown staying '. Radial. 

Fire box, stay bolts Taylor iron 1-in. dia. W. S. 

Tubes, material and gage. Worth charcoal iron No. 11 B. W. G. 
Tubes, number 458. 




Fig. 7. — New York Central Consolidation Locomo- 
' tive-— Sectional Views of Firebox. 

Tubes, diameter 2 ins. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 15 ft. 6 ins. 

■Fire brick, supported on Water tubes. 

Heating surface, tubes 3,693.3 sq. ft. 

• Heating surface, water tidies .26.15 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, fire box , 182.5 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3,901.95 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 56.43 sq. ft. 

Grate, style Rocking N. Y. C. Std. 

Ash pan, style . Sectional hopper. 

Exhaust pipes Single N. Y. C. Std. 

Exhaust nozzles e^-in. and 6%-in. dia. 

Smoke stack, inside diameter 20 ins. 

Smoke stack, top above rail . 14 ft. 9%, ins. 

Boiler supplied by Nathan Monitor Injector No. 11. 

Tender. 

Style . .Water bottom. 

Weight, empty 54,100 lbs. 

Wheels, number Eight. 

Wheels, diameter . 33 ins. 

Journals, diameter and length 5% ins. dia. x 10 ins. 

Wheel base . 20 ft. 6 ins. 

Tender frame 10-in. steel channels. 

Tender trucks . 2 and 

4-wheel, Cen. bear., Fox press steel frames and bolsters. 

Water capacity 7,000 U. S. gals. 

Coal capacity .12 tons. 

Brake: Westinghouse, American combined on all drives 
operated by air 9V2-m. pump; L. side; signal schedule 
West. J.; 2 main reservoirs 16 ins. x 166 ins. 



•»» »> 



Personal 



Mr. H. W. Arnold, general foreman of the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe shops at Newton, Kas., has resigned. 

Mr. R. J. Farrell has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Illinois Southern, with headquarters at Sparta, 111. 

Mr. W. S. Galloway has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad at Grafton, 
W. Va. 

Mr. George Dickson, master mechanic of the St. "Louis, 
Iron Mountain & Southern at Baring Cross, Ark., has 
resigned. 

Mr. W. J. Wilcox, master mechanic of the Mexican 
Central, has been transferred from Monterey to Chihua- 
hua, Mex. 



Mr. A. Ff. Pyle has been appointed roundhouse fore- 
man of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific at Armour- 
dale, Kan. 

Mr. A. A. Campbell has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Kansas City Southern, with headquarters 
at Shreveport, La. 

Mr. W. S. Granby has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, with headquarters 
at Arkansas City, Kan. 

Mr. I. P. Bowman has been appointed acting general 
foreman of the Wabash shops at Montpelier, O., to suc- 
ceed Mr. B. F. Luke. 

Mr. Thomas Paxton has been appointed master me- 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



101 



chanic of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, with 
headquarters at Baring Cross, Ark. 

Mr. D. J. Mullen has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis, with 
Headquarters at Mount Carmel, 111. 

Mr. J. G. Snedeker, heretofore acting division super- 
intendent, has been appointed division superintendent 
of the Missouri Pacific at Jefferson City, Mo. 

Mr. J. N. Sanburn, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Texas Southern, has been appointed superintendent of 
motive power with headquarters at Marshall, Tex. 

Mr. J. P. Yergy has been appointed general car in- 
spector of the Buffalo & Allegheny division of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad, with headquarters at Buffalo, N. Y. 

Mr. James Connors has been appointed district master 
mechanic of the southern district of the Chicago, Mil- 
waukee & St. Paul, with office at Dubuque, la. Effect- 
ive February 1, 1904. 

Mr. H. C. Shields, late division foreman of motive 
power and equipment of the Lackawanna at Bangor, Pa., 
has been made master mechanic of the Lehigh & New 
England at Pen Argyl, Pa. 

Mr. H. W. Ridgway, formerly superintendent of mo- 
tive power and machinery of the El Paso & Northeastern, 
has been appointed master mechanic of the Mexican 
Central at the City of Mexico. 

Mr. W. F. Buck, who until recently was master me- 
chanic of the Northern Pacific at Missoula, Mont., has 
been appointed master mechanic of the Santa Fe Coast 
Lines, with office at Needles, Cal. 

Mr. David Patterson has been appointed general fore- 
man of the locomotive department of the C. & C. B. Iowa 
division of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, with 
office at Marion, la. Effective February 1, 1904. 

Mr. D. J. Malone, division master mechanic of the Ore- 
gon Short Line at Pocatello, Idaho, has been appointed 
division master mechanic at Salt Lake City, and Mr. W. 
J. Tollerton has been appointed division master mechanic 
at Pocatello.. 

Mr. Mortimer E. Cooley, professor of mechanical en- 
gineering at the University of Michigan, has been ap- 
pointed dean of the engineering department, succeeding 
the late Charles E. Greene, who founded the engineering 
school at Ann Arbor. 

Mr. William Cross, heretofore engineer of tests of the 
Canadian Pacific, has been appointed assistant to Second 
Vice-President Whyte, with headquarters at Winnipeg, 
Man., and will have charge of mechanical matters west 
of Fort William, Ont. 

Mr. H. H. Vaughan has resigned as assistant super- 
intendent of motive power of the Lake Shore and Mich- 
igan Southern to accept the position of superintendent 
of rolling stock of the Canadian Pacific, with headquart- 
ers at Montreal, Que. 

Mr. Joseph Parkes, one of the oldest employes of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, has just been retired to the pen- 
sion roll from his position as road foreman of engines 
of the Tyrone division. Mr. Parkes had been in active 
service since May, 1851. 

Mr. T. J. Cutler, master mechanic of the Northern 
Pacific at Fargo, N. D., has been transferred to the Rocky 
Mountain Division, with headquarters at Missoula, 
Mont., and Mr. J. E. O'Brien has been appointed master 
mechanic at Fargo, N. D. 

Mr. G. L. Wall, who has been assistant engineer of mo- 
tive power of the Pennsylvania Lines at Fort Wayne, 
Ind., has been appointed director of tests, in charge of 
the operation of the locomotive testing plant at the 
Louisiana Purchase Exposition. 

Mr. J. J. Reid. heretofore mechanical inspector of the 



Northern Pacific, has been appointed general master me- 
chanic of the Louisville & Nashville, with headquarters at 
Louisville, Ky. His jurisdiction will extend over all di- 
visions, and he will have supervision of all shops. 

Mr. J. A. Pfeffer, who has been gang foreman in the 
machine shops of the Santa Fe at Topeka, Kan., has been 
promoted to the position of general foreman of shops at 
Winslow, Ariz. Mr. Joseph Aigner, a machinist who has 
been employed at Topeka, succeeds Mr. Pfeffer as gang 
foreman. 

Mr. A. W. Wheatley, superintendent of shops of the 
Northern Pacific at Brainerd, Minn., has been appointed 
assistant superintendent of motive power of that road, 
with headquarters at St. Paul, Minn., and Mr. J. N. An- 
derson, heretofore general foreman, has been appointed 
superintendent of shops at Brainerd. 

Mr. Charles S. Hall has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the C. & P. Division of the Boston & Maine, 
and Mr. Chester H. Larimer has been appointed air 
brake inspector, with general supervision of such matters 
in the motive power department. Mr. Walter S. Brazier 
has been appointed traveling engineer for the west sec- 
tion of the Fitchburg division. 

Mr. J. L. Driscoll has been appointed master mechanic 
of the Alabama Great Southern, with headquarters at 
Birmingham, Ala., vice Mr. V. B. Lang, resigned. Mr. 
W. H. Dooley, heretofore general foreman at Somerset, 
Ky., has been transferred to Chattanooga, succeeding Mr. 
Driscoll, and Mr. Dennis Brown has been appointed gen- 
eral foreman at Somerset, Ky., succeeding Mr. Dooley. 

Effective March 1, 1904, the present duties of Mr. 
W". P. Colton, advertising agent of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western Railroad, will be extended to' include 
the industrial department, with title of industrial and ad- 
vertising agent. Mr. Colton will report to the general 
passenger agent for the advertising department and to 
the vice-president for the industrial department. 

Mr. C. F. Giles, master mechanic of the Louisville & 
Nashville at Louisville, Ky., has been appointed assistant 
superintendent of machinery of that road, with head- 
quarters at Louisville. Mr. W. L. Tracey, heretofore 
assistant master mechanic, will succeed Mr. Giles as 
master mechanic, Mr. Tracey being succeeded by Mr. J. 
G. Clifford. Mr. J. J. Sullivan, master mechanic at New 
Decatur, Ala., has been appointed master mechanic at 
Decatur, succeeding Mr. Beckert, resigned. 



Armstrong Tool Holders 

In view of the great convenience and economy of the 
modern tool holder of approved construction and design it 
is natural that economy should demand the adoption of such 
devices instead of continuing the solid forged tool which 
necessarily requires more steel than that which is actually 
used as a cutter. That the disadvantage of the previously 
existing condition of affairs was fully realized by machinists 
themselves is amply evidenced by the fact that during the 
past half century many different forms of tool holders have 
been devised by practical machinists and all aiming to remedy 
the defects, inconvenience and waste of the old system of 
forged tools. While many of these tool holders were used 
successfully for years by the inventors, or in the works where 
they were first made, they never displaced the forged tool 
to any extent, or attained any degree of success commercially. 
While some were superior to others, many of them embodied 
the objection of having been devised for special cases and 
were made in but a few small sizes. 

With the increasing recognition of the fact that it was pos 



102 



RAILWAY MASTER .MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



sible to maintain speeds and feeds previously unheard of by 
means of tools made from so-called air-hardening or self- 
hardening steel came a large increase in the use of that class 
of steel for lathe and planer tools. At the same time came a 
great increase in the percentage of waste incidental to the 
use of forged tools. The self-hardening steel was more ex- 
pensive than water-tempered tool steel. The increased amount 
invested in the steel was a big item for the purchasing agent 





Fig. 1. 

or manager to figure over, and the "stub end," when the tool 
grew too short for further use, represented a great deal more 
money than it formerly did. 

With these several points in view the practical value of and 
the economy possible from tools of the type here illustrated 
are readily appreciated. Fig. 1 represents a side tool, which 
when arranged with a straight shank is especially designed 
for use on the planer. 



This packing does not cut or score the rod and when the 
engine is inactive, it will not blister or rust the rod or stem. 
If the rod is in good condition at the time the packing is 
applied, it will remain so and will not have to be turned 
when the engine is repaired. It can be placed in the stuffing 
box without disconnecting the rod, requiring very little time 
for the operation. It is easily removed from the box and 
taken apart when necessary. It works equally well on all 
classes of piston rods, valve stems, rotary valve stems, stop 
cocks, air pumps or compressors. It is steam and air tight 
without the use of any soft or fibrous packing. On rotary 
rods or valve stems the packing will not wear the rods or 
stems, as it hugs the rods and partakes of their motion. 

By an examination of the accompanying illustration it will 
be seen that the packing is contained in a metal- case made 
in halves, which case is made to fit the stuffing box. The 
case is securely screwed together and then pushed to the 
bottom of the stuffing box. A joint make of lead (this metal 
having been decided upon as giving best results), at the 
bottom of the stuffing box. A joint made of lead (this metal 
a packing which the makers of this device guarantee to last 
five years, and which they claim is good for ten years' serv- 
ice without repair. 

In applying this packing the following should be observed: 
The straight cut ring should go towards the steam, and' the 
angular cut ring towards the crank, and small dowell pin on 
the angular cut ring should go in between joints of straight 




Fig. 2. 



The cutters are made of self-hardening steel and are of the 
proper size and design to withstand the heavy strains to which 
a tool of this kind is subjected; they are held close up to the 
end and can be used up very short. The holder is drop forged 
of steel and is case hardened. 

Fig. 2 illustrates the arrangement for right and left hand 
side tools and Fig. 3 shows another view of a straight shank 
side tool. 




i 



Fig. 



3- 



The Holmes Metallic Packing 

. The annoyance caused by steam leaks naturally directs 
the attention of steam engine users to a type of packing 
which will remove this objection and which, at the same 
time, will not score and scratch the rod and wear it out of 
round. The Holmes patent improved metallic piston rod and 
valve packing is not a new metallic packing, but is now mar- 
keted by those who intend to provide a first-class packing, 
which will overcome difficufties heretofore encountered with 




Patent No. 318,400. 



fibrous packing. This packing is in use on marine, stationary 
and locomotive engines, and has been pronounced by many 
to be very satisfactory and effectual. It is made of the same 
material as the piston rings and cylinder of an engine, and 
the manufacturers claim that its life will therefore be ex- 
ceptionally long. 



cut rings, and so on for the three sets of rings; after the rings 
are on the rod, cover them with cylinder oil, and put some 
in the case, then screw them together and put in "the box, 
making a joint of small lead pipe between gland and case 
and bottom of case and stuffing box, and have lead ring fill 
the inside of stuffing box tight. 

♦♦♦ , 

Steam Turbine Installed in Paint Plant 

A new Westinghouse-Parsons steam turbine of 400 kilowatts 
capacity has just been installed in the Sherwin-Williams 
Co.'s plant at Cleveland, Ohio, and is now furnishing power to 
all departments. 

This new turbine, which marks the highest development in 
engine construction, is the first of its type to be put into use 
in the city of Cleveland; is the 54th manufactured on the 
continent; and is understood to be the first ever placed in 
the power house of any paint plant anywhere. 

The installation of the turbine engine will illustrate the 
Sherwin-Williams Co.'s policy of being always in the van in 
every department of their business. And their success in 
paint manufacturing is largely due to this principle of main- 
taining the most modern and efficient equipment. 

The Parsons turbine, which was invented by an English 
engineer and which has doubtless proven the most practical 
of all, is what is known as the parallel flow class. The steam 
enters at one end, passes along parallel to the shaft, and dis- 
charges at the other end. Ther-e are rings of small blades on 
the wheel alternating with rings on the inside of the casing., 
and the steam passing between the curved blades being de- 
flected, first one way and then the other, produces a reaction 
which causes the wheel to rotate. There are 31,000 of these 
small blades in one turbine. The steam enters the turbine 
at 150 pounds pressure through a 5-inch pipe, and is dis- 
charged through a 20-inch pipe into a vacuum that is main- 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



103 



tamed by apparatus which condenses all of the exhaust steam 
into water. 

The principal advantages of steam turbines are their high 
economy in the use of steam, their great simplicity, the small 
cost of maintenance, and the small amount of floor space 
which they require. 



in contents and as a specimen of high standard book making 
.The price of this valuable and most practical book is three 
dollars, delivered free of post or express to any part of the 
world." 



Solid Draft Rigging 

The Solid Draft Rigging and Equipment Company of Terre" 
Haute, Ind., has issued a booklet descriptive of their solid 
draft rigging which has been for several years in use on a 
number of railroads. The manufacturers say that the draft 
rigging has passed the experimental stage and has proved to 
be a decided success. 

The manufacturers say the following in regard to it: "The 
spring bearing is of solid metal, adapted to be rigidly 
mounted on the center sills of engine tenders, freight cars 
and coaches, having horizontal and vertical flanges faced for 
connecting it to sills with bolts or rivets, eliminating all extra 
attachments, such as draft timbers, draft irons, draft plates, 
lug irons, check plate, lug straps, sill straps, lug and strap 
bolts, coupler yokes and slip pins, differing from all other draft 
rigging in having an immovable spring bearing, permanently 
set between draw sills with twenty-four one-inch rivets or 
bolts, applied vertically and horizontally through sills, elimi- 
nating all possiblities of chafing, splitting or spreading of 
sills, having socket spring seat members at each end of 
bearing followers and springs mounted on pull rods, slide- 
able, extending through follower plates, springs and spring- 
bearings, with nut adjustment at back end of rods, for tak- 
ing up all slack that might accumulate from time to time, 
obliterating all lost motion that is so destructible to all draft 
riggings, having straps slideably engaged in slot ways at top 
and bottom of spring bearings." 

■» * » ■ ! 

Theo. Audel & Company 

Theo. Audel & Company have just issued specimen pages 
and a new catalogue descriptive of "Rogers Drawing and De- 
sign" which will be sent free to readers of the Railway 
Master Mechanic on request to the office of Theo. Audel & 
Company, 63 Fifth Ave., New York City. The publishers' an- 
nouncement we quote as follows, as giving some inforrnar 
tion regarding this interesting work : 

"It is with pleasure we submit for careful examination 
these specimen pages of Rogers' Drawing and Design, show- 
ing as they do, the plan and scope of a work which has long 
been needed. It is hardly necessary for the publishers to 
say aught of the primary importance of a thorough knowl- 
edge of drawing and design except that this volume is ar- 
ranged for a comprehensive, self-instruction course for both 
shop and drawing room. The work is divided into three 
parts, embracing twelve divisions or general subjects. Part 
one relates to linear drawing and ends with page 202. Part 
two relates to machine design and ends with page 408. Part 
three is devoted to mathematical and useful tables and data, 
the use of drawing instruments and a most copious cross 
index. The table of contents, printed on the opposite page, 
will convey an idea of the orderly and truly scientific arrange- 
ment of the subjects as they progress from 'Abbreviations 
and Conventional Signs' to the 'Logarithmetic Table' and 
explanation of its use— the latter division occupying no less 
than 27 pages. A representative portion of the index is also 
printed. The entire work contains 506 pages, illustrated by 
over 600 cuts and diagrams, very many of them full page 
drawings; the book is printed on the same fine grade of paper 
as are those specimen pages; it measures 8'/_, x 10% inches 
and weighs over 3 lbs.; the binding is in black vellum cloth 
with gold edges and titles; the volume is made to open freely 
and is in every way a most complete up-to-date book both 



Car Heating and Lighting 

The Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co. has recently issued 
a pocket folder map of the United States showing the loca- 
tion of the Pintsch gas plants and the railroads securing gas 
in the various states. The continued rapid growth of the 
system is thus shown graphically. Among the new plants 




Straight Port Steam Coupler: 

shown are those at Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Altoona and Har- 
risburg, which are a part of the seven which the company 
is building to take care of the supply of the Pennsylvania 
Rd. system, under their adoption of its as standard. 

The company equipped 2209 cars with this lighting system 
in the United States, in 1903. This was the "banner year" 
so far, but orders now in hand indicate that it will be equalled 
or probably surpassed by the year 1904. The 2,209 cars are in- 
cluded in the annual report of progress made by the Julius 
Pintsch Co. of Berlin, Germany, which is as follows: 

PEOGRESS IN THE USE OF THE PINTSCH GAS LIGHTING SYSTEM TO 
DECEMBER 31, 1903. 

Loco- Gas Buoys & 

Cars, motives. Works. Beacons. 

Germany 45,200 5,583 75 130 

Denmark 45 3 21 

England . 21,100 87 280 

France . ...; 7,500 30 250 

Holland 3,700 5 10 90 

Italy 1,570 5 20 

Switzerland 410 2 1 ... 

Austria . , 5,525 .'. ... 10 5 

Russia 4,000 132 13 20 

Sweden 750 53 4 2 

Servia 220 1 

Turkey . 120 

Bulgaria 98 ..... 1 

Egypt 150 3 70 

Canada 450 2 195 

Brazil 825 31 2 45 

Argentine 1,150 ...... 10 5 

Chili 50 2 ... 

Australia 3,000 ..... 13 40 

India 10,500 16 

United States 22,243 ' 80 198 

•Japan 150 2 20 

China : . . l 25 

Mexico '. 125 1 



Total 128,881 ' 5,806 372 1,426 

The Safety Car Heating & Lighting Co. also furnished its 
heating equipment for 2,964 cars in 1903. Its attention to the 
proper working and care of its apparatus is indicated by a 
vest pocket book which it has just issued, entitled "Direc- 
tions for Management, and Catechism of Steam Heating Ap- 
paratus on Trains." This has been prepared with the great- 
est care, as the result of Ions study of practical conditions, 
and is intended to aid in Hie thorough instruction of train- 
men. The directions relate to the raanagemenl or the steam. 
making up trains, regulation of temperature, and changing 
of engines. The catechism covers description of apparatus, 
operation and care of same, and responsibility of employees. 



io4 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904... 



There is an examination sheet, for rating the proficiency of 
those examined, and it is suggested that instructions and 
examinations may be given in the air brake instruction car, 
or in the shops if the car is not available. If this practice 
is generally adopted by the railroads, as it certainly will be, 
great good will result not only to the railroads, but to the 
traveling public. 

The company's latest style of steam coupler is shown in 
our illustration. It was devised to meet the demand for a 
2-inch steam train line instead of the 1% in. It is called the 
Safety Straight Port Coupler No. 920A. The gasket (921) 
bears directly on the body and is held* in position by a spring 
ring. The gasket is for 1% in. or 1% in. port as desired, and 
is easily renewed when necessary. A large demand for this 
coupler indicates that it meets the demand successfully. 



Notes of the Month 

On March 1, 1904, the Cincinnati office, J. S. Patterson, 
resident manager, of the Galena- Signal Oil Company will be 
removed to suite 115 Ingalls Building, Fourth and Vine streets, 
where they will be pleased to have their friends call. 



Mr. H. A. Norton, of the "Norton Jacks," sailed on the 
steamship Cauopic January 30th for a iour-months' trip to 
.the Mediterranean and Egypt. Mr. Norton on this trip will 
combine business with pleasure. 



The Wabash Railway has issued a special circular calling 
attention to the advantages offered by their road to those 
attending the exposition at St. Louis. Included in the circu- 
lar is a map of the fair grounds and illustrations of many 
of the buildings, also a map of the business district of the 
city. 



The Washburn Company, of Minneapolis, have issued a 
very pomplete catalogue illustrating and describing in detail 
their couplers. There is also included a description of the^ 
"Washburn Expansible Draft Bar", from which we quote in 
part. Further information will be gladly furnished by the 
Washburn Company: "This attachment includes several new 
and important features. In the Washburn rigging the ex- 
pansible box is fitted between the draft timbers, and bolts 
passed through the whole, making a solid base of resistance 
for the draft springs to act on. To make the attachment still 
stronger each timber is itself bolted to the box. The expan- 
sible feature of the box allows it to be fitted to any car by 
placing the suitable expanding strips between the two por- 
tions of the box before placing the same between the tim- 
bers and by using wider followers." 



At a meeting of the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, held 
Feb. 6th, Mr. John M. Hartman explained the cause of black 
smoke and quoted from a report on the use of the Perfection 
burner on the New York Central R. R. locomotives, giving 
the methods of firing on a test trip. On this trip, when fresb 
coal was added, about 95 per cent of the smoke went off 
a light grey No. 2 color scale. Another test on the same 
railroad shoAved a saving of 12 per cent in fuel. Mr. Hart- 
man then proceeded to take up some of the types of mechani- 
cal stokers, illustrating by means of slides their construction 
and operation and the details of furnace construction. In this 
connection he quoted from a report on the use of mechanical 
stokers in Pittsburg and Cleveland. The report showed the 
stokers to be effective in securing combustion without black 
smoke. In Cleveland there has been a marked difference in 



the atmosphere in the past four years. Notwithstanding the 
doubling of manufactories the atmosphere is only half as 
dark as it was. 

*-•-* 

A special train of seventeen solid cars, known as the 
"Texas Special," loaded with the Sherwin-Williams paints 
and varnishes, ran from Cleveland, 0., to Fort Worth, Tex., 
February 4-13th. The run was made to Chicago over the 
Baltimore & Ohio road; at Chicago the train was taken over 
the Rock Island Railway and delivered to the Santa Fe line 
at Kansas City, which scheduled it through to Fort Worth. 
Only daylight runs were made. Short stops were made at 
all stations and the train had right of way the whole trip. 
The special was broken up at Fort Worth aud the shipment 
distributed among retail handlers of the Sherwin-Williams 
Company's paints in the "Lone Star" state. It is understood 
that the Texas Special was the largest shipment of paints and 
varnishes ever made. Special representatives of the big paint 
concern and of the railway companies over whose lines the 
trip was made accompanied the train through to its destina- 
tion. The shipment was given wide publication. Posters an- 
nouncing its arrival were placed. in all the stations en route; 
extensive newspaper space was used, and the train itself 
was covered with banners explaining the nature of the ship- 
ment. 



The Ma-rtin Car Heating- Co. has been recently organized, 
with offices at 1611 Fisher Bldg., Chicago. Mr. C. W, Martin, 
who is widely and favorably known by all interested in the 
subject of car heating, is general manager of the company. 
They will manufacture under the "Martin" and other patents, 
apparatus for heating by steam from the locomotive. Direct 
steam, hot water, locomotive equipments; large size inter- 
changeable steam couplers, improved steam traps, car heating 
valves, all styles,, and also hot water heaters for steam and 
.electric cars, highest development of car heating apparatus. 



"Koonshine " 

The successful and satisfactory cleansing of interior and 
exterior woodwork, and also that of the metal work of rail- 
way carriages, is a question that is always of interest to the 
car departments of railroads. There are a large number of 
compounds used for this purpose, but the desired effect, that 
of restoring to the painted or polished surface the same lus- 
tre and gloss it originally enjoyed, has apparently been the 
unsolvable problem. Mr. Charles E. Koons, of St. Louis, has 
however, placed upon the market a compound which he 
claims produces the desired effect, namely, that of not only 
removing from painted or polished woodwork, interior or 
exterior, and metal surfaces such as lamps, brass and silver 
trimmings, bronze, metal decorations of coaches, all dirt or 
grease, but it also has the property of restoring to such sur- 
faces the original lustre and polish. This compound is called 
Koonshine and is intended particularly for use on railway 
carriages. Where its merits have been tested on the painted 
»exterior of coaches, soiled with the grime from coal smke 
and dust, the results have been all that could be desired; the 
compound has cleaned and polished such woodwork to a high 
degree, giving the woodwork the appearance of a new coat 
of paint. The same results have been obtained from its use 
on the highly polished woodwork of the interior of coaches 
where varnish has been used to give the piano finish, the 
compound cleaning and polishing at the same time. 

Koonshine is quickly and easily applied, a cloth saturated 
with the oil being used to apply it. The surface is then 
wiped off and polished Avith a soft cloth. The product is 
manufactured by the St. Louis Surfacer Co., St. Louis. 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



!05 



Railroad Paint Shop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest of 

CHARLES E-. COPP j&j&j& Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. (St, M. Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 



Advisory Committee Meeting 

The advisory committee of the M. C. & L. P. Association 
met Feb. 20th in Hotel Lincoln, Pittsburg, Pa. The meeting- 
was called to order at 10 a. m. by Chairman J. H. Kahler. All 
members of the committee were present— J. H. Kahler, Erie 
R. R., Meadville, Pa.; J. W. Houser, Cumberland Valley R. II., 
Chambersburg, Pa.; D. A. Little, Penn. R. R., Altoona, Pa.; 
W. 0. Quest, P. & L. E. R. R., McKees Rocks, Pa.; J. A. Gohen, 
C. C. C. & St. L. Ry., Indianapolis, Ind.; Robert McKeon, 
secretary, Kent, O. 

The following visiting members were present: J. P. Stroud, 
Allegheny Valley R. R., Verona, Pa.; John Gearhart, Penn. 
R. R., Altoona, Pa.; Geo. Heinz, Pitts. Con. Traction Co., Char- 
rick, Pa.; D. W. Smith, Pitts., Ft. Wayne & Chi. Ry., Allegheny, 
Pa.; B. F. Wynn, Penn. R. R., Pitcain, Pa.; A. R. Lynch, P. 
C. C. & St. L. Ry., Dennison, O.; Robert Shove, L. S. & M. S. 
R. R., Collinwood, 0.; T. J. Rodabaugh, Pitts., Ft. Wayne & 
Chi. Ry., Ft. Wayne, Ind.; J. F. Lanfersick, P. C. C. & St. L. Ry., 
Columbus, 0., and W. S. Burton, foreman car department L. S. 
& M. S. R. R., Collinwood, 0. 

The following program was arranged for the next annual 
meeting : 

1. Report of committee on tests. 

2. What improvement have we made in the painting of 
steel cars in the past year? 

3. What is the best material and treatment for locomotive 
front ends? 

4. What is the best construction of sand blast and method 
of operating same in preparing metal for painting? 

5. Which is the best method for removing cracked varnish- 
on the interior of passenger cars? 

6. Passenger car roofs— treatment and attention of same. 

7. Paint shop records and accounts. 

8. What causes the bulging of putty in the nail holes of 
new work? 

9. Essay— The treatment of an ideal passenger car from a 
painter's view. 

The following resolution Avas presented by D. A. Little: 

Whereas, A great many protests are being made regarding 
the meeting of the N association at Atlantic City because of the 
inability of members procuring transportation east of Pitts- 
burg; and, 

Whereas, Many of the members in the eastern section are 
desirous of visiting the Louisiana Purchase Exposition at St. 
Louis, from which they will be debarred if we meet at At- 
lantic City; and, 

Whereas, A request was made to the advisory committee 
to take some action in the matter; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That a postal ballot be taken from every mem- 
ber of the association indicating his preference for Indian- 
apolis or Atlantic City. 

In the event of Indianapolis being designated members east 
of that point can get transportation to St. Louis as readily as 
Indianapolis and those west can stop en route. This resolution 
Avas seconded by W. 0. Quest and was unanimously adopted. 
The chairman instructed Secretary McKeon to procure the 
ballot as an early date and publish the result in the Master 
Mechanic. J. H. Kahler, Chairman. 

Robert McKeon, Secy. 

The death of Edmund Murphy, for thirty-two years assist- 
ant foreman of the Penna. It. R. locomotive paint shop al Al- 
toona, Pa., occurred at his home in Altoona, Jan. 19th. Four 



years ago Mr. Murphy Avas retired on a pension; and for some 
time after this he Avas employed in the paint department of 
the Pressed Steel Car Co., Allegheny, Pa. Deceased was 77 
years old and is survived by his wife and a married daughter. 



The Essentials of a Modern Paint Shop* 

BY AV. O. QUEST, MASTER PAINTER, P. & L. E. R. R. CO. 

Continued from page 70. 

Mr. G. N. Doav: I would like to ask Avhether Mr. Quest's 
paper is founded on ideals or on experience. 

President: It is founded on experience. And in discus- 
sing the paper, I want to say that Mr. Quest has come here 
prepared to answer questions, and he will be disappointed if 
you do not extract all the information from him. The paper 
is noAV open for discussion. 

Mr. Quest: I would like to say that I have had shop ideals 
all my trade-Avorking life, and I am just now entering on 
the realization of one of those ideals, for I believe Ave are 
having a first-class paint shop coming on at the Lake Erie 
Avorks at McKees Rocks. 

President: Mr. Stratton, Avill you give us your experience 
on the subject? 

Mr. George W. Stratton: In reading this paper, which Avas 
forwarded to us before the meeting, and in listening to it to- 
night, one is led to believe that it is ideal; that if we could 
have such conditions as it expresses we could do splendid 
work. But I presume Mr. Stratton has had experience similar 
to many others Avho have done their painting on the run, so 
to speak. For instance, a car or locomotive may be required 
to be done in a Aveek, no matter what kind of a Aveek— and 
the painting has to be done as the machine moves along. I 
have found that that is very much the way with locomotive 
painting, so that some of the finer processes are pretty much 
eliminated, such as striping and two coats of varnish, and all 
those refinements Avhich we have enjoyed in the past. It is 
within my recollection that when a locomotive was repaired 
—and it did not make much difference how much time was 
taken — when it was done it went into the hands of the paint- 
ers and they began to put on their multitudinous colors, 
fillers and stripes, etc., and Avhen they got a good surface, 
the boss Avould sit down and paint pictures upon the large 
Avheel covers that used to come between the main and back 
drivers. And I remember seeing, in Avar times, a beautiful 
locomotive Avith a picture of Point of Rocks in Virginia, and 
Harper's Ferry, on opposite Avheel covers, and the panels of 
the cab beautifully decorated. And when the locomotive Avas 
done, which was not a matter of very definite time, it would 
go out and be a thing of beauty. Nowadays, Avhen a locomo- 
tive has to go into the shop and be repaired and turned out 
again in two Aveeks, you have to step down from that high 
estate. 

But willi (he engines nowadays, my experience being more 
with engines, no matter what kind of a finish you get, it 
does not show long. The "wiper" we used to have is a rare 
member of the railroad fraternity. And when the engine is 
ready to come into the Shop again, it is pretty Avell covered 
with something very foreign to paint. 

In regard to this equipment you speak of, the sand blast 



*.\ paper read before (he Pittsburg Railway Club. Mr. 
Quest's paper was published in the February issue and dis- 
cussion of the paper is published in this issue. 



io6 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March, 1904. 



and washing with acids, etc., it seems to nie they are fast 
passing away. I remember when we used sand stones and 
emery stones, etc., and the best we could do in endeavoring 
to remove the blue and brown oxide from the steel plates 
was of little account. But when we began to use paints that 
experience taught us would stick, these methods were not 
necessary. And in the experience at Altoona shops, when we 
were using these paint eradicators, of all tenders going into 
the shop, 90 per cent of the cisterns would have to be com- 
pletely scraped, and the cracked and blistered paint taken 
off by thorough cleaning and scraping. At the present time 
not five per cent of the tenders require scraping because of 
any cracking or blistering. 

In regard to the modern paint shop, I believe that we 
would all like to have it arranged so. that Ave would get only 
northern light, and then having a. sort of saw-totoh roof and 
no direct light it would be ideal. I have known where sun- 
light coming into a window and striking a cistern would 
blister it; also where a blast of hot air from an over-heated 
heating system would blister the paint— and the man who 
happened to work just where the air struck would suffer 
from the hot blast. But this matter of filler and surfacer, 
with which I presume all of us have had a great deal of 
experience, has so developed that with us there is less than 
five per cent of the tenders that come in that require the 
cistern to be scraped. 

Lead is one of the best materials to put on and will last 
without cracking when we do not have the opportunity of 
putting on much varnish. We used to think two or more 
coats of varnish would protect' the paint, but now we find 
that the paint will stick with one coat of varnish— glad to 
get that on without having water or smoke spoil it. 

Mr. Quest: Did I understand Mr. Stratton to say that 
the sand blast was not efficient in eradicating old paint, rust 
or scale, and that the idea is a past method for the purpose 
of cleaning iron and steel plate? In reply to the gentleman, 
I would like to submit for your inspection the following 
work brought with me for the occasion. 

Here is a piece of steel plate, with a 12-inch square of it 
cleaned by hand with broken emery in four minutes, here is 
another plate of the same si2e and condition cleaned by the 
sand blast in 30 seconds; here is also a large piece of old 
tank iron with years of old paint accumulation on it, from 
a square foot of which we have thoroughly removed all paint, 
flash, scale and rust in 55 seconds, leaving an ideal surface 
to receive paint. 

•Mr. Stratton: Probably I should not have said that it 
would not do it; what I meant to say is that there is no use 
in doing it. Probably it is within the recollection of some of 
you that when we used to sharpen files with a sand blast, 
holding the files between two tubes, it did not leave the teeth 
as good as originally, but it sharpened the file. That is, if 
you would hold it between the sand blasts and let it cut a 
sufficient length of time, it would sharpen the teeth, and if 
you would hold it there long enough, it would bore a hole 
clear through the file. The same is the case in engraving a 
design on glass. If you turn the sand blast on any metal it 
will cut it away, and it will remove anything that is on it. 
But what I say is, that it is labor lost. If we get on the right 
materials, they will stick and not crack nor blister, and not 
need scraping off after a year or more of service. I just in- 
tended to say that there is no need now of such preliminary 
preparations for painting. 

President Turner: Mr. Dow, you have recently moved into 
one of the largest and one of the best paint shops in the coun- 
try. Will you say what is to prevent reaching the ideal con- 
ditions as represented by Mr. Quest? 

Mr. G. N. Dow: I think Mr. Quest is on the right track. I 
think he has the right idea of an ideal shop, and if carried 
out that way he will have one of the best shops in the United 



States or in the world. His view of heating the shop is supe- 
rior to the way we heat ours. I think the heat should come 
from the ground up. Ours is just the reverse it is from the 
eaves down. I think Mr. Quest is right and you will get bet- 
ter results the way he indicates. And I do not know that I 
could criticise Mr. Quest on shop lay-out in any way, shape or 
manner. Of course, others do not know where he got his ideas. 
I think he got them from our shop. (Laughter.) 

Mr. R. V. Wright: Mr. Quest has presented such an able 
paper and is doubtless so Avell prepared to back it up that in- 
experienced in such matters as I am, I would hesitate to 
criticise anything he says. However, the request was made 
that we ask any questions we liked in order to draAV Mr. 
Quest out. It is stated on page 5 that the paint shop should 
be as near the car shop as possible. Now I have always been 
led to believe that of all the shop buildings fire is more liable 
to originate in the paint shop than in any of the others, and 
also that the car shops are liable to take fire without much 
provocation. It seems to me that this should be modified and 
instead of saying the paint shop should be placed as near as 
possible to the car shop; say it should be as near as possible 
and yet be at such a distance that there will be no langer of 
fire. 

On the same page it is said that the shop should be large 
ger equipment. This would indicate that the entire passenger 
enough to accommodate monthly ten per cent of the passen- 
equipment would have to be painted each year. I would like 
to ask if it is absolutely necessary to revarnish the entire pas- 
senger equipment each year. 

On the matter of light we are told that the side windoAvs 
should come as low as 36 inches from the floor. In a shop 
which is laid out longitudinally the only cars which Avould 
benefit by this construction would be those on the tracks 
nearest the windoAvs, and you Avould probably get a better 
light than you need on these cars, whereas the cars along the 
' middle tracks would get no more light than otherwise. It 
would appear that 36 inches is unnecessarily low. 

Concerning the sand blast cleaning. There Avould seem 
to be no doubt from what Mr. Quest has shown us that the 
sand blast machine is a labor-saving device and that a con- 
siderable saving can be made by its use. In order to bring 
out this point more fully I should like to ask Avhether in a 
surface cleaned by sand blast and covered with paint, the 
paint will not endure longer than on one cleaned by hand. It 
Avould seem to me that the life of the paint ought to be in- 
creased at least fifty per cent. 

Mr.. Quest: In reply to the gentleman's first question, as 
to why I want the paint shop and car building shop close to- 
gether. I stated pretty plainly that it is on account of the 
distance in traA r eling to and from; that the arrangement was 
a matter of convenience, also of economy. 

I do not think the matter of greater fire risk should be 
seriously considered. Of course it is true, that as a rule all 
authorities, also insurance people,' usually blame all paint shop 
fires, either on carelessness or on spontaneous combustion, on 
account of the inflammable nature of materials handled in the 
^business. 

As to the 36-inch high window sills, it seems to me that 
the Ioav window will radiate a lower and more uniform light 
on the center lines of work, regardless of position. It is true, 
you have only got the skylight for middle lines of shopped 
cars. The gentleman may be right on the high AvindoAV sill, 
but in my mind it is a matter of doubt. Now, as to sand 
blast cleaning question, I will say the sand blast leaves the 
iron and steel surface in a perfect condition for working 
upon, and that so far as the life of the paint is concerned 
you can guarantee just twice as much service durability as 
you can Avhere the surface is not scaled off Avith the sand 
blast. If you critically examine the hurried Avorked turned 
out of the contract shops, where they pay no attention 



March, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



107 



whatever to scale cleaning, you can readily see the difference 
in a few months time. 

Mr. G. W. Stratton: I hope I may not be considered too 
wordy in this business, but years ago the painting and scal- 
ing of paint was a very serious trouble. As I stated, prob- 
ably 95 per cent of all the tenders that came in to be paint- 
ed required the paint to be removed and the painting started 
from the metal up. Our method for getting rid of the paint 
was, to fill the cistern with steam, which would heat the 
metal to such an extent that with a chisel— which was usu- 
ally a file sharpened to a chisel edge— one could peel the paint 
off easily, making quite a quick operation. When repainted, 
it would look very nice in the beginning, but after a while it 
would crack, and that led us to use the sand blast, and that 
sort of scouring seemed to improve the surface of the steel 
or iron. But, as I said, improved methods and materials in 
this day rendered sand blasts and scraping unnecessary to 
remove the paint that is on the cistern, in 95 per cent of 
cases. When cisterns have been scored in places the dam- 
aged places can be easily filled with a surfacer and when 
smoothed up and a few of the finishing coats put on, will 
look well again. But I think no amount of scouring will 
make a plate last without cracking, through a period of five 
or six years. 

President: It is the rule over the country to revarnish 
cars once a year. Cars are taken in because they have lost 
their lustre, and if not revarnished the body color will suffer. 
Can anything be done in the way of improved shop facilities 
or better materials to make these cars last 18 months in- 
stead of 12? 

Mr. Quest: That would be rather a hard question to an- 
swer under present shop conditions. If you could go back to 
the old times when we used to keep a car in the shop two or 
three months and use a varnish that would take three days to 
dry, you might get an 18 or 20 months' average. But to put 
on what we call an eight-hour free of dirt varnish, you can 
hardly expect that to last over a year. I suppose it is within 
the recollection of Mr. Stratton when it took a great deal 
longer to paint a locomotive than now. Up in Altoona under 
his administration I remember distinctly when they were sur- 
faced and rubbed out and then taken "up the hill" and 
brought back after being thoroughly tested before they were 
finished. 
Mr. Stratton: That is right. Time was not an object then. 
Mr. Quest: If you have a wearing varnish that will dry 
slowly you must have, more oil in it and less gum. Accord- 
ing to varnish makers lore, the more oil the more elasticity, 
and the more elasticity the longer it will wear. I believe the 
usual coach and engine wearing varnish of to-day is expected 
to set free of dust in eight hours or less, which as a rule is 
very briniant. also reasonably durable. 

Mr. G. N. Dow: I think the car can be kept up with the 
present varnish by giving it a thorough cleaning once every 
three months with a good emulsion cleaner. I know it has 
been proved on. several railroads where this practice is in 
force that a car can be used eighteen months between var- 
nishing. We have had cars run eighteen months and look as 
well as some cars that were only out eight or ten that have 
not been cleaned. 

Mr. F. H. Stark: I believe that this is a very able paper, 
and from one not a Painter it would come with very poor 
grace to do much criticising, or to even ask questions, but 
there is the question, however, of utilizing the painter force 
in the summer months on freight cars. Usually the artists in 
the Coach Shop object to painting freight cars. The force of 
coach washers might be used to paint freight cars, but there 
is a certain percentage of coach shop help that could hardly 
be used on that work. Of course there is a certain amount 
of baggage and mail equipment that could be run through in 
the excursion season, and in that way keep the paint shop 



employed a part of the time. If they would allow us to take 
cabooses in, and paint and varnish them we could keep the 
shop busy a great deal longer. 

On the question of heat I believe Mr. Quest is on the right 
road. I was with a road at one time where we had a system 
of heating with hot air coming down from some twelve or 
fifteen feet from the floor. It stirred up dust, and did more 
or less damage. At another place we had steam heat, and it 
was near the floor and it gave very good satisfaction, and we 
found that a concrete floor was far better than a wooden 
floor. The wooden floor absorbed moisture, and kept the 
room damp, and we found that varnish would dry nearly a 
day quicker on the concrete floor. 

On the question of the sand blast, I think we have good 
evidence. I remember when we used to plaster the tank with 
lime and work down the surface with pumice stone, and it 
was a very laborious and long process; while the sand blast 
does it better in a very short time. 

Mr. Quest: We are cleaning tanks in 6% and 7 hours in the 
Lake Erie locomotive painting department. In answer to Mr. 
Stark on the working force question, I do not think the 
artists of the shop would object, if they knew they had to 
lie idle for two or three months otherwise; I think that mat- 
ter could be managed by employing the skilled labor on the 
stencilling on of lettering, etc., which could be done on a fair 
piece price basis, even though you had your shop running on 
day work the balance of the year. 

As for having the heat coming down in shop from ten or 
twelve feet up, it reminds me of an incident related by an 
esteemed fellow associate at a recent car Painters' Conven- 
tion, where the matter of shop heating and ventilating was 
under general discussion, who in speaking, referred to his 
expei'ience while in the cold northern country, which was to 
the effect that one day as they were trying to keep the shop 
warm, in came an Irishman. He looked around and could 
not see any stove, though he felt the cold draft, and he asked 
one of the employes of the shop where he could get warm. 
He said: "Just stand where you are, it is all right. The 
heat is coming out from up there. That is all the heat we 
have." He says: "Who got that thing up?" "Why, that is a 
scientific heating arrangement." "It is, is it? Well, I wish 
you would call that Mr. Scientific fellow up and ask him why 
it is my fur cap won't keep my feet warm." (Laughter.) 

Mr. G. N. Dow: I would like to state that the Lake Shore 
is taking to the policy of examining cars that have been out 
a year. We send a man out and give him the numbers of the 
cars that have been out twelve months and he examines 
those cars and reports to the office whether they should be 
shopped or not, or whether they are good for one or three 
months' longer service. It takes a man about a week to ex- 
amine cars on the list. 
Mr. Quest: Do you use a painter for that business? 
Mr. Dow: He is a car man, but is familiar with paints. A 
painter is not the right man to send. And oftentimes he finds 
other defects that require a car to be shopped other than 
need of varnish. 

Mr. G. E. Carson: We are following that system at the 
present time and we find on one of our divisions that it is out 
of the question to keep cars in service longer than six months. 
Mr. Quest: You refer to the cars recently shopped off the 
Youghiogheny division, which were brought in and emulsion 
cleaned, on account of varnished surface being almost entire- 
ly obscured by dirt, grease and smoke. 

Mr. G. W. Stratton: On the Pennsylvania at one time, 
there was quite a complsiint of varnish not doing well, but it 
was only an occasional car that was bad. ("I would state 
that it is the practice of the Pennsylvania to apportion shops 
to different varnish makers.'") Well, we had to look up the 
samples of varnish, and in the mechanical laboratory they 
were examined to see how much good copal they might have 



io8 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



March. 



1904. 



in them, and the varnishes generally were found to be good. 
Then a person started out to see what kind of soap they used 
in washing their cars, and we found that the soap that was 
used at the points where the cars deteriorated faster, con- 
tained quite an amount of uncombined alkali, while the soap 
used where the varnish lasted better Avas fully combined or 
saponified. That led to the making of specifications for soap 
that there should be less than one-half of one per cent of un- 
combined alkali in the soap. And, also a core was taken out 
of the soap an inch in diameter and two inches long, which 
had to support a given weight a given length of time, which 
would prove whether it contained too much water. 

Mr. J. D. Mcllwain: Do not climatic conditions have a great 
deal to do with the life of paint? 

Mr. Quest: It is generally conceded that climatic condi- 
tions do have a great deal to do with it. The material you 
use here in this section, in all probability would not be fit 
to use in Arizona, nor would it last long down along the 
coast, or in the extreme hot and cold sections of our country. 
I remember distinctly a few years ago we had a series of 
panel tests, which were gotten up in one section and then 
sent out all over the country, centrally, East, West, North 
and South for exposure. At the expiration of two years 
these panels were called in and examined at a railway car 
painters' convention, where it was discovered that where 
the paint did well in some sections, it went all to pieces in 
other sections, showing conclusively that climatic influence 
has something to do in the wearing of paint and varnish. 

Mr. Mcllwain: In clearing with sand blast, after this clean- 
ing is done, or the scraping or burning off, which takes the 
longest to complete the tender ready for service afterwards? 

Mr. Quest: The sand blast is decidedly the quickest and 
cheapest cleaning method, but after the cleaning there is 
practically no difference. We usually require ten days' time 
for a new painted locomotive, but also have a five-day sys- 
tem on the more hurried new work. 



Notes and Comments 

Mr. A. J. Winchell, formerly with the American Car and 
Foundry Co., has been appointed Foreman Painter of the St. 
Louis Car Co., at St. Louis. 



Pending the appointment of Foreman Painter at the Lima, 
Ohio, shops of the Lake Erie & Western R. R., vice Geo. Paulus 
resigned, Mr. 0. S. Diling is acting foreman, we are informed. 



. ' Mr. C. I. Eagle, Foreman Painter, has severed his connection 
with the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western at the Scranton 
shop on the staff of Mra. B. E. Miller. Master Painter, and 
has accepted service with the Wabash Ry. at the Decatur, 111., 
shops, for the present. His address will be care Wabash Ry. 
Shops, Decatur, 111. 



We learn tbat during the last week in January the paint 
and upholstery shops of the Delaware & Hudson railroad, at 
Green Island, Troy, N. Y., were destroyed by fire, together 
with thirteen cars, aggregating a loss of some $80,000. It is 
rumored that the shops will not be rebuilt. Mr. A. Bush was 
Foreman Painter at this point. The cause of the fire is not 
given. 



A special from Scranton, Pa., to the Philadelphia North 
American, under date of Feb. 16th, says: "The D., L. & W. 
Railroad's paint shop on South Washington avenue was de- 
stroyed by fire today, together with a dining car, six vesti- 
bule passenger cars, one milk car and, eight freight cars. Two 
passenger cars outside the shop were damaged. Loss nearly 
$100,000. Three workmen, Patrick Walsh, Wm. Easterbrook 
and John Tschow, were badly burned. The fire was caused 



by a workman who was burning paint from an old car with 
a gasoline torch." The above must be our esteemed asso- 
ciate, Ben. E. Miller's shop. Mr. Easterbrook is assistant fore- 
man painter, we are informed. 



The sympathy of the many friends of Mr. Augustus Dow- 
dell, of Valentine & Co., will go out to him in his great be- 
reavement. Mrs. Dowdell died Feb, 11th, the funeral occur- 
ring at the home in Philadelphia, Monday, the 15th. She was 
ill but a week, having contracted a cold which developed into 
pneumonia while nursing her sick son. She was a direct de- 
scendant of Nicholas Van Dusen, who was a pioneer ship 
builder in that city on the Delaware river, whose yard em- 
braced the land whereon Avas the elm tree under which Wil- 
liam Penn made his treaty with the Indians; also of Col. John 
Hewson, renowed for bravery and patriotism in revolutionary 
days, and was a woman of inestimable worth and beloved by 
all AA r ho knew her. 



We note in the Boston Globe, Feb. 12, that Mr. and Mrs. R. 
T. Beazley observed their golden wedding the previous even- 
ing at 25 Rutland Square, and clip the following paragraph 
from the account: "As residents of Waterville, Me., their 
former home, Mr. and Mrs. Beazley were well and favorably 
known. Mr. Beazley was for 15 years master car painter of 
the Maine Central railroad and Avas one of the first ten who 
met and organized the Master Car Painters' Association of 
America.- Mr. Beazley is a veteran of the civil war, a mem- 
ber of the Masonic fraternity, and a Knight Templar." 

We believe in more recent days Mr. Beazley had been em- 
ployed by the Boston, Revere Beach & Lynn narroAv gauge 
road. We had lost track of him. It was some thirty years 
ago that he was with the Maine Central. 



The latest and most wonderful heat producer invented for 
developing high temperatures is called thermit. Don't breathe 
while we say that it is an "aluminothermic" compound— that 
is to say, formed by the combination of oxygen and alumi- 
num. The immense heat generated by this combination is 
utilized in welding great bodies "while you wait," without 
the necessity of taking them apart and carting them to the 
foundry. For instance, , the great German ocean liner Sevilla 
recently broke her stern post at sea. It was easily welded 
in the dry dock by the use of thermit, whereas formerly the 
after part of the ship would have been taken to pieces and 
the welding then done. Thermit is one of the wonders of the 
age. It will save untold expense to steamship and railway 
companies, and will weld anything short of a broken heart.— 
Recent editorial, Boston Globe. 



It is too often the case as men grow old, that their ambi- 
tion and enterprise diminish, and it is a pleasant surprise to 
see the reverse of this occasionally. In Warner Bailey's 
office, at Concord, N. H, yesterday, Feb. 18, Ave noticed a num- 
ber of fine panel pictures he had painted in spare hours, lately, 
that would grace any man's parlor mantel. Always a fine 
scroll and ornamental painter he has of late, being around 
seventy years of age, taken up picture painting for his own 
amusement. "Guess if I had started at this 50 years ago 1 
might haA r e been quite a success," said he. Concord is the 
birthplace of the "old home week" idea, so he has tastily 
decorated some shingles, being planed for the purpose, Avith 
clover blossoms and a sketch of "the old house at home," and 
otherwise suitably inscribed as soiwenirs, on which is the 
following suggestive lines: 

"To gaze once more on old-time scenes, 
, Well I recall my- boyhood days, 

When mother used the shingle." 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



109 



Established 1878. 



RAILWAY 
MASTER 
MECHANIC 

Bruce V. Crandall, Publisher Charles S. Myers, Manager. 
Maham H. Haig, Editor 



Office of Publication, Rooms 501 and 502 The Plymouth Bldg., 

305 Dearborn Street. 

TELEPHONE, HARRISON 3357. 

Eastern Office: Room 716, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 

A Monthly Railway Journal. 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equip- 
ment, shops, machinery and supplies. 

Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are 
solicited. 

Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, 
free of postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates 
given on application to the office, by mail or in person. 

In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Oran- 
dall Company. 



Vol. XXVIII. 



CHICAGO, APRIL, 1904. 



No. 4. 



AMOVE in the right direction which has come to 
our notice is in the systematic attention to the 
proper care of locomotive boilers, both in the roundhouse 
and on the road. A certain line which we have in mind 
some time ago began a careful investigation of the effect 
produced on boilers by the care exerted in and around 
the roundhouse. They obtained such satisfactory results 
that the management was encouraged to further their 
efforts by a close scrutiny of boilers on the road. Progress 
in the proper care of the boilers was begun by improving 
washouts at the several roundhouses, and when found 
necessary to cool a boiler for any purpose, all possible 
time was insisted upon to permit it to cool down slowly. 
With these reforms in view a special man was appointed 
to look after this work and follow it closely. Results were 
so satisfactory that he now holds classes in the several 
roundhouses, giving instructions on the care of boilers 
in the same manner that various roads provide for in- 
struction on air brake matters. His work has been so 
carefully administered and his subject so thoroughly 
analyzed and systematized that he can now satisfactorily 
handle a large number of men each day. 

The work .at terminals has been supplemented by sim- 
ilar attention to boiler performance on the road. The plan 
includes the education of the enginemen in the most judi- 
cious use of the blower, fire, fire door and injector. Here, 
too, no little success is being attained. The road fore- 
men are called together at intervals, when they are given 
subjects to think over and points are suggested for their 
observation and for the guidance of the enginemen. 
From the resultant discussions and inquiries many inter- 
esting features about boilers are brought out, suggesting 
ideas which can be followed to the betterment of past 
practice. When any favorable information is in this 
manner acquired, the practice involved is closely followed, 
with a view of obtaining the best possible results. 



IN line with the continued consideration of locomo- 
tive boilers wherein much attention has been 
given to the matter of circulation and the provision 
of free water spacing, little or nothing appears to have 
been said regarding the effect resulting from the shape 
of the water leg, or rather the angle on which it is 
arranged. Where the sheets forming the water leg 
are arranged on a decided slope the tendency is for 
the steam leaving the firebox side sheet to rise ver- 
tically until it encounters the outside, or wagon top, 
sheet, following the same until it reaches the upper 
portion of the boiler, the result being a con- 
tinued upper current throughout the entire portion of 
the water legs tending to induce an upward current of 
entering water and impeding any flow in a horizontal 
direction, or parllel with the mud ring. If, on the 
other hand, the leg is vertical, or nearly so, the steam 
rising from some portions of the side sheet is free to 
rise unimpeded until it reaches the wider portion of 
the boiler above the level of tffe crown sheet, and 
steam rising from the lower portion of the side sheet 
does not encounter the outside sheet until it arrives 
nearly at the top of the leg. With this condition an 
opportunity is provided for water to flow unobstructed 
from the belly of the boiler and from the front water 
leg to the lower portion of the side and back spaces 
without meeting a strong current to induce it upward 
until the water is converted into steam by the heat 
encountered, when other water will flow in to take 
the place of that evaporated. The same assumption 
applies as well to the back water leg and appears as 
an argument against the continued design of back 
heads with a decided forward rake. 

While discussing these ideas with mechanical men, 
the plan was suggested of tapering the water leg, in 
the horizontal plane, making the side members of the 
mud ring, say, 7 or 8 inches wide at the throat, taper- 
ing to 3 inches at the back. This would permit a free 
flow of water entering the legs and assist circulation 
around the firebox. While such a design might ap- 
pear as a "freak" idea on first sight, it is not imprac- 
tical. The taper form would not destroy any more 
cab room and a slight advantage would be gained in 
throwing a portion of the boiler weight further for- 
ward. 



IN our last issue we mentioned a gathering of railroad 
storekeepers in Chicago, the outcome of which is the 
organization of the "Railway Storekeepers' Association." 
This is a move in the right direction and one that should 
receive the hearty co-operation of all railroad companies 
throughout the country. It is only within the last few 
years that the stores department has been afforded the 
prominence which it deserves, and which its usefulness 
justifies. The title "general storekeeper" is a compara- 
tively new one to many roads, and it is particularly com- 
mendable that these men should organize almost at once 
for an interchange of ideas among the stores department 



TIO 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



of the several railroads, and institute an association by 
which the members may consider and agree upon the most 
efficient methods of handling and distributing supplies, 
and contribute to a practical and intelligent administra- 
tion of the department. The membership will consist 'of 



general to the stores department. Of particular sig- 
nificance with regard to the benefit derived from an 
exchange of ideas and the value of a well-organized 
and administered stores department, are the words of 
Mr. W. R. Ormsby, general storekeeper of the South- 



all officers whose duty it may be to purchase, disburse or e rn Pacific Railway, on page 58 of our February issue, 
direct the disbursement of material for railways. +—+ < 



The discussion and investigation of the most econom- 
ical and practical methods of providing, distributing and 
accounting for material and supplies, presents a wide field. 
By a careful consideration of the experience of the several 
members, and by a free exchange of ideas it is possible 
to arrive at conclusions by J 
which supplies may be so 
safeguarded as to con- 
tribute to a more satisfac- 
tory balance sheet. As 
railroads are dependent al- 
most as much upon ielative 
savings as upon traffic to 
produce dividends, it natur- 
ally follows that a thor- 
oughly organized and effi- 
ciently administered de- 
partment accounting for 
the proper use and disposi- 
tion of stores and supplies 
will make itself felt by the 
effect upon revenues. 

The storekeeper's de- 
partment differs very ma- 
terially from the other de- 
partments in the multitude 
and variety of the material 
which comes under its 
jurisdiction. The store- 
keeper's duties consist no-t 
in the careful handling of 
a few large things, but 
rather in the detailed 
watchfulness of the many 
small things which, indivi- 
dually considered amount 
to very little, but in the ag- 
gregate constitute a ma- 
terial factor 



Not only is 



Mr. Samuel Higgins. 

general, manager of the new york, new 
haven & hartford ry. 



there the new material to 
be taken care of, but second 
hand material and even |- 
scrap. Through this department is sifted what might be 
termed the refuse of the railways, and here again the 
strict attention to detail, and to the little things, count in 
a very great saving to the, company. It is not always 
the question what to save but what to save it for and 
how to use to best advantage. 

It is with peculiar interest that the Railway Master 
Mechanic refers to this organization, inasmuch as we 
have presented in recent issues communications from 
several general storekeepers which, though bearing 
more directly upon the disposition of scrap, refer in 



Mr. Higgins entered railroad service in 1881 with the New York, Lake Erie & 
Western, serving successively as machinist apprentice, machinist, assistant 
foreman, and general foreman in the Susquehanna shop. He was for two years 
assistant engineer of the motive power department, division master mechanic 
from 1887 to 1892, and assistant superintendent of motive power to Feb. 1st, 1894, 
when he was appointed superintendent of motive power of the Lehigh Valley. 
On April 1st, 1901, he became superintendent of motive power and machinery of 
the Union Paeific, accepting the appointment of mechanical superintendent of 
the Southern Railway, June, 1902, which position he now leaves for his recent 
appointment on the N. Y., N. H. & H. Railway. It is with no little pride that 
the Railway Master Mechanic announces the appointment of a man trained 
in the motive power department to fill the position of General Manager. 



IT is to be regretted that the able paper by Prof. 
W. F. M. Goss concerning the technical graduate 
and the machinery department of railroads was pre- 
sented before so few railway mechanical officials as 
were assembled at the March meeting of the Western 

"Railway Club when the 
paper was discussed. But 
a single motive power offi- 
cer entered into the dis- 
cussion, while a large ma- 
jority of those before 
whom the paper was read 
were supply men. This 
suggests the opinion that 
the roads are no longer 
interested in training tech- 
nical men in the practical 
side of the machinery de- 
partment, or that so much 
has already been presented 
on this subject that the 
representatives no longer 
care to discuss it. 

Far from making a plea 
that a "bed of roses" be 
provided for the graduate, 
Prof. Goss urged that 
some opportunity of pro- 
motion should be held out 
to the young man who 
spends several years in ac- 
tual contact with the prac- 
tical details of the motive 
power department. While 
in the shop the treatment 
of the graduate is that of 
a ■ workman and there he 
familiarizes himself with 
methods of doing work as 
well as with the character 
of the men employed, de- 
veloping a foundation for 




his own ability in a manner which it is impossible 
to acquire elsewhere. Inasmuch as other fields offer 
an attractive future for the technical graduate, but a 
limited number enter railroad motive power work, 
and if the roads desire this number increased it is only 
logical that an ambitious man should be given to 
understand that there is a goal ahead of him which will 
induce him to put forth his best efforts. 

On another page of this issue we present Prof. Goss' 
paper in abstract. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



in 



Electric Wiring of Machine Tools 

By O. W. Bodler 




HE introduction of the motor drive for the 
I machine shop has brought forward the 

problem of wiring machine tools. Very 
little attention is usually given to' this part 
of the installation, with the result that 
wires are continually torn down and in the 
way. 

The aim of this article is to show the way 
of determining the size of the wire, and 
some neat and compact forms of wiring, without regard 
to whether any one of the two, three or four wire sys- 
tems is the best. 

The number of amperes per horse power depends 
upon the voltage used. As 746 watts are equal to' one 
horse power, this can easily be determined by dividing 
746 by the voltage. 

The size of the wire for direct current is easily deter- 
mined by the formula — 

2XlXkXa 



c m = circular mills. 

1 — length of wire. 

k = constant = 10.8. 

A = amperes. 

v = drop of voltage in volts. 
The nearest commercial size to the c. m. thus found 
should then be used, care being taken that the amperes 
per wire thus found is not greater than that allowed 
by the National Board of Fire Underwriters. A copy 
of their table is given herewith. Also no wire should 
be used less than a No. 14. 

TABLE OF CARRYING CAPACITY OF WIRES 

Table A. Table B. 

Rubber-Cov'r'd Weatherproof 

Wires. Wires. 

B. & S. G. Amperes. Amperes. Circular Mills. 



18. 

16. 
14. 
12. 
10. 



5- 
4- 

3- 

2. 

1 . 

o. 

00. 

000. 



12. 

17- 
24. 

33- 
46. 

54- 
65. 
76. 
90. 
107. 



5 ••• 1,624 

8 2,583 

16 4,107 



23- 
32. 
46. 

65- 



6,53o 
10,380 
16,510 
26,250 



77 33,ioo 

.... 92 41,740 

.... no 52,630 

.... 131 66,370 

.... 156 83,690 

127 185 105,500 

150 220 133,100 

177 262 167,800 

OOOO 2IO 312 2TI,600 

The above formula has been thoroughly tested in serv- 
ice and found to be accurate. The usual drop of voltage 




Fig. 1 — Showing Tablet Board with Wires Run in 
Loricated Pipes. 

allowable is 5 per cent from the switch board to the 
average distance of the machines. 

There are two ways of distributing the current for the 
machines. One is the tree system and the other the 
tablet board system. These are graphically illustrated in 
Figures 4 and 5. 

With the tree system the wires come from the switch- 
board and are tapped off for every machine. The wire 
has to be fused whenever the size changes, or where a 
wire is tapped in. When there are only a few motors, 
this works out very well, but when there are a large 
number of motors it makes a very complicated arrange- 
ment. It is usually the practice to have the heavy feed- 
ers in the roof trusses and if a fuse burns out it is hard 
to replace it. 




Fig. 2— Pond Frame Planer Direct Connected to a 

20 II. P. Constant Speed Crocker-Wheeler 

Motor. 



112 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



In the tablet board system, which is by far the better 
system, the feeders from the swichboard run to a dis- 
tribution board located at about the electrical center of 
gravity. From this, smaller feeders run to tablet boards, 
which are located so as to get a convenient number of 
machines, preferably not less than four. From the tablet 
board the wires run directly to the machines. The dis- 
tribution and tablet board are equipped with fuses, which 
makes them very convenient to get at. 

With the tablet board system one gets practically the 
same voltage for all the motors. Besides this it simplifies 
the wiring and is but very little, if any, more expensive 
than the tree system. 

When machines are far apart, good results can be 
obtained by using a combination of the two systems. 
In this case the feeders are run to a distribution board 
and from there follow the tree system. 

For variable speed machines, as lathes, planers, etc., 
a load factor of 30 per cent can be allowed on the main 
feeders. The size of the wires from the tablet board to 
the distribution board is determineod by .taking the maxi- 
mum capacity of the largest motor and half the capacity * 
of the sum of the rest. The size of the feeders for the 
distribution board is determined by taking 30 per cent 
of the total capacity of the motors on the board. Blowers 
and machines running constantly under full load should 
be carried back to the switchboard for their full capacity. 

In running wires in the shops they should always be 
placed out of the way of everything. A very good ar- 
rangement is to run them in loricated pipe along the 
walls, posts, or under the floor. All the wiring around 
machines should be in loricated pipe for protection. All 

Feeder Fuse Fuse 




Fig. 3 — Four Side Timber Dresser Direct Connected 
to 15 H. P. Constant Speed Crocker- 
Wheeler Motor. 

the wires for one machine can be carried in one pipe by 
using rubber covered wire. 

This same system of tablet board wiring can be ap- 
plied to lighting. Where machines equipped with direct 
connected motors are under cranes, the light can be taken 
off of the power circuit. This has given very good re- 
sults in service. . . 

Fig. 1 is an illustration of a tablet board where all 
the wires are run in loricated pipe. On the left it shows 
a pipe passing below the floor for a machine. In this 
case the circuit breaker for the machine is placed on the 
wall. 

When small lighting wires are run in the countershaft 
supports of machines, they should be placed in moulding 
Fuse 











Tool 






Tool 
















Tool 


Tool. 


, 




STRIBUTING El 




[VEN 




tc 4 — Tree System of Di 
Tablet 

BoAF(D 


ECTRIC 


Wires to Motor Dr 


VIachine Tools. 

TABLET 
BOARO 














or 

Q 
S 1 














Tool. 








Tool 


; 


tooz. 










Tool 
























Tool 


— » 


r 




Tool 


'do*. 










Tool 














































* 








































































































































Tool 








Tool 


l3oa/^d 

7 


OOL 










Tool 
























Tool 








Tool 


OOL 










Tool 

























Tablet Tablet 

Fig. 5 — Tablet Board System of Distributing Electric Wires to Motor Driven Machine Tools. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



113 




Fig. 6 — Newton Plane Milling Machine Direct 

Connected to a 20 H. P. Multiple Voltage 

Crocker-Wheeler Motor. 

to insure against oilers and repair men tearing them 
down. 

Heavy feeders should always be equipped with turn- 
buckles and strain insulators, when making turn to take 
up the slack. 

The starter and switches of individual drive machines 
should always be placed at least as convenient for the 
operator as a belt shifter. On lathes this can be placed 
on the tool carriage, but on machines where this is im- 
possible they should be placed on brackets on the floor 
convenient for the operator. 

Circuit breakers on machines are a great safety to the 
motor and machine, besides saving a large number of 
fuses. 

Fig. 6 is a No. 4 Newton plane milling machine direct 
connected to a 20 horse-power multiple voltage Crocker- 
Wheeler motor. The feed wire comes up from under the 
floor in a pipe to the left of the controller to the switch. 
From the switch the wire passes into the controller, which 
is connected with the resistance and motor on top of the 



machine. The circuit breaker being connected in the 
armature circuit. 

Fig. 7 is a No. 2 Lenox rotary bevel shear direct con- 
nected to a 10 horse-power multiple voltage Crocker- 
Wheeler motor. In this case the wire is placed in mould- 
ing on the wall and then passes under the floor in pipe 
to the controller. The switch is placed on the back of 
the controller and the resistance and circuit breaker on 
the wall. This also shows the application of an electric 
light on the power circuit. 

Fig. 3 is a four side timber dresser direct connected 
to a 50 horse-power constant speed Crocker- Wheeler 
motor. The motor is on the right of the machine while 
the switch and starter are on a bracket on the left. The 
wire is run in pipe from the tablet board to the machine. 

Fig. 2 is a 54 inch by 54 inch by 32 foot Pond frame 
planer direct connected to a 20 horse-power constant 




Fig. 7 — Lennox Rotary Bevel Shear Direct Con- 
nected to 10 H. P. Multiple Voltage Crocker- 
Wheeler Motor. 

speed Crocker- Wheeler motor. The motor is located on 
top of the machine and the switch and starter are on a 
bracket on the floor convenient for the operator. The 
wire is all run under the floor in pipes. 



Air-Brake Hose Testing Apparatus— N. & W. Ry. 



IN view of the expense to which the Norfolk & West- 
ern Railway has been placed in supplying air brake 
hose, devices for thoroughly testing this material have 
been- designed by the motive power department, and it is 
found by careful testing that the efficiency of the material 
may be thoroughly determined before being placed in 
service. The illustrations which we present herewith 
show the device for the bursting test to the right of 
Fig. 1 and the apparatus for the buckling test to the left 
of the same figure. Another view of the buckling test 
machine is shown by Fig. 2. The latter machine is de- 
vised to reproduce, as far as possible, the vibration or 



buckling to which hose is subjected on the road. It is 
operated by a pulley driven by a belt from a counter shaft 
above. On the shaft of this pulley is a crank for giving 
motion to a vibrating arm. The illustrations show very 
clearly the manner in which the hose is attached at one 
end to a point on the table connected with the air supply 
pipe, and on the other end to a vibrating arm. In order 
to save time in placing and removing the hose, unions are 
so arranged that the hose may be held securely by a lever 
clamp. A constant pressure of air is maintained in the 
hose by using a standard Westinghouse signal line re- 
ducing valve, and it is found that the best results are oh- 



114 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



tained by fifteen pounds pressure. In the union between 
the reducing- valve and the hose is a copper diaphragm 
in which is located a small hole of about one one-hun- 
dredth of an inch in diameter. This is provided to reduce 
the flow of air into the hose so that when the hose is suffi- 
ciently worn by the buckling action to allow the escape of 
air it cannot be supplied fast enough to maintain pres- 
sure therein. In order to announce a break and 
consequent leak in the hose, a whistle is attached to the 
end of the vibrating arm, as shown in the illustrations, 
and connected to the upper end of the hose. Air is main- 
tained in the hose and kept from leaking through to the 
'whistle by a plain bevel seat valve, which is held closed 
by pressure of the air. On the opposite side is a spring 
to unseat the valve, which is set at 12 pounds. When a 
leak occurs in the hose and the pressure is reduced below 
12 pounds, the valve unseats, permitting air to pass to 
the whistle, announcing the leak. An ordinary cyclometer 
is arranged on the frame supporting^ the machine, and is 
operated by the crank engaging the lugs thereon, so that 
the number of vibrations are counted automatically. . The' 
hose is usually given about 120 vibrations per minute, and 
while no specifications have been prepared in this direc- 





Fig. 2 — Hose Testing Apparatus — N. & W. Ry. 

■tion, the hose should stand about 75,000 vibrations, or 
bucklings, before failing. 

The apparatus for the bursting test consists of a frame 
for supporting the hose and pipe connections and a differ- 
ential piston for supplying the necessary pressure. The 
position of the hose is shown in the illustration and the 
manner in which it is clamped is also indicated. In mak- 
ing the test water is admitted from below to fill the hose 
and small cylinder. The valve is then closed and air ad- 
mitted to the top of the upper and larger cylinder, forcing 
the piston down and supplying a pressure to the hose. 
The diameter of the smaller piston in this instance is 2% 
inches, and the larger, or air cylinder, is 8 inches in diam- 
eter. The Master Car Builders' Association requires that 
a test hose must stand for ten minutes a pressure of 500 
pounds before bursting. 

Besides the appliances here described the road has sim- 
ple tests for friction and stretching, as required by the 
M. C. B. Association. In presenting these illustrations 
and description we acknowledge the courtesy of Mr. W. 
H. Lewis, superintendent of motive power of the Nor- 
folk and Western Railway, and Mr. W. W. Lemen, en- 
Sfineer of tests 



Fig. 1 — Hose Testing Apparatus — N. & W. Ry. 



It was suggested at the March meeting of the Western 
Railway Club that in view of' the increasing necessity of 
the adoption of steel as the timber supply diminishes, the 
Master Car Builders' Association might well begin the 
investigation, of the most practical forms to be adopted 
in steel car construction, in order to be prepared to meet 
the exigencies which must necessarily arise in coping 
with the future economical repairs of cars of this type. 



April, 1904 RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 115 

New Shops of the Terminal Railroad Association of St Louis at 

East St Louis, III. 




HE old shops of the Terminal Railroad 
'■" Association of St. Louis, located on 16th 
street, near the Union Station, having been 
outgrown by the mechanical department 
and having become totally inadequate to 
maintain the motive power equipment, this 
company has constructed a new shop for 
the repair of locomotives and the main- 
tenance of the few cars owned by them, 
just north of East St. Louis, 111. In addition to this 
plant the company is erecting three new square engine 
houses and a modern coaling station to be located on 
the site of the old plant. These engine houses will 
maintain 58 engines and facilities will be provided 
for light locomotive repairs. Much interest is being 
attached to this small plant on the St. Louis side of 
the river because of the adoption of square houses 
instead of the round house heretofore usually built. 
The three houses are served by two transfer tables, 
and inasmuch as most engines housed here will be used 
in switching service, and the few passenger engines 
receiving light repairs will be turned on the Y's at 
the Union Station, the feature of providing a turn- 
table or Y for turning the engines does not enter, and, 
therefore, the space which would perforce be occupied 
by this feature is eliminated. 

The general lay-out of the new plant near East St. 
Louis is shown by Fig. 4, and a bird's eye view of 
the shop buildings is presented by Fig. 1. The shops 
were planned by Mr, Daniel Breck, general superin- 
tendent, with the assistance of the engineering depart- 
ment, and most of the work was done under contract. 
The buildings were constructed by Purdy & Hender- 
son, of Chicago, and" most of the electrical apparatus 



for power transmission provided by Westinghouse, 
Church, Kerr & Co., of New York City. The machine 
tools were installed by the mechanical department of 
the railroad. 

The manufacturers of individual installations will 
be presented later as the several features are taken up 
in detail. While the buildings are plain as regards 
exterior appearance and there is nothing especially 




Fig. 2— Exterior View of Locomotive and Machine 
Shop — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 

new or unusually peculiar about their construction, 
they are well put together and serviceable. An un- 
fortunate feature of the land on which the shop is 
built was its low, uneven and swampy condition, re- 
quiring much filling and necessitating deep founda- 
tions. In some instances a fill of 12 feet was neces- 
sary. None of the foundations are placed on piles 
except the foundation for the stack. 

The principal building is occupied by the locomo- 
tive and machine shop. It is built of brick supported 
by a structure of steel resting on stone foundations, 
and is 329 ft. 7 in. long by 122 ft. 10 in. wide. It is 
interesting to observe the thorough manner in which 
the building is lighted by day, a large expanse of the 




Fig. 1 — Bird's Eye View of Plant — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



n6 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 




Fig. 3 — Niles Wheel Lathes in Locomotive and Machine Shop, Served by Traveling Crane- 
Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



wall being given over to glass window lights. The 
main floor is divided into two bays, the west side 
being arranged with transverse pits for the erecting 
floor, and the east bay for machine tools. Over the 
machine side is a balcony extending the entire length 
of the main portion of the building in which are lo- 
cated the tin shop, pattern shop, air brake room, hot- 
air ventilating system and wash rooms. At one end 
of this building, and separated from the main portion 
by a brick wall extending to the roof, is a smaller 
structure, 122 ft. 10 in. x jj ft. 10 in., for the black- 
smith shop. The north end of the machine side within 
a space bounded by the wall of the blacksmith shop 
on the north and the third row of columns on the 

I 



south, and separated by a short wall extending from 
the floor to the under side of the balcony, is a depart- 
ment given over to boiler shop machines, and an 
imaginary line running north from the center row of 
columns' supporting the balcony to the north wall of 
the blacksmith shop, provides a space given over to 
boiler work, including the flue working machines, etc. 
There are nine pits on the erecting floor, seven of 
which are used for general repairing, and the last 
two at the north end are devoted to tank and boiler 
repair work, being in close proximity to the boiler 
tools. The erecting floor is served by a Niles electric 
crane of 80 tons capacity, having in addition two hoists 
of 20 tons capacity and one of 10 tons capacity 





53 



^ \ ^ 



,5 71 LM1IS TRHY a FAXTFRH 



Fig. 4 — General Lay-Out of Plant — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



117 



for handling lighter parts. It is interesting to 
notice that sufficient space is provided back of the 
engines so that the driving wheels of each loco- 
motive may be placed on the pit which it occu- 
pies, and at the same time leave ample space for the 
transportation of material between the back of the 
pits and the center line of the shop. The rails extend 
back to within a few feet of the crane girder columns. 
In connection Avith each locomotive pit are four jack 
block pits, so arranged that when required to jack up 
an engine it will not be necessary to rest the jack 
block on the cement floor. When the jack pits are not 
in use they are covered by planking, which is readily 
removable. 

In arranging for the disposition of machine tools 
care was taken to so place the heavier tools that they 
may be served by the large traveling crane. For this 
purpose the wheel lathes and large boring mill were 
placed along the south wall of the erecting side. Other 
tools for heavy work were placed on the machine side 




Fig. 5 — Showing Motor Connection to 79-iN. Wheel 
■ Lathe — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



? 1 r 

> IV'"" -t' " '■*'**- ; 


iiHT In 1 \ *gf D 1 

~ t ' JL'fi .1 • rii't 


* ' ^ . / ,Tw 









Fig. 6 — View in Machine Side of Locomotive and Machine Shop — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



near the row of columns which divide the shop into 
the two bays. In this manner the crane may be used 
to place work near the machine, from which position 
it can be handled by air hoists. In these latter men- 
tioned are the two planers, which are so located that 




Fig. 7 — Showing Distribution of Hot Air Discharge 

Pipes in Locomotive and Machine Shop — 

Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



their beds may extend into the space covered by the 
crane, and work may be placed there by the traveler. 
All wheel work is done in the south end of the build- 
ing, the southeast corner being arranged with the ma- 
chines for car wheel work, and at this end of the build- 
ing a through track extends, on which the wheels are 
placed when finished, to be transported to the storage 
yard. Near this track the bolt and nut machines are 
located, so that bolts and nuts may be conveniently 
transported on trucks from the blacksmith and store 
houses respectively, and may be as readily delivered 
when threaded. The floor of the machine side and 
that portion of the erecting floor given over to the 
machines above mentioned is of wood, while the floor 
of the erecting side is of cement. The floor of the 
blacksmith shop is of the usual tamped cinder. 

Most of the machine tools are individually driven 
by electric motors, but a number of them under the 
balcony arc belt driven. Tt is interesting to observe 



I [i 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 




Fig. 8 — Plan of Locomotive and Machine Shop — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 





Fig. 9 — Long & Alstatter Punch and Shear, Driven Fig. 10 — Niles Radial Drill Direct Connected to 6 
by a 10 H. P. Westinghouse Motor — ■ H. P. Westinghouse Motor — Terminal 

Terminal R. R. of St. L. R. R. op St. L. 



nuRoften 3'xiP 




Fig. ii — Cross Section of Locomotive and Machine Shop — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



119 



that the 79-in. wheel lathe is supplied with three 
motors, one for operating the face plates, while the 
other two are in use in connection with the quarter- 
ing device, The 54-in. planer is provided with a 20 
H. P. motor for driving the table, while the cross rail 
is operated by a 4 H. P. motor. The motor for driv- 
ing the line shaft is located on the floor of the balcony. 
A traveling air hoist is arranged to run parallel with 
the length of the building, serving the heavier ma- 
chines near the western border of the machine bay. 

Special interest attaches to the lavatory and wash 
rooms provided for the men. As above mentioned, 
these facilities are located on the balcony, and ar- 
ranged in two tiers, and being within the buildings 
are kept well warmed and ventilated, and provide 
against the necessity of the men going out of doors. 
These rooms are well equipped with urinals, closets, 
157 individual lockers, and 90 basins. The basins are 
supplied with both hot and cold water, and are ar- 
ranged in double rows between the lockers, and so far 




Fig. 12 — 84-iNCH Niles Boring Mill Driven by a 22 

Ff. P. Westinghouse Motor — Terminal 

R. R. of St. L. 




Fig. 13 — Side Elevations of Locomotive and Machine Shop — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 

as space permits the lockers are arranged 
along the walls ; the remainder are ar- 
ranged in double rows through the rooms. 
For the sake of ventilation and to pro- 
vide against the likelihood of fire the 
Lockers are made of expanded metal. In 
addition to these facilities are four 
shower baths for the use of the men. 

In connecion with the lighting of the 
shop it should be mentioned that ample 
head room is provided between the main 
floor of the machine side and the bottom 
of the balcony, this distance being 17 ft. 
i l /> ins. The crane girders are sup- 
ported by a double row of individual col- 
umns, the distance from the floor to 
bottom of the girder being 23 ft. 3^4 ins., 
and the distance from the bottom of the 
girder to bottom of rail 4 ft. [-32 iii. The 
building is heated by the Sturtevant sys- 
tem. Strain roils, fan and operating en- 
gine arc located in the balcony as here- 




FlG. i 



4 — View Showing [nterior of Lavatory 
Wash Room— Terminal R. R, or St. L. 



120 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



tofore mentioned, and hot air is delivered by galvanized 
iron ducts terminating in the center row of columns in a 
line a few feet below the balcony, as shown by Fig. 7. 
The equipment in the locomotive and machine shop in- 
clude the following' : 




Fig. 15 — Niles i6-in. Slotter Driven by 7 H. P. 
Westinghouse Motor — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



Maker. 
Niles 



D.Saunders' Son 
Niles 

Pratt&Whitney 

Jones&Larnson 

Niles 

Pond 

Hill-Clarke 

Niles 

Niles 

Bement-Niles 
Cin. Simper Co.- 

Niles 



Motor Speed of 

Machines. Horse Power. Motor. 

69-in. wheel lathe 13-26 300-1200 

79-in. wheel lathe (2) -3-6* 400-1600 

13-261 300-1200 

84-in. boring mill 13-22 300-1200 

Driving wheel press 5 .950 

Axle lathe 10-20 375-1500 

Car wheel press. 5 1040 

Pipe machine 3 1050 

Car wheel borer Belt driven 

(3) Acme bolt machines.. Belt driven 

Turret lathe Belt driven 

Turret lathe 1% 300-1200 

24-in. lathe ).. 1% " 300-1200 

28-in. lathe 3y 2 1200-1600 

36-in. lathe 5-10 400-1600 

26-in.. lathe Belt driven 

2 18-in. lathes 1% 

16-in. lathe 1% 

Radial drill 3-6 400-600 

26-in. traveling head shaper 5-10 300-1200 

24-in. shaper 2-4 300-1200 

37-in. boring mill 5-10 400-600 

16-in. slotter 3y 2 -7 325-1300 

Horizontal boring bar 3.6 400-1600 

36-iii. planer (10-ft. bed) . . 8% 1125 

54-in. planer (14-ft. bed).. 20$ 850 

4§ 600 

IN BOILER DEPARTMENT. 

Punch and shear 10 850 

12-ft. boiler sheet rolls. 26 650 

Flue welder 

Flue cleaner 

Flue cutter 

IN BLACKSMITH DEPARTMENT. 

2%-in. bulldozer ...... Ajax 

Shear Pk. Kueeland 

2500-lb. steam hammer.... Niles 

Bradley hammer 

9 Buffalo forges (down 

draft) 

20 horse-power motor for 

supplying draft ........ " 630 

15 horse-power motor for 

driving line shaft 1150 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
60 horse-power motor for 

line shaft in wood shop 630 

5 H. P. motor for line 

shaft in pattern room. . . 1150 

20 H. P. motor for main 

line shaft' in machine 

shop 830 

35 Y. P. reversible motor 

for driving transfer table 280 

*Quartering device. tFace plate. ^Driving table. §Raising 
cross rail. 

The further features of interest will be presented in our 
next issue. 



Pond 



Long&Alstatter 

Niles 

Hartz 



A. Device for Locating Gauge Cocks 

THE mechanical department of the Chesapeake & 
Ohio railroad has originated a practical and 
simple device for locating gauge cocks in locomotive' 
boilers. The appliance is merely an application of the 
hydrostatic level. The parts used in this connection 
consist of a piece of rubber hose about twenty feet 
long and one-half inch in diameter, the hose having 
metallic wrapping to prevent kinking preferably. In 
each end of the hose a piece of glass tube, as large as 
possible, is inserted. The .arrangement is shown in 
the accompanying line drawing. 

The glass should be arranged securely and made 
water tight; their ends should be ground a little un- 
evenly, in order that when the end is placed against 
the crown sheet it will permit water to leak out be- 
tween the end of the tube and the sheet. Reference 
to the drawing will show the application of this device 
and the directions for its use are as follows : 

The tube B should be held against the highest point 
of the crown sheet, and the tube A at the other end of 
-the hose, should be held about where the gauge cocks 
■are to be located. Water should be poured into tube 
A until the hose is entirely filled and runs out of tube 
B. By holding the tubes and hose perfectly still, the 
level of the water in tube A will show the height of 
the top of tube B, and therefore the location of the 
highest point of the crown sheet. The water level in 
tube A is the height of the under side of the crown 
sheet, and to this position must be added the thick- 
ness of the sheet. 

The practice of this road is to locate the lowest 
cock for engines carrying 180 lbs. of steam and over, 
43/2 inches above the highest point of the crown sheet, 
and the vertical distance between centers of the gauge 



'Gouge Cock 




11 



\^ffuibef f/ose 



. Top One orSrofe 



Hydraulic Level for Locating Gauge Cocks— 
C. & O. R. R. 

cocks is 3 inches. For locomotives carrying less than 
180 lbs., the location of the gauge cock, above the 
highest point of the crown sheet, is 3 inches, and the 
vertical distance between centers 2^/2 inches. 

Before taking level for gauge cocks, it should be 
observed that the engine is perfectly level, or as near 
so as it is possible to arrange it; and it is further nec- 
essary to notice that the tube B is at the highest point 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



121 



of the crown sheet, and that it is entirely filled with 
water. Before taking the level in tube A, no part of 
the hose should be permitted to be higher than the 
bottom of tube B, and no kinks ' or sudden bends 
should be allowed to form in any part of the hose. 

In this connection it is interesting to observe that 
the practice of the C. & O. is to renew soft plugs in 
the crown sheet every thirty days. It has been found 
that the plugs deteriorate after having been in place 



for a greater length of time and become coated with a 
hard scale resulting from sulphur in the coal. These 
conditions so depreciate the value of the plugs for the 
purpose for which they are applied that if not fre- 
quently renewed they will be of little use in saving the 
crown sheet. 

In presenting this sketch we are indebted to Mr. F. 
H. Walsh, superintendent of motive power, and Mr. J. J. 
Ewing, mechanical engineer. 



Freight Locomotive— Southern Railway 



PRESENTED herewith are illustrations of the prin- 
cipal features and general dimensions of one of a 
number of large 2-8-0 freight locomotives recently placed 
in service by the Southern Railway, which were built at 
the Richmond Works of the American Locomotive Com- 
pany. The locomotives are designed to operate under 200 
pounds of steam ; the firebox is of the modified wide type 
for burning bituminous coal and in this connection it is 
observed that the water legs are nearly vertical, a point 
in design concerning which a discussion is presented in 
our editorial columns of this issue; the cylinders are 22 
inches in diameter by 30 inches stroke ; the valves are the 
Richardson balanced slide, and the driving wheels are 56 
inches in diameter. The driving boxes and centers of 
main driving wheels are cast steel. The boiler is fed by 
two Hancock injectors, No. 11, one located on each side 
of the firebox. The general dimensions applied to the 
usual formula for tractive effort show the locomotive 
capable of developing a starting power of 44,000 lbs. The 
weight on drivers is 173,700 lbs., the total heating sur- 
face is 3,517 sq. ft. and the grate area is 52.9 sq. ft. Com- 
paring these figures, the ratio of adhesive weight to trac- 
tive effort 3-94; ratio of tractive effort to total heating 
surface 12.5 and total heating surface divided by grate 
area is 66.4. One cylinder full of steam at boiler pressure 
weighs 2.923 lbs. and the ratio of total heating surface to 
this figure is 1,203. 



General Dimensions. 

Weight in working order 195,036 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 173,700 lbs. 

Weight, engine and tender, in working order 320,256 lbs. 

Wheel base) driving 16 ft. 

Whel base, total 24 ft. 3% ins. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender 55 ft. 1 in. 

Cylinders. 

Diameter and stroke 22 by 30 ins. 

Horizontal thickness of piston ■ 6% ins. 

Diameter of piston rod 4 ins. 

Size of steam ports 1% by 1.9 ins. 

Size of exhaust ports 3 by 19 ins. 

Size of bridges 1% ins. 

Valves. 

Greatest travel of slide valves 5% ins. 

Outside lap of slide valves 1 in. 

Inside lap of silde valves in. 

Lead of valves in full gear in. 

Wheels. 

Diameter of driving wheels outside of tire 56 ins. 

Thickness of tire 3 ins. 

Diameter and length of driving journals. . . .9 and 10 by 12 ins. 
Diameter and length of main crank pin journals. 7% by 6% Ins. 
Diameter and length of side rod crank pin journals. .8 by 5 ins. 

Engine truck journals Diameter, 5% by 10 ins. 

Diameter of engine truck wheels 33 ins. 

Boiler. 

Style Straight top, wide firebox. 

Outside diameter of first ring 76 11-16 ins. 

Working pressure 200 lbs. 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of firebox. .. . 

9-16, 11-16, % and 27-32 in. 

Horizontal seams Butt joint, sextuple riveted 

Circumferential seams Lap joint, double riveted. 

Firebox, length 107% ins. 

Firebox, width : 71% ins. 

Firebox, depth .Front, 74% ins.; back, 59% ins. 

Firebox, material Carbon steel. 




Freight Locomotive — Southern Rait. way. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1934. 




i>fHr*T — 



-36*- t>i— / ^*rr 



i 



<k.» 



>3L J —^- 



r«& 



— M 'l'1' 1 



kj I- te ^-> 



Freight Locomotive, Southern Railway— Sectional Elevation of Boiler and Half Section of 

Fire Box. 



Firebox, plates Thickness, % in.; tube sheet, % in. 

Firehox, water space 4-in. front, 3%-in. sides, 3%-in. back. 

Firebox, crown staying Radial, 1%-in. diameter. 

Firebox, staybolts 1-in. diameter. 

Tubes, material and gauge. .... .Charcoal iron, No. 11, B. W. G. 

Tubes, number < 437 

Tubes, diameter .2 ins. 0. D. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 14 ft. 6% ins. 

Heating surface, tubes 3,374 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 143 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3,517 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 52.9 sq. ft. 

Exhaust pipes Double. 



. .3%, 4 and 4% ins. 

17 ins. 

15 ft. % in. 



Exhaust nozzles 

Smokestack, inside diameter 

Smokestack, top above rail 

Tender. 

Style ' steel channel frame 

Weight, empty 50,650 lbs 

Journals, diameter and length 5 by 9 ins 

Wheel base ig ft. 4 ins 

Tender trucks- Arch bar type, with cast steel bolster 

Water capacity 6,000 U. S. gals 

Coal capacity 12.5 tons 

Westinghouse brake on all wheels, National hollow 
brake beams. 




Freight Locomotive, Southern Railway — Elevations and Sections. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



123 



The Distribution of Scrap 

Communication. 

To the Editor of The Railway Master Mechanic : 

The articles of Messrs. J. P. Murphy and W. R. Orms- 
by, General Storekeepers respectively of the L. S. & M. 
S. R. R. and Southern Pacific Co., relative to the tak- 
ing care of railroad scrap, have been read with no little 
degree of interest. Mr. Omsby's article, dealing with 
conditions on the Coast so radically at variance with con- 
ditions existing in this section where we are readily ac- 
cessible to the market, cannot fail to be of especial interest 
to all readers. 

Relative to Mr. Murphy's article. There are no roads 
around this section of the country that the writer knows 
of that do not handle scrap in practically the same man- 
ner as he outlines. Some roads pay more and others less 
attention to these details. In the first class this road may 
be included, as especial care and attention is given to 
the handling of scrap so that the best results may be 
obtained. Classified bins of ample proportions are pro- 
vided for the comfortable handling of material except 
under most abnormal conditions, and, the facilities for 
sorting a mixed car and putting different kinds of scrap 
in their proper bins very conveniently arranged. One 
feature that should receive careful attention and consid- 
eration is the usable material that comes mixed in with 
scrap; for' this purpose we have a large bin where the 
material is classified and when a quantity sufficient has 
accumulated is taken to the different departments where 
it can be used. This feature alone has been found to 
cover a large share of the expense involved in having 
skilled mechanics and laborers whose only work is the 
sorting, loading and unloading of scrap material. The 
above does not, of course, include copper, brass and other 
valuable scrap, which we insist on outside points pack- 
ing securely in boxes and barrels, and is kept under lock 
and key in the storeroom. The repair track daily turns 
over to the storeroom all scrap brass, etc., accumulated 
that day. At the latter part of the month this material 
is carefully loaded by classes in barrels and shipped away, 
as there is an ever ready market only too glad to get it. 

Have no idea that anything contained herein advances 
any ideas that well regulated roads have not formulated 
years ago and had in practice a corresponding length of 
time. The interchange of ideas between General Store- 
keepers cannot fail to be productive of the greatest good 
to all concerned, and it was with extreme regret that it 
was found necessary to give up being present at the in- 
itial meeting in Chicago last month, it will not happen 
again very soon. 

No little credit should be given Mr. Murphy, and other 
gentlemen, for their efforts in getting the organization 
started and making possible the "Railway Storekeepers' 
Association," which we all trust will result in something 
of which individually and collectively we may all be 
proud. 

Hope our brother on the far-off Pacific slope will soon 
favor us with another communication relative to methods 
pursued on his line. 



The province of the Store Department contains so 

many elements of good for railroad service that one feels 

like going on indefinitely, but having already trespassed 

on your valuable space too much will desist. Hoping 

to see many contributions in your interesting journal 

from other sources'. Very truly yours, 

D. E. Moodie, 

General Storekeeper and Accountant, 

Wisconsin Central Railway. 
••—•■ 

A Gauge for Setting Crank Pins 

A DEVICE for quickly setting the crank-pins of loco- 
motive driving wheels and for the accurate loca- 
tion of keyways has been designed and patented by Mr. 
Wm. A. Nunnally, a machinist in the Richmond shop of 
the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway. Mr. Nunnally has been 
engaged for several years in work on driving wheels, and 
appreciating the value of a device by which much time 
could be saved in this respect, he has taken advantage of 
his opportunity in perfecting this appliance. It consists 
principally of a skeleton body, whose sides or edges are 
parallel, and an extension skeleton, a portion of which is 
provided with two parallel straight edges, which is ar- 
ranged to be adjusted according to the several lengths of 
locomotive cranks. The apparatus is so arranged with 
lugs and forms as to be applied to a driving wheel when 
it is on the axle and when the crank-pin is in place, be- 
fore either axle or crank-pin is applied, or when one or 
the other is in place. Fig. 2 shows the construction of 
the device, and Fig. 1 shows the same in place upon a 




Fig. 1 — Gauge for Setting (rank Pins, in Position 
on Locomotive Driving Wheel. 

driving wheel. It is readily seen that the device is easily 
and quickly adjustable, and that by scribing lines accord- 
ing to the parallel sides it is a very simple matter to lo- 
cate a straight line through the centers of the holes or 
through die centers of the axle and the crank-pin by 
which the key seat may he accurately located. As well as 
using this appliance for laving off new work, it may he 



124 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 




Fig. 2 — Gauge for Setting Crank Pins. 

as readily used for testing drivers which already have 
been put in place. 

The parts shown in Fig. 2 may be designated for con- 
venience as Nos. 1, 2 and 3, according to the figures 
shown thereon. Consideing first the main body No. 1 
and the adjustable portion No. 2, the portion No. 3 will 
be temporarily disregarded. So arranged the device is 
applicable to a wheel on the axle and with crank-pin in 
place. Under such circumstance the taper lug on the 
cross piece, No. 4, will fit in the center in the end of the 
axle, and the faces at the end of extension, No. 2, will 
rest against the periphery of the crank-pin or crank-pin 
collar. Should the wheel be removed from the axle, lugs 
on the side of the casting opposite to that shown, will 
bear against the wall of the axle hole, while the faces 
bear against the crank-pin, as in the previous instance. 
The screw and thumb nut for adjusting the extension 
and the thumb nuts for clamping same in position are 
clearly visible. Applying now the portion No. 3, the 
machine appears as in Fig. 2, which further shows an- 
other condition under which it is applied. In this in- 
stance the wheel is free from the axle and the crank-pin 
not yet applied, lugs of the main body bearing against 



the wall of the axle hole and lugs of the ex- 
tension bearing against the wall of the crank- 
pin hole. With the axle in position and no 
crank-pin, the taper lug above mentioned 
would engage the axle center. 

As hereinbefore presented the machine ap- 
pears as a ready, quick and serviceable de- 
vice for locating key seats on new wheel 
centers and for trying the same when 
wheel, axle and crank-pin have been located, as well as 
in making renewals in the event of accident. Further 
tban this, the machine is serviceable in comparing key 
seats of wheels on the opposite ends of the same axle in 
order to determine whether or not the wheels are truly 
quartered, or arranged at 90 degrees with each other, and 
for this purpose three levels are included, one on each of 
the two parallel sides or straight edges and one on the 
end piece, at right angles to the sides. In order to make 
this observation the quartering machine is applied as 
above indicated and the wheel is rotated until the center 
of the axle and the center of the crank-pin are in the 
same horizontal line, this fact being indicated by the 
bubble in the upper level being centered. The wheel is 
then carefully blocked so that its slightest movement is 
impossible, when the machine is changed to the wheel on 
the opposite end of the axle and there applied as before. 
If the wheels are properly quartered, the crank will be 
in a vertical position as indicated by the bubble in the 
level on the transverse piece being centered. 

This device is now in use at the Richmond shop of the 
Chesapeake and Ohio Railway where it is considered a 
valuable time saver and perfectly reliable. 



New Cars for the Milwaukee Refrigerating Transit Company 



THE accompanying line .drawings illustrate the 
design by which 340 refrigerator cars are be- 
ing built by the Pullman Company for the Milwaukee 
Refrigerator Transit Company. They are for special 
service and to be used in transporting beer for Pabst 
Brewing Company, of Milwaukee, Wis.. The car's 
have a capacity of 60,000 lbs. ; they are 36 ft. long 
over end sills and 9 ft. wide over side sile. The under- 
framing and superstructure are of wood and the in- 
terior is carefully lined. A gutter is arranged along 
the center line of the floor and the section on each, 
side is arranged on an incline leading towards the 
same. The floor is of i^-in. plank separated by a 
lining of paper from the sub-floor 13-16 in. thick. The 
inside clear height is 7 ft. 3 in. and height from rail 
to running board is 12 ft. 10}^ ins. The draft sills are 
8-in. 23-lb. I beam bolted to the center sills by four 
1 -in. bolts passing through the upper flange in close 
proximity to the web. The sills at each end abut the 
body bolster and are tied thereto by two i^-in. strap 
bolts, each riveted to the web of the I beam with five 
%-in. rivets arranged one above the other on 3% in. 







60,000 lbs. Capacity Car for the Milwaukee Re- 
frigerating Transit Company — Partial 
End Elevation and Section. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



125 



centers. The tie bolts pass through specially cored 
holes in the bolster, and are secured with double nuts 
and cotters. To take care of burring strains two 4-in. by 
5-in. wooden sub sills extend between the body bolsters 
to which they are rigidly attached by corner irons. Day- 
ton twin spring gear is specified. The cars have cast steel 



body and truck bolsters, furnished by the American Steel 
Foundries, and are mounted on Barber trucks. They are 
roofed with asphalt torsion proof car roofs manufactured 
by F. W. Bird & Son, and the interior lining includes 
Neponset insulating paper manufactured by the same 
firm. 




60,000 lbs. Capacity Car for the Milwaukee Refrigerating Transit Company— Plan 

and Elevation. 



Railroad Shop Tools 

By Charles H. Fitch 
XII. 



EQUIREMENTS and ideas of planing ma- 
chines were ambitious from the first. Some 
of the very first planers built between 
1830 and 1840 were big tools for any period. 
A Chelmsford, Mass., firm building cane- 
crushing machinery for sugar mills con- 
structed a planer to take work 42 in. x 42 
in. by 22 ft! travel. The table traverse was 
effected by a link belt or chain with the 
usual dog on the table reversing a belt, whose suffer- 
ing was audible. Both vertical and horizontal^ feeds 
were automatic. This, the first tool of its kind in New 
England, was as large as is now found in some loco- 
motive repair shops and larger than the largest planer 
in the 12th St. shops of the Allis-Chalmers Company, 
Chicago, as late as 1900. It should be said, however, 




that the locomotive shops of trunk line divisions, such 
shops as Oelwein, have usually a 60 in. x 60 in. planer 
with 26 or 30 ft. travel, seconded by a 36 in. x 36 in. 
planer, while the Betts Company, of Wilmington, 
have just completed a planer to take work 122 in. x 
122 in. with 36 ft. travel, which is hardly extraordi- 
nary, as other makers list and build 120 in. x 120 in. 
machines. The new Collinwood shops' largest planer 
is a 54 in. x 54 in. Pond special for locomotive frames, 
having 32 ft. travel and using a 20 H. P. motor. Their 
remaining planer equipment comprises a 42 in. x 42 in. 
x 12 ft. Gray, a 42 in. x 42 in. x 10 ft. Niles, a 38 in. x 
38 in. x 10 ft. Niles, a 36 in. x 36 in. x 10 ft. Pond, a 
Dietrich & Harvey open-side taking a 10 H. P. motor, 
and an old Richards 20 in. x 50 in. open-side. The 
planer is a more distinctively railroad shop tool than 



126 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



the milling machine, and even the latter takes the 
planer type, as shown in Figure 2, a four-head ma- 
chine by the Ingersoll Company, of Rockford, 111. 
These are called milling machines, but they are made 
in open-side and other styles like the planer, and might 
well be called planing machines with milling heads, 
and classed with numerous other devices for quick- 
ening the work of planers. 

Mr. E. C. Lewis, of the Niles-Bement-Pond Com- 
pany, summarizes the present state of the art in 
planers for locomotive shops, as compared with the 
condition of 20 years ago: "A 60 in. frame planing 
machine used to be considered the proper size, but 
they are now built 84 in. x 84 in. to plane 36 ft. long, 
very heavy and with steel driving gears throughout. 
We have an order for one to have eight cutting tools 
in operation at once, speed 30 ft. per minute. There 
will be three tools in each of the heads on cross rail 
and one in each side head. Of the three tools, two 
are for roughing and one for finishing." This ma- 
chine will be driven by a 50 H. P. motor. Its lines 
of construction are shown in Figure i,^a 72 in. x 72 in, 
machine, motor driven, for planing locomotive cylin- 
ders. 



Most^ significant is the increase of power applied in 
these machines. There are 60 in. x 60 in. planers 
driven by 5 H. P motors, but some of the latest use 
20 or 30 H. P., and here is an 84 in. x 84 in. using 50 
Ff. P. A 60 in. x 60 in. with a speed of 21 ft. per 
minute cutting, 74 ft. per minute making a J / 2 in. x 
1-16 in. cut on steel casting, took 10 H. P. per cut, 
16 H. P. for reverse and 14 H. P. for return. The 
driving pulley for return served as a 1,500 lb. fly wheel 
very much as shown in the picture. This means of as- 
sisting to overcome the inertia of the platen and work 
upon it originated before the coming in of electrical 
drive. At the shop of the Sullivan Machinery Com- 
pany, Chicago, is a very large planer installed by 
Milan C. Bullock about 1890 and provided at his sug- 
gestion with a fly wheel for return drive pulley to 
serve the purposes of high speed quick return. About 
ten years later electrical drive was applied, the motor 
being simply put upon the fly wheel shaft. 

Despite the progress made in milling machinery it 
is not for a moment to be supposed that the planer 
will be displaced in its peculiar sphere. It is popu- 
larly supposed to have some disadvantages to be over- 
come by invention, but these become significant only 




Fig. 1 — 72-iN. Motor Driven Cylinder Planing Machine — Manufactured by Bement, Miles & 

Company, Philadelphia, Pa, 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



127 



when an effort is made to enlarge its sphere. 
This sphere is that of a jobbing tool on 
large work. Its platen moves slowly, but it 
is a movement very effective for getting 
work done. On repetitious work it may be 
quickened by use of milling cutters, but 
large work is not usually reptitious. 

Still effective progress has been made in 
developing the capacity of the planer and 
increasing its convenience. 

We will not dwell at length upon the de- 
tails of this familiar tool. Apart from the 
small and exceptional crank planers the driv- 
ing of the platen is accomplished by straight 
or helical rack and gearing driven and re- 
versed by tight and loose pulleys with belt 
shifters worked by lugs on the platen. There 
is a great deal of pretty and ingenious de- 
sign in the belt shifting mechanism, so ar- 
ranged that there is no lapping in the on 
and off functions. Two belts are commonly 
used and larger pulleys for the return, 
which is desirable, reducing the amount of 
gearing under the platen. Whether the 
countershafting is lengthwise or crosswise 
of the platen is merely a matter of gearing. 
Much has been said of the former practice 
for saving shop room, but, after all, is it always desir- 
able to save shop room ? I do not like a shop crowded 





Fig. 3— Standard Planer with Open-Side Attach- 
ment — Front View as a Standard Planer — 
Manufactured by Flather Planer 
( o., Nashua, N. 1 1. 



Fig. 2 — Four Head Milling Machine — Manufac- 
tured by Ingersoll Milling Machine Com- 
pany, Rockford, III. 

with machines, and there is no particular economy in 
skimping light and space in a shop. 

The feed motion is either taken from the belt shift- 
ing levers in a very obvious way, or more usually is 
taken from the gearing under the platen in a way 
which does not appear so plain to the casual observer, 
because the gearing which drives it is out of sight 
and the engaging and releasing- devices, springs, 
leather discs, etc., whose moving power is overcome 
by stops at each reversal, are not so placed that their 
action can be followed. The feeds work by racks and 
sectors operating splined and screw shafts with clutch, 
clamp or nut engagements, and worm and bevel gear- 
ing permitting the feeding of the tool post through a 
swiveling head. All these movements are carried in 
the cross bar to the saddle on which the head swivels, 
and are automatic, with provision for hand feeding. 
The tool post apron also swivels. The cross bar is 
lifted and lowered by hand or power feed in a very 
obvious way; details of gibbing of slides and minor 
variations in design we need not here enter upon. In 
the matter of feeds certain movements are generic and 
belong to similar functions on tools of all types, and 
this is really the best relation in which to study them. 

Many efforts attended with some measure of suc- 
cess have been made to specialize and enlarge the use- 
fulness of the planer. Most important are those which 
develop its speed and power. I have seen devices in 
the nature of double-acting tools planing both ways. 
These worked all right mechanically, but involved 

enough trouble and rigging Up to prevent their use 



128 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 





ijiSJJij 




Fig. 4 — Standard Planer with Open-Side Attachment — Front View 
as Open-Side Planer — Manufactured by Flather Planer Co., 

Nashua, N. H. 



mum 

Fig. 6 — Gang Planer Tool — 
Manufactured by Arm- 
strong Bros. Tool Company, 
Chicago. 



from spreading although in theory they saved a large 
percentage of time. 

Since the inertia of the platen and its load is the 
obstacle to high speed planing.it has of course oc- 
curred to many to apply planing motion to the light- 
est tool instead of to the heavy work. In special cases 
this is highly successful as in the boiler plate edge 
planers in common use in locomotive shops and ship 
yards. In these machines two or three tools upon a 
light tool carriage are caused to travel to and fro upon 
ways 12 or 15 feet long by means of a feed screw. The 
Bement machine of this type bevels plates for caulk- 
ing by the Connery system at the rate of three plates' 



an hour, equal to the hand work of a force of fifteen 
men with hammers and chisels. 

The railroad shop does not call for light machinery 
to trim about a heavy casting, but for heavy machin- 
ery to finish light parts with absolute accuracy. Such 
a machine is shown in Figure 5, a duplex connecting 
rod planer by the Woodward & Powell Co., of Wor- 
cester, Mass. Speed of 'work is obtained by duplex 
tool heads on double housings, one pair of which is 
movable. This machine has eight heads. 





MM 

M3BS& 



Fig. 5— Locomotive Connecting Rod Planer — Manufactured by 
Woodward & Powell Planer Co., Worcester, Mass. 



%iiiiiiilllr 

Fig. 7 — Armstrong Planer 
Jack — Manufactured by 
Armstrong Bros. Tool 
Company, Chicago. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



129 




Fig. 8 — Construction of the Armstrong Gang 
Planer Tool. 

A machine tool now found in many large railroad 
shops is the open-side planer. In 1880, only two or 
three such tools had been built. The design shown in 
Figs. 3 and 4 is that of the Flather Planer Co., Nashua, 
N. H. It can be used as an open-side with one hous- 
ing set back, or the bracket can be removed and the 
housings set opposite, converting the machine into a 
regular planer. 

The most effective way to improve the planer is to 
provide it with convenient appliances for setting work, 
and to use multiple or gang tools to the limit of its 
pulling capacity, giving the machine heavier propor- 
tions and gearing. Small planers of the G. S. Gray, 
Whitcomb, Flather and other makes are built with 




Fig. 9 — Plan of Cut Made by Gang Planer Tool. 



deep beds and have a stocky and substantial look 
which make beds of the shallow type with legs look 
comparatively shaky, but no doubt further advances 
in solidity remain to be made even upon the meritori- 
ous tools now on the market. 

The Armstrong Bros. Tool Co. of Chicago have 
their planer tools in use in most railroad shops. The 
single tools are really adjustable holders of "high 
speed" steel cutters available both for convenience and 
economy. Figures 6 and 8 show the construction 
and operation of the gang or multiple planer tool. It 
might to some appear self-evident that a gain would 
be made by using a gang tool such as the Armstrong 




Fig. 11 — The Armstrong Planer Tool. _ 

and it often seems to be the case, a saving of half 
the time being claimed in some instances. In other 
cases railroad master mechanics and foremen report 
only a much smaller gain. Much depends on the skin 
and character of metal planed. Against the work of 
making a deep cut is offset the work of ploughing out 
four lines of cleavage against one, and a shallow cut 
through a hard skin may be a tougher job than a deep 
cut that gets under the skin. 

Fig. 11 shows the construction of the Armstrong 




Fig. 12 — The Armstrong Planer Tool Cutting a 
Keyway. 

planer tool which, equipped with an assortment of 
properly ground cutters, will effectively equal a com- 
plete set of forged planer tools. Fig. 10 illustrates 
one of these tools at work in close corners, giving a 
good general idea of clearance obtained. It shows 
also a few of the angles at which the cutter can be set. 
A job similar to the one shown could be finished with 
one of these tools without shifting the position of the 
work on the bed. Fig. 12 shows the planer tool cut- 
ting a keyway with the cutter reversed and the tool 
turned around, thus throwing the cutting point be- 
hind center of tool and practically working as a 
"goose-neck" tool. 

Setting heavy work on the planer is a great time 
killer, and this loss of time is much reduced by level- 
ing jacks such as made by Binsse of Newark, the 





Fig. 10 — Armstrong Planer Tool 
at Work jn Close Corners. 



Fig. 13 — A Magnetic Chock for Holding Work on 
a Planer Table. 



130 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



Armstrongs of Chicago, and perhaps others. Fig. 7 
shows one of these time-saving jacks. 

Magnetic tools and devices are in some small use in 
connection with planers. Little can be said about 
them now, but there is no telling what the future may- 
bring forth. 

Figure 13 shows a magnetic chuck for holding work 
on a planer table. It requires a direct current to 
charge the magnetizing coil in the chuck. The largest 
planer chuck listed has a holding face of 36 in. x ,734 
in. and is listed (probably subject to discount) at 
$175. Several hundred chucks are in use holding 
keys, gibs, straps, etc., and while the holding down of 



a side rod by these means may be only a matter of de- 
tail, we have not heard of any such application. 

With reference to the magnetic clutch in some ex- 
perimental use upon planers, Mr. James K. Cullen of 
the Niles-Bement-Pond Company, says that at pres- 
ent the cost almost bars the use of this appliance, 
and that there is some trouble with residual mag- 
netism, but he believes that this difficulty will be ef- 
fectually overcome. Satisfactory operation of planers 
with the magnetic clutch has been obtained and it is 
thought that the cost can be reduced, and the clutch 
made to serve a good purpose in getting variable 
speeds and high return velocities with a simple and 
reliable type of mechanism. 



Passenger Locomotive, Union Pacific Railway. 



THE Union Pacific Railway has in service a type of 
4-6-2 passenger locomotive, recently built by the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works for the heavy travel on that 
line. The cylinders are 22 by 28 inches, boiler pressure 
200 lbs., outside diameter of driving wheels yy inches, and 
the valves are of the piston type. ' The forward truck is 
equipped with simple swing hangers, while the trailing 
truck has a radius bar and is equalized with the rear pair 
of drivers, from which the equalization extends continu- 



ously through to the front pair of drivers; the trailing 
wheels have a three-point pin fulcrum, which gives an 
opportunity to arrange the loading of drivers within the 
"limits required, making it more or less to suit conditions. 
The guide yoke is of composite character. The trans- 
verse portion is of hammered steel while the ends sup- 
porting the guides are of cast steel. The casting is ribbed 
and of hooded section with ample strength to resist the 
forces to which the guides are subjected. The engine is 




Passenger Locomotive for the Union Pacific Railway — Elevations and Sections. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



131 







o 
u 
o 
J. 




Passenger Locomotive for the Union Pacific Rail- 
way — Cross Section of Firebox, 




37 fi?. spaces' 



Passenger Locomotive for the Union Pacific Rail- 
way — Longitudinal Section of Firebox. 




Passenger Locomotive for the Union Pacific Rail 

way cvi.i xdik. 



132 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



capable of a maximum 
tractive effort of 29,900 
lbs. and the ratio of adhe- 
sive weight to tractive ef- 
fort is 4.7. The tender is 
of the Vanderbilt design, 
having a tank capacity of 
7,000 gallons. The prin- 
cipal features of design are 
presented by the following 
table : 




Gage 4 ft. 8% ins. 

Cylinder 22x28 ins. 

Valve piston. 

Boiler. 

Type '. straight. 

Material steel. 

Diameter 70 ins. 

Thickness of sheets H-rasf 

Working Pressure 200 lbs. 

Fuel soft coal. 

Staying Crown bars. 

Firebox. 

Material ". steel. 

Length 108 ins. 

Width 66 ins. 

Depth front 68 ins. 

Depth back , 64 ins. 

Thickness of sheets, sides %-in. 

Thickness of sheets, back %-in. 

Thickness of sheets, crown ' %-in. 

Thickness of sheets, tube %>-in. 

Water Space. 

Front .5 ins. 

Sides 5 ins. 

Back 5 ins. 

Tubes. 

Material iron. 

Wire gage 0.125 M.M. 

Number .' 245 

Diameter 2% ins. 

Length 20 ft. 

Heating Surfaces. 

Fire Box 179 sq. ft. 

Tubes 2,874 sq. ft. 

Total 3,053 sq. ft. 

Grate area 49.5 sq. ft. 

Driving Wheels. 

Diam. of outside 77 ins. 

Diam. of inside '. 70 ins. 

Journals, main - 10x12 ins. 

Journals, others . . . . 9x12 ins. 

Engine Truck Wheels. 

Front, Diam. j 33% ins. 

Journals 6x10" ins. 

.back, Diam 45 ins. 

Journals 8x12 ins. 

Wheel Base. 

Driving * 13 ft. 4 ins. 

Rigid 13 ft. 4 ins. 

Total Engine 33 ft. 4 ins. 

Total Engine and Tender . . . , 62 ft. 8% ins. 

Weight. 

On Driving Wheels 141,290 lbs. 

On Truck, front 37,330 lbs. 

On Truck, back 43,900 lbs. 

Total Engine 222,520 lbs. 

Total Engine and Tender, about 353,000 lbs. 

Tender. 

Wheels, number Eight. 

Wheels, Diameter 331/,. ins. 

Journals SM-xlO ins. 

Tank Capacity 7,000 gals. 

Service \ . . Passenger. 



Passenger Locomotive for the Union Pacific Railway- 
Elevation of Boiler. 



-Sectional 



COMMUNICA 7 IONS 



Railroad Shop Tools 

Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

Referring to your edition of March, 1904, page 92, we 
quote the following: 

"In such large shops, two purpose machines will not be 
wanted, but in a small shop they serve a valuable pur- 
pose. '"' 

This refers to the Farwell milling machine in combina- 
tion with our planer. Our experience has been just the 
reverse. These milling machines in combination with a 
planer are used in many of the best equipped machine 
shops in the United States. 

In one shop in Pennsylvania there are eighteen in ope- 
ration and are turning out from 100 to 200 tons of the 
same casting per day. This plant tried some of the. best 
designed special milling machines and adopted the planer 
with our milling attachment to do the work. 

There is a plant in New York state operating two of 
our milling machines in a duplex form and when the first 
set was in successful operation, they purchased a new 
planer and purchased another duplex Farwell milling 
machine for this new planer. 

The Watervliet Arsenal, Watervliet, N. Y., have pui- 
purchased four of our milling heads. 

Our understanding is that in large machine shops they 
make a great many of the same piece. It then would be 
to their advantage to purchase milling cutters and mill the 
work in place of planing it. This work has been reduced 
to one-sixth of the time that it took to plane it. 

The advantage of having a milling machine in combina- 
tion with a planer is, that the combined cost of the planer 
and milling attachment will not be as great as an exclusive 
milling machine of the same capacity. You would then 
be able to do vertical, horizontal and angular milling, also 
vertical and horizontal boring. You could also at all 
times use the planer without any delay. 

One does not hesitate to use a lathe, both for chucking 
work and for arbor work. The milling machine in com- 
bination with a planer is just as important as a three or 
four jaw chuck with a lathe. If there is a disadvantage 
in milling on a planer, we have not yet found it out. 

There is a prejudice against combined tools, but we do 
not consider our milling attachment to be classed in that 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



133 



way for it is just as necessary to a planer as the regular 
tool holder is to it. Respectfully yours, 

The Adams Company, 
Dubuque, la.- Eugene Adams, Pres. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

Referring briefly to sundry criticisms, it is true that 
a box or cored section of frame is used by Cincinnati 
Punch & Shear Co., as it is also by Long & Alstatter, a 
firm among the earliest and Geo. Whiting of Chicago, 
one of the latest in the field of punch and shear manu- 
facture. But an I-beam section is also used, and where 
this is cored to a double II the outside flanges are still 
retained. My view is that the material in these out- 
side flanges would do more good if put into the box. 
Even the C. P. & S. Co. retain a vestige of these flanges 
in their patterns, but are quite right in saying that their 
frame is really a strong box, and the flanges are shal- 



low being retained as a matter of fashion or ornamenta- 
tion. 

On milling machines I showed the original Lincoln and 
the later fixed spindle type illustrated by a I3ecker-Brain- 
ard machine, but though these are much used in smaller 
^interchangeable mechanism, it is a fact of singular inter- 
est that they have as yet made little head in the manu- 
facture of the largest distinctive interchangeable — part 
machine — the locomotive. 

The ingenious and valuable two-purpose machine of 
the Adams Co. was described as a type of "miller" which 
would yet be used in the smaller shops much as the Mc- 
Cabe double spindle lathe is useful in such shops. As 
it is, the smaller railway shops outside of tool room prac- 
tice have little use for milling machines, and the larger 
are putting in milling machines that may, if needs be, be 
converted into planers, but as a matter of usage these 
are likely to be used for one purpose only. 

C. H. Fitch. 



The Technical Graduate and the Machinery Department of Railways. 

By Professor W. F. M. Goss. 

Abstract of paper presented at March meeting of Western Railway Club. 



THE technical graduate of the better schools of en- 
gineering is not, as many people have supposed, a 
boy, but a man. He may approach thirty years in age, 
and is never less than twenty. The average graduate has 
good health, a good frame, and some muscle. As a day 
laborer he should be able to earn his wage. Moreover, 
he has had a limited amount of actual shop experience 
either before entering college or during his summer vaca- 
tion, or both before college and during his summer vaca- 
tion. 

The technical graduate in his knowledge of science and 
technology has a broad foundation upon which to build 
a life's work as an engineer. He is something of a scholar 
and is sufficiently trained in intellectual processes as to be 
able to deal with facts as he finds them. In many cases 
he has earned much of the money which he has spent as 
a student, and as a rule, he is always ready to work. 

I have no wish to imply that the technical graduate 
knows all that he ought to know, or that his character is 
always perfect. In common with other men, he has 
faults. But no one should be judged by his faults. I am 
asking no favor in behalf of the technical graduate when 
I seek to have him measured by the standards which are 
applied to other men. 

The absorption each year by the various industries of 
the country of 2,500 or more trained young men is a mat- 
ter of no small significance. It requires no argument to. 
show that these men include in their number many who 
will later have a prominent part in advancing the engi- 
neering practice of our country, and, hence, their dis- 
tribution is a matter of some importance. Tf, for exam- 
ple, it were shown that some one industry receives and 
retains in its service a much larger share of these tech- 
nical graduates than another having similar needs, it: 



would be expected that its operations would in the long- 
run become the more efficient, and, similarly, it would 
appear that an industry receiving less than its share must 
in the end suffer through lack of technical ability. In 
view of these facts it is of interest to inquire whether the 
motive power and car departments of railroads are get- 
ting and retaining their share of the technical graduates ? 

An examination of the pay rolls of railroad companies 
will show that the number of technical graduates of the 
apprentice grade in the motive power and car depart- 
ments is not only relatively small, but actually so. On 
most western roads the number is less than one to each 
one thousand men employed, while »many roads of con- 
siderable size have no technical men in training. Consid- 
erations, briefly stated, constitute strong testimony favor- 
ble to the contention that railroads are not getting their 
share of the technical graduates for their motive power 
departments. 

It can be shown that it is only on the larger systems 
•that- any considerable amount of expert work is asked or 
expected of the motive power department. Such work 
when necessary in the design of equipment or in framing 
the specifications governing its construction, is in many 
cases offered by the supply houses and accepted by the 
railroad companies. When unusual improvements are to 
be made, outside expert help is called in. Upon many 
roads the motive power and car department makes no 
real pretense at being a technical department; it merely 
represents one phase of operation. In so far as the condi- 
tion described applies, the fact must be recognized that 
the motive power department under these conditions pre- 
sents 110 large Held for the technical graduate. His place 
is rather with the railway supply houses, which are in 
effect the engineering bureaus of (lu- railroads. 



*34 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



It will be well to remember that just at present roads 
are enjoying the services of thousands of men who, by 
virtue of unusual qualities of character, have risen from 
the ranks of the mechanic to high positions of responsi- 
bility in the railroad service. But the process by which 
these men have been trained is likely to be less productive, 
in the future than it has been in the past. "The aspiring 
youth of thirty or forty years ago, who then turned to 
the shop for his training, would unquestionably have at- 
tended a technical school had the advantages of the mod- 
ern institute then been open to him. The corresponding 
man of today is in most cases to be found in college. 
Moreover, the conditions existing in the shop a genera- 
tion ago were more favorable to the development of men 
than those which exist in the modern shop, while the de- 
mands which are to be made upon the official of the fu- 
ture are likely to be made more exacting than those which 
are made upon the official of today. All this leads in- 
evitably to the conclusion that no motive power depart- 
ment should fail to have its group of technical graduates 
in training for its future work. ' 

One other condition which is sometimes urged as a 
reason for not employing technical graduates is the diffi- 
culty which some roads allege to have in finding work for 
them after they have finished their special apprentice- 
ship. It has been said by the superintendents of motive 
power of several roads that they had college men who 
had finished their probationary period, but no vacant 
offices to put them into. Obviously, so far as it may be a 
real difficulty, it constitutes an objection to the employ- 
ment of considerable numbers of technical graduates. 
But is the difficulty real? If the technical graduate is a 
good man, there should be profitable work ahead. If he 
is not a good man, he should not have been tolerated 
through his special apprenticeship. Think of it ! Here 
stands the superintendent of motive power at the head of 
a corps of several thousand men. He is responsible not 
only for its present efficiency, but for its development for 
future service as well. Down beside him is the college 
graduate who has served his time — one graduate and a 
thousand and perhaps fifteen hundred men who are not 
graduates. I am sure that no superintendent of motive 
power in this presence will wait for a vacancy before 
using the full strength of this young man. In looking 
over his organization, however well he may have done 
his work, he will see weak spots which ought not to be 
there; faults which may arise from the failure of a man, 
from the yielding of defective or of insufficient material; 
from a lack of a definite understanding of related facts, 
and having found the thinnest and least defensible spot 
in his whole organization, he will put his young man into 
it, perhaps merely as a multiplication table, to a foreman 
whose practical training makes him valuable, but whose 
figures are bad, perhaps as an inspector of material, or as 
a student of failures in materials, but whatever the task, 
he will feel sure that if he chooses well, the young man 
will earn his salary, and will at the same time be in train- 
ing for the larger responsibility when it comes. 

The technical graduate who enters upon a special ap- 



prenticeship, by so doing announces that he intends to 
work for an official position on the road; and the com- 
pany in accepting him, agrees to so train him that he may 
be worthy of such a position. In view of this compact, 
the special apprentice accepts a low wage, and the railway 
company undertakes to vary his task, notwithstanding the 
fact that such a course limits for a time the usefulness of 
the apprentice. On a very few large railway systems the 
course for special apprenticeships has been worked out 
with care. Students in such courses are handled with 
intelligence and consideration, with the result that they 
are satisfied, while the road accomplishes its full purpose 
in training men for its service. Most roads, however, 
undertake to receive special apprentices with no adequate 
understanding of their responsibility in the matter. It 
often happens that injustice is done the special appren- 
tice and that in the end the road fails in its efforts to 
make him a means of strenthening its organization. 
Moreover, the unhappy experiences of those who have 
been through the mill, or have attempted its passage, have 
had their influence on the undergraduate, with the result 
that it is now more difficult than formerly to interest 
graduates in- a special apprenticeship. Such a condition 
is unnatural. It is unmerited by the technical graduate, 
and is, I am sure, contrary to the real interest and desire 
of the management of our railroads. 

In view of this, I venture to outline some of the de- 
fects which, as they seem to me, sometimes appear in the 
administration of the special apprenticeship, and in some 
cases to suggest a possible remedy. 

One defect is the low wage paid the special apprentice. 
He has d-epended upon other throughout his school and 
college course and has long looked forward to the time 
when he can begin to take care of himself. He is willing 
to' deny himself many things ; he will be content with 
rough clothes and scant fare, but except in rare cases he 
must have self-support. This is not given him, as a spe- 
cial apprentice, and the opportunities of such an appren- 
ticeship are, therefore, sealed against most graduates. It 
is only the man of means, or the man who is not very 
sensitive concerning the sacrifices which are being made 
for him at home, who can enter such a course. In effect, 
therefore, the railroad deliberately closes its doors to the 
rank and file of the graduates in mechanical engineering. 

Some roads have fallen into the habit of receiving tech- 
nical graduates, ranking them as special apprentices, and 
of then undertaking to see how valuable they can be made 
to the road, without much regard for the rights of the 
graduate. By this arrangement it is possible to secure a 
man for twelve or fourteen cents an hour, who can run a 
lathe, make a drawing, summarize statistics, conduct an 
experimental investigation, inspect material, report on de- 
fective equipment, test a locomotive, figure the bracing 
for a boiler, outline a scheme for motor-driving in an 
existing shop, install motors, or interview a division 
superintendent in behalf of his chief. When a road keeps 
such a man busy under the hardest sort of conditions, 
perhaps transferring him to a roundhouse or division 
shop remote from the center of the road's activity, when 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



135 



he has no contact with men who can aid him and few 
opportunities to observe processes which can instruct, the 
attitude of the road toward him is lacking in that element 
of fairness which is essential to permanent success. An 
organization • in which such things are possible is ob- 
viously not ready for a special apprenticeship. It needs 
more than other roads, perhaps, the technical graduate, 
but it has no right to accept him as a special apprentice. 
It ought rather to take its technical graduates as it takes 
other men, not for the purpose of training them, but for 
getting service from them, and having them, they should 
pay them what they earn. I am glad to say that there 
are some roads which are now following this latter plan. 
I am sure that no one will accuse me of desiring simple 
ease for the technical graduate. My plea is not that their 
task be light, but that they.be given such reasonable op- 
portunity as zvill make their position attractive to the 
average man. In urging this plea I assume that I am 
serving the railroad companies quite as much as the tech- 
nical graduate. 

■+ < » 

Personal 

Mr. William Rourk has been appointed car foreman 
of the Michigan Central at Chicago.' 

Mr. J. Dewey has been appointed acting master 
mechanic of the Erie Railway at Galion,0. 

Mr. T. J. Cole has been appointed acting master 
mechanic of the Erie Railway at Meadville, Pa. 

Mr. W. H. Fetner has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Central of Georgia at Macon, Ga. 

Mr. John T. Downs has been appointed car fore- 
man ot the Michigan Central at Jackson, Mich. 

Mr. T. H. Ogden has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Mexican Central at Monterey, Mex. 

Mr. John G. Witt has resigned as general foreman 
of the Northern Pacific shops at Spokane, Wash. 

Mr. William Cunningham has been appointed car 
foreman of the Michigan Central at Detroit Station. 

Mr. G. Bruchlacher has resigned as master me- 
chanic of the Mexican Railway at Apizaco, Mexico. 

Mr. A. G. Else, foreman of the Grand Trunk Rail- 
way at St. Thomas, Ont., recently died at the age 
of 61. 

Mr. Theodore VV. Dow has been appointed general 
air brake inspector of the Erie, with office at Mead- 
ville, Pa. 

Mr. T. Rumney, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Erie at Meadville, Pa., has been transferred to Jersey 
City, N. J. 

Mr. A. H. Gairns has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway 
at Trenton, Mo. 

Mr. J. H. Stubbs has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway 
at Fairbury, Neb. 

Mr. W. H. Wilson, formerly master mechanic of 
the Erie at Dunmore, Pa., has been transferred to 
Susquehanna, Pa. 

Mr. Owen Owen, master mechanic of the Denver, 
Northwestern & Pacific, died at his home in Denver 
on February 20th. 

Mr. F. O. Bunnell has been appointed engineer of 
tests of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, with head- 
quarters at Chicago. 

Mr. George W. Smith, assistant superintendent of 
machinery, and master mechanic of the Burnside 



shops of the Illinois Central, has been appointed su- 
perintendent of motive power of the Chicago & East- 
ern Illinois, with headquarters at Danville, 111. 

Mr. J. G. Riley, master mechanic of the western 
division of the Michigan Central, died at his home in 
Chicago on Feb. 21st. 

Mr. H. C. Shields has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Lehigh & New England, with head- 
quarters at Pen Argyl, Pa. 

Mr. J. G. Sullivan has been appointed inspector of 
train service on the Southern Pacific Railway, with 
headquarters at San Francisco, Cal. 

Mr. W. S. Ganby has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway, 
with headquarters at Arkansas City, Kan. 

Mr. Harvey Shoemaker, heretofore general foreman 
of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, has been 
appointed master mechanic at Scranton, Pa. 

Mr. W. E. Chester, master mechanic of. the Central 
of Georgia at Macon, Ga., has been appointed general 
master mechanic, with office at Savannah, Ga. 

Mr. Frederick J. Roberts, assistant superintendent 
of motive power and machinery of the National of 
Mexico, is at present acting master mechanic. 

It is stated that Mr. T. A. Puncheon, master me- 
chanic of the National of Mexico at the Santiago 
shops, has resigned and returned to the United States. 
The headquarters of Mr. W. C. Hayes, assistant 
mechanical superintendent of the Erie, have been re- 
moved from Meadville, Pa., to No. 21 Cortlandt street, 
New York. 

Mr. S. W. Taylor, superintendent of shops of the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway at Cedar 
Rapids, la., has also been appointed master mechanic 
at that point. 

Mr. H. J. Martin, until recently general foreman of 
the Santa Fe shops at Winslow, Ariz., has been ap- 
pointed general foreman of the Santa Fe shops at 
Newton, Kas. 

Mr. C. Graham, division master mechanic of the 
Philadelphia & Reading at Philadelphia, Pa., has been 
transferred to Reading, Pa., as master mechanic of 
the Reading and Lebanon branches. 

The jurisdiction of Mr. E. R. Webb, division master 
mechanic of the Michigan Central at Michigan City, 
Ind., has been extended over all locomotive depart- 
ment affairs in the Chicago district. 

Mr. W. S. Haines has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Jefferson and Wyoming divisions of the 
Erie and the New York, Susquehanna & Western, 
with headquarters at Dunmore, Pa. 

Mr. Burton P. Flory, mechanical engineer of the 
Lehigh Valley at South Bethlehem, Pa., has been ap- 
pointed mechanical engineer of the Central of New 
Jersey, with headquarters at Jersey City, N. J. 

Mr. W. Cross, who has been appointed assistant to 
the second vice-president of the Canadian Pacific, will 
have general supervision of mechanical matters on 
western lines, with office at Winnipeg, Man. 

Mr. Christian G. Steffe, general road foreman of 
the Philadelphia & Reading at Reading, Pa., has re- 
tired at the age of seventy years after having served 
the Reading Company continuously for 52 years. 

Mr. R. F. Kilpatrick, master mechanic of the Dela- 
ware. Lackawanna & Western at Scranton, Pa., has 
been appointed superintendent of motive power and 
equipment of that road, with headquarters at Scranton. 
The position of assistant superintendent of rolling 
stock of the Canadian Pacific at Winnipeg, Man., held 
by Mr. J. H. Manning, has been abolished and Mr. 
Manning will be assigned to other duties. The car 



136 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



department of this road, formerly under the superin- 
tendent of rolling stock, has been separated and the 
master car builder will report direct to the vice- 
president. 

Mr, George H. Hatz has been appointed master 
mechanic of the Chicago & Alton, with headquarters 
at Bloomington, 111. Mr. Hatz has heretofore been 
general foreman of the Illinois Central at Burnside, 
111. 

Mr. F. N. Hibbits, heretofore assistant superintend- 
ent of motive power and machinery of the Union Pa- 
cific, has been appointed consulting mechanical engi- 
neer of the Southern Railway System, effective March 
15th. 

Mr. George H. Taylor has been appointed mechan- 
ical foreman of the Quebec Southern, with office at 
Sorel, P. Q. Mr. Taylor will have charge of the mo- 
tive power, rolling stock and machinery of the com- 
pany. 

Mr. Henry Hardie, general foreman of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville shops at Corbin, Ky., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Knoxville branch 
and Cumberland Valley division, with headquarters 
at Corbin. 

Mr. George W. Wildin, for three years mechanical 
engineer of the Central of New Jersey, has been ap- 
pointed assistant mechanical superintendent of the 
Erie, with headquarters at Meadville, Pa. Effective 
March 1st. 

The jurisdiction of Mr. R. N. Durborrow, superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Pennsylvania, has 
been extended to include the Philadelphia, Baltimore 
& Washington, the New York division, and all teiri- 
tory about Phiadelphia. 

In a recent issue we stated in error that Mr. T. J. 
Clark had been appointed master mechanic of the 
Spokane Falls, & Northern Railway at Spokane. Mr. 
Clark is master mechanic of the Spokane Division of 
the Great Northern at Spokane. 

Mr. T. S. Lloyd has resigned as superintendent of 
motive power and equipment of the Delaware, Lack- 
awanna & Western to accept the position of general 
superintendent of motive power of the Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific, with headquarters at Chicago. 

Mr. J. J. Reid, who was recently appointed general 
master mechanic of the Louisville & Nashville, at 
Louisville, Ky., was formerly mechanical inspector of 
the Northern Pacific. In his new position Mr. Reid 
will have supervision over all shops of the Louisville 
& Nashville. 

The position of superintendem of car shops of the 
Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, at 
Scranton, Pa., has been abolished and Mr. R. F. Mc- 
Kenna has been appointed master car builder, with 
headquarters at Scranton, reporting to the superin- 
tendent of motive power and equipment. He will 
have general supervision of all car department work 
on this system, and charge of such other matters of 
the car department as may be assigned to him by 
the superintendent of motive power and equipment. 



ferred from place to place and put in action wherever there 
may be an air line. Any air pressure from 20 to 100 or more 
pounds will successfully operate the engine, as the supply 
is governed by throttle valve. To the revolving shaft is at- 
tached the flue cutter, the universal joint allowing the cutter 



The Ruth Flue Machine 

The Ruth flue machine, for cutting out and rolling in 
boiler flues, is particularly adapted to locomotive boiler 
work, and is also useful about a shop where practical port- 
able power is of value. The power is derived from powerful 
double cylinder air engine reversible locomotive design, 
mounted upon a telescopic piston, the whole being mounted 
on a substantial truck easily and speedily handled, and trans- 




The Ruth Flue Machine. 

to be inserted into every flue. When cutter is inserted in 
flue, turn on air and feed by hand rapidly. Time to cut flue, 
ten seconds, more or less, according to material of flue. The 
flues are. cut sharp and clean, having practically no burr. 

In rolling or expanding flue, a thimble stops the cutter 
when flues are sufficiently expanded, thus preserving the 
round hole in flue sheet, and disposing of oblong holes in 
same, which often occurs from expanding with hand tool, 
and which is cause of many leaky flues. The dimensions of 
the machine are as follows: 

Height of platform 36 ins. 

Height over all with piston down 72 ins. 

Raise of piston 42 ins. 

Lateral feed of screw 20 ins. 

Diameter of feed wheel 36 ins. 

Diameter of feed screw '..... 3% ins. 

Quadruple screw lead 4 ins. 

Angle of elevation about 45 deg. 

Ball bearing thrust, rawhide and steel gearing, all 
wearing parts case hardened, weight about 1,400 lbs. 
This device is marketed by W. W. Worthington & Co., 114 
Liberty street, New York city. 



Six Spindle Gang Drill 

The use of a gang drill with several spindles for drilling 
arch bars and other pieces which are to ' be duplicated and 
require several holes to be drilled in each piece, saves much 
time and labor. This fact is evinced by the extent to which 
railroad companies and car manufacturers are installing 
such machines. A machine for this class of work is illus- 
trated by the photo-engraving presented herewith and the 
following specifications appear of no little interest: Maxi- 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



137 



mum distance, spindles to table, 18 in.; minimum, 6 in. 
Traverse of spindles, 12 in. Maximum distance between 
spindle centers, 8 in. or 10 in. Distance, center to center out- 
side spindles, 9 ft. 10 in. Diameter of spindle, 2 in. Dis- 
tance between housings, 11 ft, Floor space, 13 ft. 6 in. x 4 ft. 
Height, 7 ft. 10 in. Weight, 13,500 lbs. 

The heads are movable laterally upon the rail. Each 
spindle is counterbalanced and has independent vertical ad- 
justment, for varying lengths of drills. They are driven by 




Six Spindle Gang Drill. 

gearing from the top shaft, and controlled by clutches, which 
are actuated by a handle, placed in front of each head within 
easy grasp of the operator. This machine has hand and 
power feed. It has a quick approach and return movement, 
operated by a lever, by which all the drills can be instantly 
lowered to, or raised from, the work together. The feed 
motion is universal, but any of the spindles can be discon- 
nected at will, making any portion of them independent of 
the others. Three changes of feed are provided, and change 
gears can be supplied to give any required feed. The tables 
have both a lateral and transverse movement. The lateral 
movement is by a hand wheel and screw. The wheel is 
graduated and provided with a stop. Each graduation of the 
wheel represents a table movement of 1-16 inch; one revolu- 



tion of the wheel, a table movement of y 2 inch. It also has 
a transverse movement of 8 inches, by means of a lever and 
gearing. By this arrangement holes can be accurately spaced. 
This machine can be supplied with an automatic trip and 
stop motion for determining the depth of drilled holes. It is 
designed for all around work and will drill holes up to 2 
in. in diameter. Thore are four changes of speed obtained 
mechanically, as shown by the gears on the end of the 
machine and the motor has a fifty per cent variation of 
speed by means of varying the resistance in the field wind- 
ings. 

The machine is built by the Prentice , Bros. Company, 
Worcester, Mass. 



I he Hess Milling Machine 

The usefulness of the milling machine in the railroad shop 
is rapidly increasing, and this class of machine tool is mak- 
ing itself felt to a greater extent. Among its earliest adap- 
tation in railroad shop practice the milling machine was 
used in machining locomotive side rods and in present prac- 
tice large machines of this type are acquiring the general 
outlines of planing machines, so that they are to some ex- 
tent entering into direct competition with heavy planers. 
A machine of this type is illustrated by the accompanying 
half-tone engraving, which is manufactured by the Hess 
Machine Company, Philadelphia, Pa. The capacity of the 
machine includes rods 10 ft. 6 ins. long between centers, and 
it has established an enviable record of one rod every two 
hours in performing its regular every .day work, milling the 
rod over sides, edges and heads. Cuts in steel of 42 ins. 
width and % in. in depth at a feed rate of 4 ins. per minute, 
are guaranteed by the manufacturers. Such a cut is equiv- 
alent to removing 63 ins. or 18 pounds of steel per minute in 
chips. Heretofore it has been almost impossible to produce 
truly flat surfaces where the depth of stock or width of 
cut on the same piece varies between wide limits. Such 
conditions have usually been accompanied by a dropping in 
of the cutters, producing uneven work, but in view of the 
extreme rigidity of the machine very gratifying results have 




The Hess Milling Machine. 



138 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



been accomplished in this direction, so that in many cases 
it is not unusual to dispense with finishing cuts altogether, 
thereby materially reducing the time expended on a given 
job. 

The machines have been operated so successfully, and the 
capacity of the machine in daily service has so proven its 
ability and power in turning out work, that the Hess Ma- 
chine Company is desirous of quoting time on the basis of 
sketches submitted to them. 



New No, ioo. Automatic Band Rip Sato. 

The machine here represented will, without doubt, prove 
of considerable interest to those who have ripping to do. 
The makers claim it will surpass in quality and amount of 
work any other of this class they may now be using. It is 
original in every respect, and has just been built, and is 
powerful in all parts. The makers were the first to intro- 
duce a machine of this' character, and since being placed on 
the market has proved a revelation to all those who have 
used it. 

It was patented February 27, 1900, and October 2, 1900. 

It is designed especially for heavy work, and is particu- 




Automatic Band and Rip Saw. 

larly recommended to the car builder and other wood- 
workers who have stock that requires heavy framing. 

It is safe to operate, a very small kerf is removed, wide or 
thick material easily ripped, little power is required, work 
always accomplished easily and rapidly, table always at 
standard height, rolls are close together, allowing short 
pieces to be easily fed; adjustment of fences and rolls 
quickly made, and there is a great saving in time each day 
in making the various adjustments. It is admirably adapted 
to reducing large timbers to smaller dimensions, ripping wide 
lumber into strips of varying widths, resawing from the side 
of a timber, and other light work. 

The straining device, which controls the upper wheel and 
the path of the saw blade on the face of the wheels, is new 
and very sensitive, and is covered by letters patent. No 
matter what the vibrations are the strain takes up the slack 
in the blade instantly, thus adding wonderfully to the per- 
fect working of the machine, and of lengthening the life of 
the saw blades. 

The lower wheel is solid, lessening the circulation of dust, 
and giving itself increased momentum so that its speed gov- 
erns the upper wheel and prevents it from overrunning the 
lower. 

The machine has three feeds, and powerfully-driven feed 



rolls in and above the table; and by a single movement of a 
lever convenient to operator, the machine can be instantly 
changed to a hand feed rip saw, or instantly stop the feed. 

Further particulars can be obtained from the makers, J. 
A. Fay & Egan Company, of No. 145 to 166 W. Front street, 
Cincinnati, O., who will also send their new catalogue of 
woodworking machinery free to those desiring it. 



Technical Publications. 

American Compound Locomotives. By Feed H. Colvin. 
This book is a practical treatise devoted entirely to the com- 
pound locomotive found in American practice. It considers 
the compound feature solely, presenting the principle of com- 
pounding, describing the expansion of steam in the several 
cylinders, the duties of the respective parts necessary in 
changing back and forth between simple and compound, 
instructions by which to keep going in case of accident and 
suggestions to be observed in properly handling tlie com- 
pound, in each case explaining why these features should be 
observed. The first chapter is devoted to a brief history of 
compound locomotives and gives the years in which several 
types were brought out. This is followed by an explanation 
of the theory or principles on which compound locomotives 
are constructed, after which the several different systems 
of compounding found in American practice today are de- 
scribed. The book is principally descriptive and the fea- 
tures presented are generously illustrated. Derry-Collard 
Company, New York. Price $1.50. 

4—~+ 

Electrical Engineering, a course of lectures adapted to the 
needs of non-electrical engineers, by Henry H. Norris, assis- 
tant professor of electrical engineering Cornell University. 
The distribution of electrical energy and the application 
of electrical apparatus have assumed such important feat- 
ures in all engineering Work that a certain familiarity with 
electrical principles has become essential, if not absolutely 
necessary, to all classes of engineers. In view of such re- 
quirements a pamphlet has been prepared by Prof. Norris, em- 
bodying a general outline upon which to base a complete set 
of notes as an assistance in studying electrical problems from 
the' . operating standpoint. This outline has been prepared 
primarily for the guidance of students of engineering. How- 
ever its suggestions are equally applicable to those whose 
engineering experience dates back for some years, but whose 
opportunities for familiarizing themselves with electrical ma- 
chinery or apparatus have been limited, as for instance in 
the mechanical department of railroads. It is of course not 
so complete as a textbook and not as valuable to the engi- 
neer for that reason, but to those who have some knowledge 
and have access to literature on the subject it is of no little 
value. The outline gives roughly the form and order of a 
lecture course planned to cover the essential features of 
"electrical engineering for the purposes of the mechanical or 
the civil engineer. The subject is one which cannot, at pres- 
ent, be covered by a text book on account of the rapid develop- 
ment along all lines of the application of electrical machinery 
for engineering purposes. All engineers must meet electrical 
problems and they must be able to apply to these a judicial 
skill, in order to select properly the electrical machinery or 
apparatus which is needed and to apply it in such a manner 
as to bring about the most satisfactory results. For this rea- 
son the course consists in the study of electrical problems 
from the operating standpoint, including only such introduc- 
tory matter as is essential to a proper understanding of the 
subject as a whole. Published by the Stephens Publishing- 
Company, Ithaca, N. Y. Price 50 cents. 
* * » 

The Earning Power of Railroads; by Floyd W. Mundy. 
This work treats in the most simple manner of the earning 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



139 



power of railroads, and deals but little with those features 
alike most essential to investors— the traffic resources and 
the financial and physical condition. Several' chapters are 
devoted to each of the elements which go to make up a rail- 
road's annual report, embodying the several classifications of 
expenses under the most prominent heads and discusses in 
some detail the ratio which operating expenses bear to gross 
earnings, the fixed changes, the relation of earning power 
to stock outstanding, as well as the relation of guarantees 
to surplus available for dividends. In addition to this, im- 
portant statistics are presented, showing the income account 
of one hundred and twelve railroads, the statements of the 
roads represented being considered as a single system and 
so arranged that trustworthy comparisons can be made re- 
specting the earning power of the different roads. The tables 
presented in this connection summarize the annual report of 
each of the roads represented and present comparisons of 
mileage operated, gross earnings and surplus, through a series 
of years. A valuable compilation for purposes of reference 
by investors and others interested in the securities of rail- 
roads, embraces a statement of earnings, operating expenses, 
net earnings, etc., which are all reduced to a mileage basis for 
the last report at hand from each of the roads covering, as 
a rule, the fiscal year ending June 30, 1903'. Issued by James 
H. Oliphant & Co., 20 Broad St., New York City. 
■» « » 

Notes of the Month 

The Pullman company are building 340 36-foot cars for the 
Milwaukee Refrigerator Transit Company, with all modern 
improvements, including Neponset insulating paper and 
asphalt torsion proof car roofs, manufactured by F. W. Bird 
& Son, East Walpole, Mass. 



Special interest attaches to the March number of Graphite, 
which is published by the Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, 
inasmuch as this number is devoted to Dixon's silica graph- 
ite paint, and illustrations of a number of steel structures 
are presented showing the kinds of buildings upon which 
this material is used to advantage. 



An illustrated placard lately issued by John F. Allen, 370- 
372 Gerard avenue, New York city, will be found of interest 
by all users of riveting machines. It presents some facts 
regarding the results accomplished by the "Allen" portable 
pneumatic riveter that are worthy the noting. Copies, we 
are informed, will be mailed free upon application. 
> •» » » 

Mr. G. P. Altenberg, manager of the foreign department of 
J. A. Fay & Egan Company, manufacturers of woodworking- 
machinery, is on his way to Europe. He shall first visit Eng- 
land a few weeks, and then tour the Continent. He expects 
to be several months abroad. Letters to Mm will arrive, if 
addressed, Mr. G. P. Altenberg, No. 31 Boulevard Haussmann, 

Paris, France. 

<♦• » 

On March 3rd Mr. Henry R. Dalton, Jr., was elected presi- 
dent of the Bausch Machine Tool Company, vice Mr. W. H. 
Bausch, resigned. Taking effect March 21st, Mr. C. J. Wetsel 
was elected treasurer of the same concern to fill the vacancy 
caused by the. resignation of Mr. David Hunt, Jr. Any com- 
munications to this establishment should be addressed to 
the Bausch Machine Tool Company, Springfield, Mass. 
«»» »■ 

The Gold Car Heating & Lighting Company have moved 
their offices to the Whitehall Building, 17 Battery Place, New 
York city. This company have recently made an arrange- 
ment with Mr. Thomas A. Edison, by which agreemenl they 
are given the exclusive sale in the United States of the Edi- 
son storage battery for car lighting purposes. As their busi- 



ness has grown to a very large extent, and as they are now 
about to introduce their new system of railway car lighting, 
they found it necessary to secure more commodious quarters. 
Both the Chicago branch and the New York office have been 
moved to this building so that all communications should be 
addressed to the company at New York. 

•»* » 

Among recent orders received by Hicks Locomotive & Car 
Works 'are: From Waterloo & Cedar Falls Rapid Transit 
Co., two locomotives; Butterfield Lumber Co., one engine; 
Arizona Southern Ry., one 55-ton consolidation; Midland 
Valley railroad, four passenger coaches, two combination 
cars and two baggage cars; Waterloo & Cedar Falls Rapid 
Transit Ry., two coaches and one combination car; Copper 
Range railroad, four coaches and two combination cars; 
Louisiana & Northwest railroad, one coach, in addition to 
those previously reported. 

♦-•-* ■ — 

It is well known that a flexible staybolt which will always 
remain flexible, which will not corrode rigid, which will al- 
low movement in every direction, which can be readily ex- 
amined, and which will be as strong as the tensile value of 
the iron in the bolt, would practically eliminate one of the 
large costs of locomotiA^e maintenance. The Flannery Bolt 
Company, 339 Fifth avenue, Pittsburg, Pa., are distributing 
. a descriptive pamphlet, in which they introduce a flexible 
staybolt that they claim is inexpensive, durable, thoroughly 
practical, and not affected by scale, as well as embodying 
the above mentioned features. 

+-»-+■ 

The Henry Roever Company, Chester, Pa., are manufactur- 
ing a cleaner that is used by the largest railroads of the 
country. A thorough cleaner and varnish feeder gives the 
highest possible lustre, which retains its appearance; it pre- 
serves the varnish and makes old coaches look like new. 
In connection with a mention of this material it is interest- 
ing to note that the buildings and plant of this establish- 
ment have been made up-to-date in every respect. Thorough 
facilities for shipping are maintained, including side tracks 
into the grounds of the plant, and a dock on the Delaware 
river, where steamers can land to receive merchandise. 
With these modern facilities, together with their improved 
formulae, the company is turning out a good cleaner, which 
produces results speaking for itself. The company also 
makes a Modoc powdered soap for shop use which is found 
very efficient. 



The Thos. H. Dallett Company, Philadelphia, Pa., wishes to 
say to the trade that, in view of the fact that several manu- 
facturers of pneumatic tools are seemingly conducting a 
campaign of intimidation by endeavoring to frighten pros- 
pective purchasers into buying no apparatus but their own. 
under penalty of a law suit for infringement of -patents, that 
a statement from us as to our position in the matter may be 
of interest. The recent decisions in the courts, which have 
been so widely heralded, do not apply in any way to the 
Dallett tools. All our products are manufactured under our 
own patents, do not infringe in any manner the patents of 
other manufacturers, and our patrons may rest assured that 
in buying Dallett apparatus they incur no financial risk of 
this nature whatever. This we arc prepared to guarantee to 
any purchaser of our tools. If any person has boon threat- 
ened with litigation because of buying, or stating that they 
are contemplating buying, Dallett machinery, we shall es- 
teem it a favor to be made a cquainted with the facts of the 
case. 

Our plug drills and surfacing machines, as well as riveters 
and chippers, embody many novel and desirable features, in 
the right to use which we are fully protected by letters 
patent. Thos. IT. Dallett Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 



H° ~ RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC April, i 9 o 4 

Railroad Paint. SHop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest of 

CHARLES E. COPP j&j&j& Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. (SX, M. Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Orjcan of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 



The Readville Shops ol the N. Y., N. H. & H. R. R. 

In company with Associate "Sam" Brown of the Roxbury 
shops of that company, we recently visited the mammoth 
new car shops of the New York, New Haven & Hartford R. R. 
at Readville, Mass. This is about nine miles out from the 
Boston Southern Terminal. As a dwelling place it is yet 
to be developed; but the land adjoining is an ideal spot, 
being on a sightly elevation, and with entrance direct to 
shop yard, it is especially adapted for use for the shop men, 
who now swarm to the local trains for their homes or board- 
ing places along the line, there being few houses at present 
available. The desirable points can be seen from the illus- 
trations herewith kindly loaned by Mr. E. E. Hubbard, Old 
South Building, Boston, who is developing this property with 
direct reference to employes. The Readville station is met- 
ropolitan in character, with its enameled brick subway lead- 
ing underground to stone stairways to various tracks and 
local trains, while others trains on main , lines leave from 
tracks overhead. In this respect it makes one think of the 
West Philadelphia station. 

In the temporary absence of Mr. J. P. Young, the general 
foreman, his assistant, Mr. Thos. Simpson, entertained us. 
We were shown over the entire plant, which has about 12V2 
acres of the 75-acre plot roofed in. We venture the assertion 
that there is not a shop in the country devoted to car work 
alone that will compare with it in size, character and adapta- 
tion to this requirement. Evidently no pains have been 
spared or expense avoided to make it up to date in all its 
appointments and fitted with the most modern machinery. 
Its magnificent general storeroom, with the general offices at 
its head, resembles an elegant railroad freight station on a 
prosperous road in a large city, .with its doors on the side at 
the receiving track where loaded box cars deliver their 
cargoes to the platform alongside even with their doors, 
where truckmen wheel them in. 

The Sturtevant system of hot air heating is installed 
throughout, fed by four huge boilers, with room for others 
that will doubtless be added in the near future, though the 
past extremely cold winter has tested its efficacy as a heat- 
ing system. If we were to criticize the paint shop installa- 
tion we should say the outlet and inlet pipes are too near 
the floor, as they will keep the dust of the floor in constant 
agitation and distribute it upon the newly varnished cars. 



We are of the opinion that ten to twenty feet of those pipes 
could be taken off that come down toward the floor without 
suffering any loss of heat and gaining much in the matter 
of cleanliness from dust. We think the air itself would dis- 
tribute and diffuse the heat throughout the shop, in its belt- 
line-like circulation from the pipe-outlets above to the heat- 
ing coils on the floor line better than the pipes are doing i i 
and minus the dust circulation. We have seen a shop so 
piped that does produce satisfactory results. 

The floors throughout are of granolithic, as smooth as a 
plastered wall, save the blacksmith and kindred shops, which 
are of earth. The workmen's lockers are of the well-known 




Bird's Eye View of the N. Y., N. H. & H. Railroad 
Car Plant, Looking West. 

open wire work and the washing-up facilities and toilet 
rooms are of the best. Electricity furnishes abundant light 
and power and drives mammoth compressors for air, only 
one of which is in use at present. 

In the course of time we ran up against Mr. Andrew Mc- 
Gregor, who is the presiding genius of the large paint shop, 
which covers iy 2 acres and holds 30 passenger cars— 10 cross 
tracks that hold three cars each, with a transfer table out- 
side between the paint shop and coach repair shop. We had 
not met Mr. McGregor before, as he has not long been a New 




General Layout of the N. Y., N. H. & H. Car Plant. 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



141 




Bird's Eye View of the N. Y., N. H. & H. Railroad 

Car Plant, Looking East. 
England foreman painter, having been ornamenter and suc- 
ceeding Mr. Shuttleworth, sometime since at New Haven. But 
he at once gave evidence of being up to date, as he told us 
he had joined the M. C. & L. P. A. and expects to meet with 
them in the near future at Atlantic City. At present he em- 
ploys a force of about 190 men, 19 of whom are in the freight 
department. Day work is the order throughout the entire 
plant and we are told that some 1,200 men are now employed, 
yet the plant is not up to its full capacity, as about 2,000 
men can be employed when it becomes fully fitted and in- 
stalled for the building of new cars, as well as repairing of 
the old. Moving in late last fall, or early winter, carpenters 
are still busy putting up various shop devices, fittings and 
fixtures. In the paint shop no permanent staging is installed 
as yet, but they are preparing to do so, and as there is no illu- 
minating gas near they are handicapped with burning-off 
facilities, using gasoline torches; but they are preparing, to 
install the burnihg-off machines with compressed air and 
naphtha gas formerly used with success at the New Haven 
shops. 

Mr. McGregor has, we think, the roomiest and best stock 
room that we ever saw, with large tanks, holding seven bar- 
rels each, numbered from one up, the contents going by num- 
ber instead of by name in work and accounts. A large, ele- 
gant varnish room for sashes, doors and other loose stuff is 
on the floor above, where are the end windows, also the offices 
of the ornamental designer and that of the foreman of the 
varnish room who, by the way, also has charge of all inside 
varnishing in the main shop below. On the same floor and 
adjoining the stock room is a large sink room for washing all 
the sashes and loose stuff, which is sent to the varnish room 
above on a large elevator leading to it. 

In the designer's room, before described, a dark room is 
being fitted up where photography will be carried on as the 
company has need, and we hope to be favored at some time, 
with some views of interest and may have more to say anon. 
In the view "Looking West", the first building is the paint 
shop; that at the left is the general offices and storehouse. 

To Mr. Wm. P. Appleyard, who resigned as M. C. B. of the 
N. Y., N. H. & H. in January last and went with the Pullman 
Company at Chicago as superintendent of car repairs, doubt- 
less much credit is due in the fitting up and installation of 
the Readville plant, if not in its general plan and lay-out. 

The new B. F. Sturtevant Blower Works, famous through- 
out the country for furnishing the heating system for this and 
many other railroad shops, has been building a mammoth 
new plant nearby of nearly as much magnitude as the car 
shop in territory covered, but exceeds it in other respects, as 
its buildings are three or more stories high and will employ 
many more men, some 5,000 we are told. They are to move 
into it this month from the old place at Jamaica Plain. Taken 
all in all— Hyde Park with various enterprises and other near- 
by places— this locality is resounding to the hum of industry 
and must prove a great feeder to this enterprising railroad. 



The D. L. & W. Shops Fire 

We make the following extracts from two letters from 
Associate B. E. Miller, master painter D., L. & W., as to the 
cause of the recent fire at his shop and the results, etc., that 
will be of interest to our members and readers: 

"I presume you have read in the papers of the ill luck 
which we had on the morning of the 16th inst, when our pas- 
senger car paint shop at Scranton, with a capacity of fifteen 
cars, took fire and was totally consumed together with its 
contents, nine passenger cars, including a diner. The blaze 
was caused by the flame of a burning-off torch coming in 
contact with inflammable material which was being used 
on the inside of a coach. 

"Our office and all our records were a total loss. Our 
'boneyard,' where we exposed all our tests and which occu- 
pied a conspicuous place on the west wall of the shop, suf- 
fered likewise. Among the latter was an extensive test as 
to the cause of the bulging of putty which I had been at 
work on as chairman of the committee on this subject since 
September last. Results were just beginning to show up 
and I feel about as badly over losing this as anything else. 
I presume we will have to begin over again, or fall back 
upon our colleagues on the committee, Messrs. Keil and Pi- 
tard, as I undestand they also have been making extensive 
tests. The experiment I had been conducting consisted of 
nail holes puttied under some 110 different conditions. I 
hope our loss will not result in postponing a final report 
of this committee at our next convention. 

"The fire started about 10 a. m., February 16th, a bitter 
cold day. Some of the cabinet men were using varnish re 
mover on the interior of a car and dropped some of the staff 
on a window sill where a man was engaged in doing some 
burning off on the exterior. This was wrong, of course, and 
better judgment should have been used, yet these accidents 
somehow will happen with the best of precautions. The 
spread of the flames was almost instantaneous through the 
entire shop, which goes to show that probably an accumula- 
tion of dust, which might have been set off like dry powder 
(gathered in the rafters), together with gases of volatile 
materials, which had undoubtedly risen and were in sus- 
pension. The entire shop was in flames within fifteen min- 
utes, together with all the cars therein, one dining car and 
eight coaches, also nine freight cars which happened to be 
in the shop at the time. 

"It teaches but one lesson, viz: That all paint burners, or 
any naked flame in fact, should be barred from a paint shop 
under any and all conditions. That at least is what it will 
result in on our road in the future. 

"What is your practice? Do you occasionally do small jobs 
of burning off in your paint shop? We have always done it 
in a small way and never have met with any accident before. 

"We have, for the present, turned one of our carpenter 
shops, which holds six cars, into a paint shop and will get 
along in this way for awhile. Quite a difference from the 
one burned which held fifteen cars and which, while a frame 
structure and formerly used as a freight repair shop, had 
undergone considerable alterations at our hands until it was 
more or less a modern paint shop. 

"The shop will not be rebuilt, as eventually all passenger 
car work will be done in the vicinity of Hoboken, the eastern 
terminal, and work on a thoroughly modern passenger car 
shop will be commenced there at once." 



Graining on outside car sashes with the gelatine roller 
process should be made rather pronounced in shade when 
new, or it will fade in a year or two so that it is difficult 
lo distinguish that there is any graining on the sash at all, 
and they will look as if painted plain. This' will prove to 
be the case if a fine, close imitation of mahogany is madn 



142 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



at the start; but if made rather loud and coarse in the be- 
ginning they will toue down shortly to the requisite appear- 
ance under the effect of the sun. 



Varnish Removers and Fire Dangers 

All successful varnish removers that we have ever seen— 
that is, those not containing acid or alkali to discolor the 
wood— are highly inflammable and should no't be used where 
a flame or lighted match will come in contact with them, or 
the gases arising from their use. We know of one large road 
that had a Are from this cause and unwisely went to the 
extreme of ruling them all out of use. Fire arms may as well 
be ruled out of use because one is carelessly handled and is 
prematurely discharged and someone is hurt, and an ineffect- 
ive weapon placed in its stead. 

Another instance came within the writer's observation 
where some men were burning the paint off outside of a 
car and another crew was put inside with varnish remover 
to work directly over the window around which the man was 
burning. In an instant the flame from the torch caught the 
varnish remover that had been applied to about a square foot 
or two of inside finish, and but for prompt action by em- 
ployes with a hose in use nearby in washing another car, a 
serious conflagration would have ensued, for the flames shot 
up and warmed up to the melting poinjt the varnish on the 
wood head-lining and that caught on fire at once, and so it 
would have rapidly spread the entire length of the car in 
short order. The fire burned only half a minute, yet the 
veneers were started on two sections of head-lining and they 
had to be removed. 

Another case we heard of was where a man was removing 
the varnish from the window sills inside a car in a dark 
shop and he lighted a match to see how it was working. 
He saw. In an instant his work was lurid with flames, but 
they were promptly extinguished. 

These instances are quite enough to teach us that we must 
be careful in the use of these articles and allow no flame 
to be used near them. Of course paint or varnish may be 
removed by acid or alkali, , which is not inflammable; but 
this is not permissible because it burns and discolors the 
wood and spoils it. It is up to somebody to devise a success- 
ful varnish remover that is not inflammable, and that will 
not injure the wood, nor the hands, nor health of the oper- 
ator, and of not an offensive odor. There are some good ones 
on the market in some of these respects, but they are lacking 
in others, notably the non-inflammability. 

In conversation with a chemist and expert in varnish re- 
movers, since the above was written, he says that he is ex- 
perimenting with one and has practically arrived, at the 
point of success with a non-inflammable article of this sort, 
but that the high price of the necessary ingredients would 
make it so expensive per gallon that he fears it would be 
debarred from use on this account. Consumers would prefer 
to assume some risks with ordinary care than to put out so 
much money for chemical combinations of a non-inflammable 
character. This is his view of the . matter. We should like 
to hear from others on the subject who are experienced in it. 

Where feasible it would be good policy to have a place 
set apart from the main shop for this work, not only on ac- 
count of possible fire dangers but the odor from it which 
is bad enough with the best of them. 

♦ » » 

Painting Machine Designed for Service on the 
G. F. & S. R. R. 

We present herewith an illustration of. a practical painting 
machine which has been devised by Mr. L. B. Rhodes, master 
mechanic of the Georgia Southern & Florida Railway. The 
construction of the device is clearly shown by the photo- 
engraving. The painting material is carried in the vessel 



swung from the operator's shoulder and is connected by a 
flexible hose to the spraying nozzle. The nozzle is attached 
to the end of a pipe about seven feet long, which enables the 
operator to reach a large surface from a single standpoint. 
At the lower end of this pipe is a union for connection to the 
air hose applied to the yard air piping system. A valve con- 




A Practical Painting Machine Designed for Ser- 
vice on the Georgia, Florida & Southern Ry. 

trolling the flow of air through the pipe is in easy reach 
of. the operator's hand and a second valve is applied in the 
paint supply connection near the nozzle. The flow of air 
through the nozzle induces paint to flow from the small tank 
carried by the operator, delivering it in a fine spray over 
the surface of the car, leaving a good, smooth finish. By 
actual time, an average size box car ran be painted in a 
half hour with this apparatus. 



The Proposed Change of the Next Place of 

Meeting 

President Cook Declares It Out of Order and Lets Atlantic 
City Stand as the Choice. 
Following is a copy of President Cook's official letter to 
Secretary McKeon on this subject, which he has sent us 
for publication in this issue. A clean-cut, manly document, 
it speaks for itself. It is what we expected of him and we 
are therefore not disappointed. He could do no less and 
maintain the respect of our association and kindred asso- 
ciations for himself as the executive and the by-laws it i° 
his duty to uphold; and we trust the majority will look at it 
in the same candid light in which he treats it. We believe 
with him that the Advisory Committee intended no deliberate 
infraction of these laws; but, yielding to a clamor, they con- 
sented to the action which they took; and that they honestly 



April, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



143 



thought tliey were doing their duty and doing that which 
was for the best, we have no reason to doubt, and we there- 
tore respect them accordingly, notwithstanding our feelings 
in the heat of the hour when the news of their action first 
reached us. At that time, overlooking the amendment 
adopted at Boston (pages 108-109 of proceedings), we con- 
cluded that this committee, in the light of existing by-laws, 
had no authority whatever to change the next place of meet- 
ing under any circumstances, only to •suggest or recommend 
that which should be conducive to the welfare of the asso- 
ciation. But we see now that executive power was given 
them to use under certain conditions. What were those con- 
ditions? Plainly, that if some unforeseen circumstances should 
transpire between the time of one convention and another 
that would render the meeting place chosen as impracticable 
because of contagious disease or a destructive conflagration 
or other terrible visitation, then they might choose the place 
which had the next highest number of votes. This they 
' did not do, but, instead, issued a postal ballot, which the 
amendment above referred to does not authorize, and thus 
put a question before the association for reconsideration that 
had been decided by it by ballot and therefore could not be 
reconsidered. 

They also erred in that they acted without that sufficient 
reason given in this amendment. Had that "untold circum- 
stance" existed to "militate against the next place of meet- 
ing" which would warrant moving the meeting, they had 
the authority to do so by the amendment. They did not 
have sufficient reason to do so, and showed it by issuing the 
ballot— they yielded to a clamor that would have better 
made itself heard on the floor of the convention before the 
vote was taken. 

Now Atlantic City Avill be the next meeting place, unless 
some "act of God," so-called, renders it impracticable. Then 
what? Why let the committee correspond with the officers 
and have another place chosen. A similar thing was done 
years ago when Montreal was chosen and a small pox scare 
caused a change to be made to Toronto. 

If President Dane's suggestion at the Boston convention 
had been carried out instead of the resolution that was 
adopted this mix-up would have been avoided. What was 
that? It was in his opening address (page 19 of proceedings, 
paragraph 5) to the effect "that a council of five might be 
formed, consisting of the elective officers and one active 
member, to be given full power," etc., to do this very thing. 
We never heard of such a thing as the president and other 
officers of a society, club, or association, having no voice 
in important matters like this. It is the officers of both the 
M. C. B. and M. M. Associations that form the executive com- 
mittee that appoints the next place of meeting for those 
bodies. If our Advisory Committee were to have the powers 
which they assume only a chairman would be needed at the 
conventions, for between them the President would' seem to 
have no responsibility. 

Personally we do not see any need of anybody but the 
elective officers having any power to change the meeting 
place when any "untold circumstance" occurs to require a 
change. If so, let the matter be remedied at the next con- 
vention somehow that will forever settle these differences. 

PRESIDENT COOK'S LETTER. 

To Mr. Robert McKeon, Soe'y M. C. & L. P. A. 

Dear Sir:— In your favor of the 3d inst., you ask for my 
views and opinion in regard to changing the place of meeting 
for our 1904 convention. 

I received a letter from Mr. Kahler, chairman of the Ad- 
visory Board, immediately after the meeting in Pittsburg, in 
which he stated what action they had taken and why. To 
say the least, I was greatly surprised — first, because I was 
not aware of any contemplated change; and, second, I did not 
hnngtno that the Advisory Board would even inadvertently 



ignore the by-laws of our association which they themselves 
helped to create. The amendment to the by-laws offered and 
enacted at the Boston convention (see pages 108-109) does not 
at this time warrant the action of the Advisory Board, as so 
far there is absolutely no "untold circumstance" to "militate 
against" the legitimate choice of a majority of the membei's 
voting at the Chicago convention. 

The members of the association who are now voting for a 
change had an opportunity on the floor of the convention to 
select Indianapolis, if in their judgment that were the better 
choice ; but they decided against it for the best of reasons, and 
under the circumstances should stand by their choice. 

As the Advisory Board have taken action without the war- 
rant given them by Art. XIII, Sec. 4 of the by-laws, i. e., 
"Should any untold circumstance militate against the place 
of meeting after being selected in accordance," etc., I, as 
President of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Asso- 
ciation, feel it my duty to declare their action at the Pitts- 
burg meeting illegal, and, at the proper time, call the con- 
vention to meet at Atlantic City. Indeed, as presiding officer 
I cannot do otherwise, as a vote by ballot and elections can- 
not be reconsidered; and it is my duty to preserve inviolate, 
so far as I can, the laws of our association. 

That a deliberate infraction of the by-laws was intended 
no one believes, and I feel quite sure that the membership 
of the association will uphold the law and sustain the offi- 
cers elected to see that they are carried out. 
Yours fraternally, 

Chas. A. Cook, 
President M. C. & L. P. A. 

Wilmington, Del., Mar. 9, 1904. 



Committee Report on Locomotive Painting 

Editor Railroad Paint Shop : 

I promised to give you a little account of the meeting of 
the special committee on locomotive painting in New York, 
but can barely find time to do it. 

Our headquarters were at the Imperial Hotel, corner 32d 
and Broadway; the hour, 11 a. m., Friday, March 4th. The 
members present were J. D. Wright, of the B. & O.; W. O. 
Quest, of the P. & L. E.; B. E. Miller, of the D., L. & W., and 
the President of the M. C. & L. P. A., who was to act as chair- 
man of the committee at this meeting. A. P. Dane, of the 
B. & M., was detained by illness, and E. T. Congdon, of the 
N. P. Ry Co., Tacoma, Wash., was, of course, too far away to 
be expected. The President was the last to arrive at the 
hotel, which was reached just as the hands of the clock 
pointed to 11. His train was 30 minutes late out of Wilming- 
ton, thus losing an hour at Philadelphia by failing to connect. 
After hearty greetings were exchanged we adjourned to the 
parlor set apart for us and got down to business. About 
1 )>. in. we adjourned for lunch, then back again to our work, 
which occupied us until 7 p. m., when we concluded our 
labors. A .report was made up from the various papers sub- 
mitted by the members of the committee. Mr. Dane was 
made chairman of the committee just before its adjournment 
and requested to forward the report to the Master Mechanics' 
Association in time for their convention in June, 1904. There 
wore also present, on invitalion. Bi'o. Tlosely, from the P. R. R. 
Meadow Shops, and Bro. Butts, of the N. Y. C. & II. R. It 
was ,1 very pleasant, and we trust profitable, meeting. Mr. 
\V. A. I 'oik, of the Patterson-Sargent Co.. and F. E. Quest, of 
the ( lcanola Co., were assiduous in their efforts for our 
comfort and pleasure. 

My modesty will not permit me to refrain from adding 
thai T think if was one of the most businesslike occasions' I, 
or (he others, ever had to do with in connection with the 
association. Yours sincerely. 

C. A. Cook. 



144 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



April, 1904. 



Obituary 



Mr. Fred C. Steele, foreman painter B. & M. shops, Lyndon- 
ville, Vt, died March 2, 1904. He had been in failing health 
for more than a year, having a slight shock, terminating in 
neurasthenia and partial paralysis. Mr. Steele was born in 
Springfield, Mass., March 26, 1853, and therefore had hardly 
reached his 51st birthday. He began his painting career in 
the Conn. River shops in Springfield in 1872, where he re- 
mained two years, and then went to the B. & A. shops at 
Allston, working there about nine years. Some years later 
he took charge of locomotive painting for the B. & M. at 
Charlestown. From there he returned to the Conn. River 
shop, afterward leased to B. & M., and on the death of C. E. 
Page he was made foreman, Jan. 24, 1884; aud in July, 3900, 
when the Springfield shop was closed, he was transferred to 
Lyndonville, Vt., which position he held until his death. He 
joined the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association 
in '97, maintaining membership for a time, but never at- 
tended a convention. He was a Mason and an Odd Fellow, 
also a member of the B. & M. Relief Association. 
♦ • » 

Notes and Comments 

Mr. David Lyon has severed his connection with the Lehigh 
Valley R. R. as foreman locomotive painter at Buffalo, N. Y., 
so report says. 



Mr. W. H. Truman, formerly with the Southern Ry. at 
Chester, S. C, we are informed, has been appointed master 
painter of the Logan Valley division of the American Steel 
Railways, Altoona, Pa., the appointment being effective 
Mar. 14 th. 



Associates D. W. Smith and F. F. Fisk are on duty again. 
The former, located at the Allegheny shops of the P. R. R., 
has had a long seige with typhoid fever; the latter, at Frank- 
fort, Ind., for the T., St. L. & W., still finds it difficult to get 
around on that scalded leg. 



The rumor of another paint-shop fire is now confirmed— 
the B. & O., formerly C, L. & W., at Lorain, Ohio, which was 
destroyed in December last. Associate J. G. Hilpert is stil! 
holding .forth at this point, however. The result is that 
the Zanesville, 0., shops of the B. & 0. take the coach work 
formerly done at Lorain and therefore Geo. R. Kinney, master 
painter at that point, is now very busy trying to make up 
for the loss and turn out 30 cars per month. 



From a letter, under date of March 8, we make the fol- 
lowing extract, written by Mr. B. E. Miller, master painter 
D., L. & W. R. R., who "was One of the committee referred to. 
As it relates to a matter referred to the M. C. & L. P. A. by> 
the Master Mechanics' Association, to be reported back to 
them at their annual meeting in June, it will be of general 
interest as noting progress. We hope for a report from Mr. 
Cook, but haven't received it yet: 

"The Committee on the Best Practice as to Painting Loco- 
motives held a meeting at the Imperial Hotel, New York, on 
the 4th inst., which, by the way, was a most successful one. 
We worked diligently and practically completed our labor. 
Two of the members were absent; Mr. Dane on account of 
sickness and Mr. Congdon, of Washington, probably found 
the distance too great. We had the pleasure of the company 



and assistance of Bros. Butts, Hosely and President Cook, 
who, by the way, acted as chairman and secretary of the 
meeting, doing the lion's share of the work." 

Since receiving the above the editor of these columns has 
seen Mr. Dane, who had that day (Mar. 14) resumed his 
duties. He had a narrow escape from pneumonia. He was 
taken ill a day or two before the meeting and had applied for 
transportation, and expressed his regrets at his inability to 
attend. 



No one who admires the artistic and beautiful should fail 
to visit the handsome booth of Adams & Elting Company, in 
the Liberal Arts Building, of the Universal Exposition. The 
booth will be made of the finest mahogany and quarter- 
sawed oak and finished in the most popular shades of the 
celebrated Ad-el-ite one coat dull finisher, which are so ad- 
mirably adapted for finishing dining cars, offices, libraries, 
furniture' and all woodwork. The renowned Ad-el-ite paint 
and varnish remover will be on exhibit there, and demon- 
strations of its marvelous properties will be made for those 
interested. Panels may be seen showing the beautiful effects 
that can be produced by using their mahogany fillers. No- 
where in the exposition will the elegance of simplicity be 
more delicately displayed. The company will be glad to 
have people make their headquarters at their booth and 
feel perfectly at home there. Their representative will be 
pleased to give any information that he may have, when 
called upon. 



We clip the following obituary notice from the Official 
Railway Guide for March. We were associated with Mr. 
Phillips on the Railroad Car Journal with this department 
for some eight years and were shocked to learn of his sudden 
death. Our relations were most cordial. We found him to 
be square, and respect his memory accordingly. We last 
saw him at our Chicago convention. He was then represent- 
ing the Official Guide: 

It is with profound regret that we announce the death of 
Edward. A. Phillips, general agent of the National Railway 
Publication Company, which occurred in New York on Feb- 
ruary 26, 1904. 

Mr. Phillips was Widely known among railroad men, par- 
ticularly those of the mechanical departments. He was born 
at Wolverhampton, England, September 8, 1863, and came to 
America in 1888. Prior to that date he had been engaged 
with the Hull & Beardsley Railway Company, and had also 
passed several years at sea, where his ability as a sailor won 
for him a shipmaster's certificate, notwithstanding his youth. 
After coming to New York he was for a time with the firm 
of Thomas Cook & Sons, tourist agents, in charge of their 
publishing department, and in 1890 became engaged in pub- 
lishing The Journal of Railroad Car Heating and Ventilating, 
from which was developed the following year The Railroad 
Car Journal, Mr. Phillips being president of the publishing 
company. His services with the National Railway Publica- 
tion Company date from the summer of 1902. 

Mr. Phillips was a writer of ability, possessed of an excel- 
lent literary style, and had an extensive knowledge of mat- 
ters relating to the mechanics of railroads. He enjoyed a 
genuine popularity among railroad men and those engaged 
in industries associated with transportation interests, where 
Ids agreeable personality and sterling qualities of character 
never failed to win for him a high ( place in the esteem of 
those with whom he came in contact. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



145 



Established 1878. 



RAILWAY 
MASTER MECHANIC 

Published by the 
BRUCE V. CRANDALL COMPANY, CHICAGO 

BRUCE V. CRANDALL, President CHARLES S. MYERS, Vice-President 

MAHAM H. HAIG, Editor 



Office of Publication, Rooms 501 and 502 The Plymouth Building, 
305 Dearborn Street, Chicago 



TELEPHONES 



Harrison 3357 
Automatic 7357 



Eastern Office: Room 716, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 

Entered at the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 
A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, free of 

postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Company. 



Vol. XXVIII. 



CHICAGO, MAY, 1904. 



No. 5. 



i^ MONG the needed standards and recommended 
practices worthy the attention of the Master 
Car Builders' Association appears the desirability of 
establishing a standard distance between the centre of 
hole in fulcruM of brake beam and a straight line ex- 
tending across from the face of one brake shoe to the 
face of the other. When a brake beam is replaced by one 
of a make other than that which was previously used, the 
brake is usually rendered inoperative unless the lengths 
of the rods are readjusted and it is not always possible to 
make these readjustments at the time and place at which 
the beams are changed. Any alterations in the rods, ar- 
ranging them to lengths which are not standard to the 
car, renders more labor necessary in again adjusting the 
rods when the original type of beam is reapplied. 
While it is hardly practical to expect beams already con- 
structed or in service to be rearranged, yet it appears 
worth while to provide for a standard distance for brake 
beams which will be constructed in future and thus 
eliminate the additional labor and expense which is ex- 
perienced when making the changes here referred to. 



TO avoid leaky tubes it is well known that every 
effort should be made to maintain an even tem- 
perature around the Hue sheet and keep up good 
circulation of water within the boiler. Most damage 
is done to flues and flue sheet of a locomotive under 
steam when the throttle is closed, that is while drifting, 
while standing on side tracks and especially over cinder 
pits. Remarks relative to the use of the blower to 
keep up circulation and to induce a hot fire when the 
engine is not working have been already presented in 
our columns. 

Another direction in which a little care will react 



to the advantage of the boiler is in the use of the in- 
jector on passenger locomotives. It is not an uncom- 
mon practice for an engine crew to leave the injectors 
working while standing around stations and to shut 
off the injector as the throttle is opened to start up 
again. When water is put into a boiler in which cir- 
culation is not kept up, cold water settles near the bot- 
tom. Opening the throttle again starts circulation, 
suddenly distributing this cold water throughout the 
boiler, producing an effect which not only tends to 
cause flues to leak and is hard on the firebox sheets, 
but further tends to knock back the steam pressure 
just at a time when the greatest pressure is needed to 
start the train. 

The most practical method of handling the injector 
to advantage is to hold the water level while the engine 
is working and use the injector after shutting off steam 
merely to the extent necessary to avoid "howling" or 
the disagreeable noise of popping while around sta- 
tions. When coming into a station with sufficient 
water in the boiler it will not be necessary to work the 
injectors again until after the train is started and the 
full pressure of steam has been raised. If it becomes 
necessary to work the injector either to prevent popping 
or to maintain the water at a safe level, the fire should be 
forced with the blower to induce circulation and to keep 
up necessary steam pressure against cold water that is 
being pumped into the boiler. Where water is being 
pumped merely to avoid popping, but one injector should 
be used at a time so that no more water will be put into 
the boiler at stations than can be used to good advantage 
when pulling out. 



*■ ONG flues and the wide firebox are among the in- 
M^S stances in which modifications of locomotive de- 
sign have been carried to the extreme. Rather than al- 
leviating boiler troubles this combination of parts seems 
to have aggravated them. The report of the committee 
to the 1903 convention of the Master Mechanics' Asso- 
ciation states that boiler troubles have increased with the 
added size of boilers. As the most noticeable features, 
in larger and heavier boilers are the wide grate, long 
flue and smaller firebox heating surface, evidently these 
must have had their effect upon failures, though the 
effect of increased steam pressure must also be borne in 
mind. 

Many new boilers have been recently built and placed 
in service embodying the features here mentioned with 
no more seeming reason than that they are up to date, 
or considered so. While this combination of parts of 
the locomotive boiler has been rushed into, little or no 
consideration appears to have been taken of the value of 
the respective heating surfaces. In the attempt to get 
free steamers and an apparently large total heating sur- 
face the tubes have been much increased in length, at 
the same lime increasing the ratio of tube length to diam- 
eter. While adding to the tube heating surface, recog- 



146 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



nition of the firebox, the most efficient heating surface 
in the boiler, has been neglected so that the percentage 
of the heating surface in the firebox has been continu- 
ally diminishing in recent years. 

While it is well to attempt new departures it is at the 
same time more expedient to practice more or less con- 
servatism instead of rushing into a departure which has 
gained the reputation of being up to date in spite of the 
multitude of faults which it carries with it. For this 
reason' we are pleased to note that a design of loco- 
motive boiler is being prepared embodying features in 
decided contrast to the now generally popular, wide shal- 
low firebox and long flues. 

We present the leading 
features of this boiler on an- 
other page of this issue and 
direct attention to its consid- 
eration with no further criti- 
cism here than that such 
careful investigation is 
worthy of commendation 
and is a needed check to pre- 
sent tendencies to follow 
customs. 



draftsman, who receives from the road additional pay 
for this work. It is not the intention of the manage- 
ment to train each apprentice to be a competent drafts- 
man, but rather to give him sufficient knowledge of 
mechanical drawing to enable him to read a blue print 
readily. A man who is quick to grasp the meaning of 
a print will plan his work and order his material while 
his less efficient neighbor is attempting to determine 
what is wanted. 

Additional evidence of interest on the part of the 

management in the welfare of apprentices is shown by 

the pains taken to arrange the apprentices' schedule to 

the best advantage. The 



THERE is an associa- 
tion among the ap- 
prentices in the Elkhart 
shops of the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern Railway 
inaugurated to offer advan- 
tages of instruction to 
its members. This ' ap- 
pears a practical meth- 
od of making their daily 
work interesting and not 
merely mechanical. It should 
also increase the efficiency of 
the apprentices and ulti- 
mately prove good business 
policy for the road. 

The association meets once 
every two weeks. At the 
meetings lectures alternate 
with discussions, the meet- 
ing following the lecture 
being devoted to a discussion 
of the subject presented by 
the lecturer. The talks are 
given by foremen of the sev- 
eral departments, or occasionally by supply men visiting 
the shops. The room in which the meetings are held is 
provided with a blackboard to enable the speaker to illus- 
trate his points, and examples of the subjects discussed 
are placed before the members whenever possible. 

Further advantages are offered by a night class in 
mechanical drawing, which meets twice each week, 
and the shop management requires all apprentices to 
attend regularly. The class is held in the Y. M. C. A. 
building at Elkhart and is instructed by the shop 




Mr. Alexander Robertson 



GENERAL MANAGER OF THE TERMINAL RAILWAY ASSOCIATION OF 
ST. LOUIS. 



Mr. Robertson was born November 14, 1860, and entered railway service in 1885 
as passenger brakeman of the Fitchburg Railroad, serving with the same road 
until April, 1897 as brakeman, baggagemaster, conductor, general yardmaster, 
station-master and trainmaster, consecutively. In 1897 he was appointed yard- 
master of the Wabash railroad, and in February of the following year was ap- 
pointed trainmaster. In September, 1899, he was promoted to division superin- 
tendent at Decatur 111., which position he resigned August 1st, 1903, to become 
general manager of the Western Maryland and the West Virginia Central and 
Pittsburg at Baltimore. Five months later, he accepted his present office of gen- 
eral manager of the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, with jurisdic- 
tion over the transportation and motive power departments. 



work of each apprentice is 
made as broad and general 
as can be consistently ar- 
ranged in order that his ex- 
perience may not be limited 
to a few machines or a nar- 
row line of work. 

Touching on this subject 
suggests the consideration 
of how best to use appren- 
tices to the advantage of the 
shop and yet give them the 
broad training necessary 
to make competent journey- 
men. If in the course of 
his training a boy is shifted 
from a machine as soon as 
he becomes skilled in its 
operation and goes as a 
green hand to a new ma- 
chine, while a second green 
hand takes his place the out- 
put of both machines suffers. 
This reacts upon the fore- 
man who is responsible, and 
therefore it is not always 
advisable for him to put a 
green hand at a machine 
when by so doing he will 
temporarily cripple his de- 
partment. On the other 
hand, it is not fair to keep 
a boy at a machine an un- 
reasonable length of time 
merely because he is capable 
of turning out certain work 
cheaply. 
When clamoring for a change it would be consistent 
for the apprentices to weigh both sides of this question, 
and the same suggestion might apply to a master 
mechanic or general foreman who is over-zealous in 
wishing to "give the boys a show." 



Judging by the list of subjects selected upon which 
papers will be read at the convention of the Association 
of Air Brake Men at Buffalo this month, the meeting 
should be most interesting. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



147 



New Shops of the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis 

at East St. Louis, III. 



(Continued from page 120) 



Power House. 

POWER for the entire plant is derived from a single 
central station. While the building is not locat- 
ed in the actual center of the plant, it is arranged in such 
position as to be most convenient for the steam dis- 
tribution, and the distance to any of the buildings is 
not so great as to affect the electrical distribution. 




Fig. 1 — Exterior View of Power House — Terminal 
R. R. of St. L. 

Steam, air and water pipes as well as all electrical 
connections are led from the power house to the sev- 
eral buildings through brick tunnels, which provides 
for the convenience of readily reaching any point of 
the several lines in case of accident and renewal. The 
tunnels are of such height as to be easily traversed 
by workmen, and man-holes, located at several points 
around the yard, provide easy access thereto. 

The power house is in a brick building, 98 ft. 2 in. 
long by 92 ft. 4 in., and is divided by a center wall 
into an engine room 44 ft. wide and a boiler room 
49 ft. 11 in. wide. The stack is erected on a founda- 
tion of concrete supported on piles. The square base 
is 20 ft. across, while the circular portion is 8 ft. in- 
terior diameter at the base and 150 ft. in height. 
The flooring of both the boiler room and engine room 
is of concrete; the boiler room floor is on the ground 
level, while the engine room floor is four feet higher. 
P>eneath the engine room is a basement whose flooring 



is 10 ft. below the floor of the engine room, and be- 
neath the boiler room is a basement of the same 
depth, a section of which is 4 ft. 6 in. lower for the 
pump room. The boiler room is equipped with four 
Babcock & Wilcox boilers arranged in two batteries, 
each boiler being of 250 H. P., supplying a total of 
1,000 H. P. 

The coal supply and ash are handled automatically 
by an installation of the Link-Belt Machinery Com- 
pany, of Chicago. Coal cars are switched to a track 
on the northeast side of the building and dump into 
a chute, which delivers coal in the basement beneath 
the boiler room floor ; from this point it is elevated 
by a system of traveling buckets and delivered to the 
coal bunkers above the level of the top of the boilers. 
From the bunkers coal is led through nearly vertical 
chutes and delivered to the coal hoppers, from which 
it is automatically fed to the grates, which operate by 
the Roney system. Motion is given to the grates by 
a system of levers and gears operated by a horizontal 
shaft, which derives its motion from a small 5 H. P. 




Fig. 2 — One of the Generating Units — Terminal 

R. R. of St. L. 
Westinghouse engine. Each battery is served by one 
shaft and one small engine. Steam engines are used 
in this connection instead of electric motors, in order 
that the grates may be operated at all times, including 



148 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 




JFig. 3 — Four Wood Arc Lighting Machines Driven by Two Westinghouse Motors — Terminal 

R. R. of St. L. 



occasions when the generators may not be running, 
as, for instance, in the early morning when the plant 
is being started up. After feeding slowly across the^ 
grate, coal is thoroughly consumed, and is dumped 
periodically by hand to the ash pits beneath. Tracks 
are placed in the basement beneath the boiler room 
in such position that small hand cars may be run 
along in front of the ash chutes, and ash delivered 
thereto. By this system ash and clinkers are con- 
veyed to a hatch in the basement floor, through 
which they are dumped, and then elevated to 
the ash hopper outside of the building imme- 
diately over the outside track. From this point 



they are dropped by gravity to gondola cars, by which 
they are transported. Provision is made for an addi- 
tional battery of two boilers when further require- 
ments demand such an installation. Further boiler 
room equipment includes two duplex Dean pumps 12 
in. by 7 in. by 12 in., and a Cochrane feed water heater. 
There are installed in the engine room three com- 
pound Erie engines manufactured by the Lake Erie 
Engineering Works, Buffalo, N. Y. Each engine de- 
velops 125 H. P. at 250 revolutions per minute, and 
is direct connected to a 125 K. W. Westinghouse gen- 
erator. Power for the operation of machinery is sup- 
plied by the direct-current, three-wire system, using a 
f-!0£ -^f— — 9 ! -/0£%->\ 




. 1 P^lfloj/se f/oorliru _ 

Fig. 4 — Cross Section of Power House — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY 




Fig. 5 — Showing Attachment of Roney Stokers to 

Babcock & Wilcox Boilers — Terminal 

R. R. of St. L. 



MASTER MECHANIC 149 

ft. long x 58 ft. 10 in. wide, through which extends 
one track, and the shop is to be supplied with wood- 
working machinery, and the line shaft driven by a 60 
H. P. motor at 630 revolutions per minute. The paint 
shop is of the same length and 51 ft. 2 in. wide. 
Through this section extends two tracks for the stor- 
age of tanks and cars while being cleaned and re- 
painted. The flooring of both rooms is of cement on 
a foundation of concrete, and the building is venti- 
lated by two monitors with glass ends and sides, with 
ventilators arranged along the center lines of the roof- 
ing. Beneath a portion of the paint shop is a base- 
ment reached by a staircase located at the southeast 
corner of the building, for storing paint supplies, etc. 
Office and Storehouse. 
The storehouse and- office building is the most cen- 
trally located of the plant, and a good idea of its pro- 



balancing set, and each unit is connected to the switch- 
board in the same manner, so that any one may ope- 
rate the entire system, or two or three may be con- 
nected in multiple. The system is operated at 220 
volts, maintaining a current of 500 amperes. 

For lighting the terminal yards from Madison to 
the Eads bridge, an arc light system is installed, 
which is operated by four Wood, No. 8, arc light ma- 
chines, driven by two Westinghouse motors, of 100 
H. P. each, direct-connected. These machines are 
shown by Fig. 3. 

Air for the entire plant is supplied by an Ingersoll- 
Sargent air compressor of 2,100 cubic feet capacity. In 
addition to the reservoir within the power house a 
second reservoir is located outside of the building, and 
near the chimney, to be used in case of emergency. 
A by-pass valve directs air to the main line, and in 
case of an accident to the principal reservoir the sec- 
ond reservoir will be connected to the compressor from 
which air will be delivered to the main 
line. 

The engine room is served by 
a hand traveling crane of 20,000 
pounds capacity built by the North- 
ern Engineering Works, of De- 
troit, Mich. 

Wood and Paint Shop. 

On the side of the transfer table pit 
opposite to the locomotive and machine 
shop is situated a building for the wood 
and paint shop for repairing cars, cabs, 
tender frames, etc., and for painting 
tanks and cars. The building is of 
brick construction, similar to the other 
structures of the plant, the roof being 
supported by lattice girders carried by 
the walls. The building is divided into 
two shops by a center wall 13 inches 
thick, one of which is to be used for the 
wood shop and the other as a 
paint shop. The wood shop is 100 




Fig. 6 — Transfer Table — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 

portions may be had by reference to the line drawing 
showing the first floor plan and side elevation in Fig. 
11, and by the general view of the plant presented on 
page 115 of our April number. The building is 128 ft. 
long x 52 ft. 10 in. wide. A portion, 52 ft. 10 in. long, 




Fig. 7 — I ngersoll-S argent Air Compressor of 21,000 Cubic Feet 
Capacity — Terminal R. P, of St. L. 



150 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 




South west elevation 



50UTH EAST ELEVATION 



vent, 'lafors 




HORT EAST ELEVATION 



TiORTH WEST ELEVAT/0/i 



Fig. 8 — Elevations of Wood and Paint Shop — Termi nal R. R. of St. L. 



P/on 




Fig. 9 — Plan of Wood and Paint Shop — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



151 




Fig. 10 — View of Roundhouse Looking Across Turn-table — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



Line of Copper Flashing- 

=3^ 




iompo Roof 



SlOF [levatioh. 



IB ^_ 

! ^ C.I Shoes under Posts 




first Floor Plan.. 
Fig. 11 — Plan and Elevation of Storehouse and Office Building — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 




Figs. 12 and 13 — Views of the Oil House — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



I 5 2 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



is a two-story structure and is arranged as an office build- 
ing for the storekeeper, general foreman and their respec- 
tive office forces. It is well supplied with window lights, 
piped for water and steam and equipped with all mod- 
ern conveniences. To the rear of the office is a single- 
story structure yi ft. 3 in. long, which is well arranged 
and equipped for the storage of material and supplies. 
The building is surrounded by a long and wide plat- 
form to facilitate handling material to and from cars, 
and for storing such supplies — castings, etc. — as may 
be exposed to the weather. A portion of the platform 
immediately adjacent to the storehouse section on 
each side and to the rear is covered by a shed. Along 
the sides of the building this shed is supported by the 
walls, and at the rear, where the shed is much wider, 
it is supported by wooden columns resting on cast 
iron shoes. The office building is covered by a com- 
position roof; the roofing of the storehouse is of slate, 
while the top covering of the ventilator over the 
storehouse section is tin. 

Oil House. , 

The oil house is exceptionally interesting and well 
designed. It is located south of the storehouse, and 
an exterior view is presented by Figs. 12 and 13, 
It is constructed similarly to the other buildings 
and is 43 ft. 11 in. long by 22 ft. 4 in. wide, and 
two stories high. The flooring of the lower story is 
of 2-in. plank supported by joists, 6 in. by 12 in., upon 
an underflooring of concrete 6 in. thick. The concrete 
flooring is supported by old tie rails. The second 
floor is of 2-in. plank supported on wooden joists. 
The building is covered by a composition roof. On 
the south side of the oil house is a small platform ar- 
ranged on a level with a car floor, and a second plat- 
form on a level with the second flooring of the house. 
Operating between these two platforms is an air ele- 
vator for hoisting oil drums from the car floor level 
tothe sceond story of the building. Being thus deliv- 
ered to the second floor, the drums are rolled to a pair 
of skids which are located on the flooring of the sec- 
ond story, and immediately over the larg€ oil storage 
tanks which are located on a raised platform of the 
first floor. Bv means of these skids each drum may 



?"x6" Roof Joist lO'CtoC. 





' 1 11 

Fig. 15 — Cross Section of Roundhouse — Terminal 



Fig. 14 — View Inside of Roundhouse, Showing Roof 
Trusses and Monitor in Roof— Terminal 
R. R. of St. L. 
be placed immediately over the oil tank, which it is 
to supply, and by opening the bung in the drum oil is 
fed by gravity to the tank beneath. Each oil tank is 
equipped with a special gage, by which the desired 
amount of oil may be measured, so that it may be de- 
livered direct to the engine oil cans without the neces- 
sity of an intermediate measure. 

Bales of waste are delivered to the second story by 
the air elevator heretofore mentioned. In the north- 
west corner of the building is a large chute and stor- 
age bin extending from the second to the first floor. 
Waste is arranged in one or two pound bundles, as 
desired, on the second floor and dropped into this 
chute, from which it may be taken as desired on the 
first floor. On the north side of the building is a large 
doorway, near which is placed a counter, and firemen 
applying for oil and other supplies enter through this 
door, receiving their material over the counter. By 
means of the arrangements here explained material is 
received on the second floor and distributed on the 
first floor, and the conveniences supplied provide 
. ample room, so that the lower portion of the oil house 
is by no means crowded. The usual precautions are 
. taken in providing drip pans for catching waste oil. 
Round House. 
The position of the roundhouse with respect to the 
machine shop and other buildings is shown by the 
general plan. The roundhouse contains 16 stalls and 
is served by a 70-ft. electrically driven 
turntable. A cross section of this build- 
ing is shown by Fig. 15, an interior 
view by Fig. 14, and an exterior view 
by Fig. 10. The walls are of brick con- 
struction, while the roof trusses are of 
wood supported by 8 in. x 8 in. square 
cast iron columns, one inch thick. The 
distance from the base of rail to top of 
doors is 18 ft. 4 in. The building is 
observed to be particularly well lighted 
and well ventilated. The windows are 
unusually large, and a broad monitor in 
the roof extends almost the entire 
R. R. of St. L. length of the house, the sides of 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MAST£R MECHANIC 



153 




Fig. 16 — Niles Horizontal Boring Bar, Motor Driven 
—Terminal R. R. of St. L. 

which are provided with glass swinging window 
sashes, which are operated by chains and hand wheels 
along the walls. The floor of the roundhouse is 
cement and the sides and bottoms of the pits are lined 
with the same material. The bottom of the pits are 
concave and drain towards the turntable. The rails 
are supported on treated timbers 10 ins. x 12 ins. square 
There are two drop pits for driving wheels and two 
drop pits for truck wheels. The building is heated by 
an individual Sturdevant system located in a small 
"lean-to" against the exterior wall, 25 ft. 6 in. x 19 ft., 
and lighted at night by incandescent electric lights 
arranged to hang between the pits. In order that all 
piping may be accessible a duct extends along the 
inner circumference of the building between the pits 
and the inner wall, in which are located pipes for air, 
water and steam. These ducts are covered through- 
out with light planking, which may be readily re- 
moved. Between every alternating pair of pits branches 




Fig. 17 — Location of Tools in Blacksmith Shop — 
Terminal R. R. of St. L. 

lead off from this duct to a point about the center of 
the pits for supplying air, water and steam as re- 
quired. 

Coaling Station. 
The coaling station is located southwest of the 
plant and the plan of the coaling station, sand house, 
water tank and cinder pit is shown on the general lay- 




Fig. 18 — Location of Tools in Machine Shop — Terminal R. R. of St. L. 



154 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



out, page 116, April issue. Inasmuch as 
all locomotives supplied at this station; 
are for switching service, the supply of 
sand is naturally very large. The coaling 
station and sand house are in the same 
building, a structure of wood, and both 
coal and sand are delivered from dump, 
cars by gravity to the storage bins. Cars 
are elevated into the sand and coal house 
along an incline of about 5 to 1 by a 
cable and drum, which are operated with 
a 20 H. P. General Electric motor. 
East of the building the water tank is 
located, with spouts on two sides for 
supplying engines passing along either 
the north or south side of the coaling 
station. Stand pipes are so placed that 
water may be taken on four parallel 
tracks. 




Fig. 19 — Niles 1 2-Foot Boiler Sheet Rolls, Driven 

by 26 H. P. Westinghouse Motor — Terminal 

R. R. of St. L. 




Fig. 20 — Motor Driven Planers so Located as to be 

Served by Traveling Crane — Terminal 

R. R. of St. L. 



An Interesting Design of Locomotive Boiler 



IN striking contrast to the general run of locomotive 
boilers placed in service during the past few years, 
wherein long flues and wide, shallow fireboxes have 
been the prevailing custom, appears the design which 
is here outlined. Long flues and shallow fireboxes 
appear to have aggravated flue troubles, instead of al- 
leviating them, and the accompanying type of boiler 
is to be used on a number of new passenger engines as 
an experiment. The modification embodies a number 



of practical features. The. flues are to be 16 feet 6 
inches long, from 3 to 3 l / 2 feet shorter than the ten- 
dency of present practice indicates. The bottom of 
the mud ring is 29 inches from the belly of the boiler, 
where recent tendencies have reduced this distance to 
about 18 inches. The slope in the throat water leg is 
such that the flue sheet is 16 inches forward of the 
inner throat sheet at mud ring. This arrangement 
places the flue sheet and ends of tubes at greater dis- 



May. 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



155 



tartce from the fire, giving a larger space in which to 
permit the gases to circulate and become thoroughly 
heated before reaching the sheet, diminishing the ten- 
dency of cold gases to rush from the fire to the tube 
sheet and providing something of a combustion 
chamber in which to assist more nearly perfect com- 
bustion before the gases enter the tubes. The mud 
ring at front is 4 inches. The throat water leg tapers 
to 6 inches, to permit water to flow toward the space 
around the firebox and to provide freer circulation as 
water rises along the flue sheet. 

The grate is narrow and the forward end of the fire- 
box is between the tires of the rear drivers. In order 
to secure the great depth of firebox, the rear portion of 
the frame is carried by a trailing truck. The interior 
of the firebox is 41^ inches wide by 126 inches long, 
inside of mud ring, giving a grate surface of 37 square 
feet. The mud ring slopes forward fi-om a height of 
12 inches above frame at rear of mud ring to a distance 
of one inch above frame at front. The side members 
of the mud ring are straight, to provide against a hump 
in the grate, which is noticeable in many recent de- 
signs. The firebrick arch is so located that in connec- 
tion with the deep firebox there is such distance be- 
tween forward portion of arch and front end of grate 
that a fireman will not strike the arch and pile up coal 
against the flue sheet. The boiler is to operate under 
200 pounds steam pressure, and supply cylinders 23 
inches in diameter by 26 inches stroke. The diameter 
of boiler at front end is 73 inches, and bituminous coal 
is to be used as fuel. The design provides for 365 
tubes, 2 inches in diameter, which, as heretofore stated, 
are 16 feet 6 inches long. Of a total heating surface of 
3-37?>-77 square feet, 3.136.26 square feet are in the 
tubes, 18.68 square feet in the water tubes and 218.83 
square feet in the firebox, and, as before stated, the 
grate surface is 37 square feet. A comparison of these 
several surfaces show the following ratios : 

Total heating surface to grate area, 91.18. 

Total heating surface to tube heating surface, 1.075. 

Total heating surface to firebox heating surface, 15.42. 

Tube heating surface to firebox heating surface, 14.33. 

Tube beating surface to grate area, 84.76. 




A Design of Locomotive Boiler With Deep, Narrow 
Firebox and Short Tubes — End Elevation 



Firebox heating surface to grate area, 59.008. 

Total heating surface to volume of both cylinders, 269.9. 

Grate area to volume of both cylinders, 2.96. 

Total heating surface to weight of one cylinder full of 
steam at boiler pressure, 1,218.8. 

As previously mentioned, this boiler is to be tried ex- 
perimentally on a number of passenger engines and in 
the event of its securing the desired results in minimiz- 
ing round house work on flues it is to be generally used 
on a number of engines now being contemplated by the 
road having this question under consideration. 

In this connection it is interesting to note the graph- 
ical exposition of the distribution of heat in the various 
sections of a boiler as presented in Rowan's Modern 
Steam Boiler, which is reproduced herewith. From the 
results of experiments on the Northern Railway of 
France, this author quotes the following: "From two- 
fifths to. one-half of the whole quantity of water was 




Tfo TTrtrTw Pft,7'o-'} fim 



A Design of Locomotive Boilek With Deep, Narrow Firebox and Short Tubes — Sectional Elevation. 



1,56 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



55 



30- 



r 
! 



I 

V 







23bO _ *3$-Z 6/'%-9 

BoAe of ' Art? as 



°b 




1 1 7e/77perofc/re, 
X here fromJ-?9°/: 
^ /b 397° /T 



Graphical Exposition of the Value of Heating 
Surfaces. 

evaporated from the surface of the firebox, although this 
surface was less than one-tenth of the whole heating sur- 
face. Per square foot of the respective surfaces, the 
evaporation from the firebox section amounted to from 
two to three times that of the first section of tube sur- 
face." 

Electric Wiring of Machine Tools 

I-N the title of figure 3 appearing with the article on 
the electric wiring of machine tools, presented in 
our April issue, a typographical error occurred. - The 
words "Four side timber dresser direct connected to 15 
H. P. constant speed Crocker- Wheeler motor," should 
have read "50 H. P.," instead. 



Valve Lubrication 

WE often read about engines making records of 600 
miles per pint of valve oil, but they do not say 
how rapidly they are wearing away their valves, seats, 
cylinders and motion work, or how much coal is used 
in overcoming the extra friction caused by poor lubrica- 
tion. Take the volume of steam used in operating two 
19 ins. pistons with 24 ins. stroke and a nine and one- 
half inch air pump on an ordinary train for 600 miles 
and vaporize one pint of valve oil in this, then take the 
small amount that actually comes in contact with the 
seats and walls of cylinders and it would take a micro- 
scope to find any traces of it. But the proof of a pudding 
is the eating thereof, and here is the record of a 17x24- 
inch mogul engine carrying 140 pounds pressure and 
having a 9>4-inch air pump. Engine has soft seats and 
valves; type of valve, Richardson balance. Type of 
cylinder packing, snap rings % inch square. Engine had 
valves and seats faced, and was put into service Feb. 7, 
1893. Since that time she has run 73,237 miles in passen- 
ger service, 162,175 miles in freight service and 48,514 
miles" switching, making a total of 283,926 miles without 
having valves or seats refaced, there being less than 1-32 
in. wear off of same and 1-64 in. wear in diameter to bore 
of cylinders, and the seats are less than 1-100 in. from true 
at present time and prospects are good of reaching the 
half million mile mark before valves or seats need re- 
facing. This engine averages 105 miles per pint of valve 
oil. We have 19 ins. x 24 ins. engines carrying 180 lbs. 
steam pressure working in heavy freight service that 
compare very favorably with the above. But I imagine 
someone will say : "Are not valves, false seats and cyl- 
inder bushings cheaper than valve oil?" When they do, 
I am prepared to coriipare repair accounts. Too much 
oil is harmful same as not enough but I do not believe 
in making a good oil record at the expense of the fuel 
and repair accounts unless the gain is greater than the 

loss. 

E. N. Wiest, 
M. M. of the M. & N. E. R. R. 
We believe the arguments presented by Mr. Wiest to be 
well taken and we hope that others will be sufficiently in- 
terested to present the results of their observations along 
similar lines. A comparison of repair accounts of the nature 
suggested will be profitable.— Editors. 



Drop Forgings 

THE use of die work and drop forging is followed 
more extensively by locomotive building establish- 
ments than is usually observed among railroad repair 
shops. Such work presents a wide field for economy in 
both time and labor and by the exercise of ingenuity on 
the part of those closely associated with forging work, 
many parts heretofore formed at no small expense may be 
turned out cheaply and at the expense of time which ap- 
pears almost insignificant when compared with the old 
hand method. Several examples of pieces formed in dies 
under the drop hammer are shown in the accompanying 
illustration which is reproduced from a photograph kindly 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



157 



submitted by Mr. William Hunziker, foreman die sinker, 
of the Richmond Works, American Locomotive Com- 
pany, who has given much time to this class of work and 
attained very successful results. The dies used in this 
connection are made of steel carefully machined. Brake 
pins are forged to size, the fit being made in the original 
operation, and no machining is required. Holes in 
sling stays are forged round or oblong, as required 
for the lower and upper ends. Two hundred jaws 
for boiler braces are turned out per day. The following 
are included among the forms forged : Spring hangers, 
spring hanger gibs, smoke box braces, sling stays, hand- 
rail columns, crank pin washers, front end door clamps, 
flexible stay thimbles and caps, equalizer fulcrums, spring 
rigging blocks, boiler swing links, link hangers, link 
hanger saddles, jaws of different styles, eye bolts from 
V2. to 2.V2 ins. 



Standard Front End Arrangement G. S. & F. Ry. 

THE design of a standard front end arrangement to 
meet the requirements of all locomotives has 
been generally acceded to be impossible, and it, there- 
fore, remains practical for each road to work out its own 
salvation, because of the varied conditions under which 
locomotives operate on different roads, and in many 
cases on different divisions of the same road. At the 
same time, a design of smoke box which has proved suc- 
cessful under conditions for which it was designed is 
always of interest, and in many cases offers some sug- 
gestion worthy of consideration. The accompanying 
illustrations present the design of smoke box arrange- 
ment standard on the Georgia Southern & Florida 
Railway, which has been kindly forwarded us by Mr. 
L. B. Rhodes, master mechanic. The design illustrated 
is the front end rigging as applied to an eight-wheel 
passenger engine, having cylinders 18 by 24 inches, with 
narrow type of deep fire box burning soft coal. While 




Examples of Drop Forcings. 




Section A-B 



Detaies of Exhaust Pipe — G. S. & F. Ry., Front End 
Arrangement. 



-/7f- ! 




Standard Front End Arrangement — G, S. & F. Kv 



1 5 8 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



this drawing has been submitted to us with- 
out comment, its design appears to be that 
of an arrangement which is self-cleaning 
with a venge-ance, an idea which seems to 
be borne out by the fact that no provision 
is made for a cinder hopper. The provision 
of a deflector plate is a good one, not only 
directing the sparks towards the netting 
more readily, but further providing against 
an accumulation of cinlers in the forward 
part of the smoke box. Cinders so accumu- 
lated frequently become ignited, and the 
heat produced thereby often results in 
warping the metal of the box. Inasmuch 
as the extended front is provided, we fail 
to see why the netting is arranged ver- 
tically instead of being arranged at an 
angle so as to extend forward to the smoke 
arch ring. Such a provision would have 
increased the area of the netting materially, 
and one so adjusted is more readily cleaned 
and less liable to become clogged than, one 
arranged vertically, as in the design shown. 
A noticeable feature in supporting the baffle 
plate is the method of attaching the same to 
the exhaust pipe. It has been found that 
where the plate is not securely attached a 
certain amount Of motion results, causing 
the plate to rub against the pipe and wear- 
ing it to an extent which h,as proved objec- 
tionable. This objection is obviated by 
castins: a lusr on each side of the exhaust 




Fig. 3— Details of Controlling Valve, Hydraulic 
Driving Brass Press — L. S. & M. S. Ry. 




pipe, to which the plate is bolted. The method of ad- 
justing the apron is shown by the drawing. The 
spark arrester used is No. 8 steel wire netting hav- 
ing 2 V^ -inch mesh. 



Fig. 1 — Hydraulic Driving Brass Press — L, S. & M. 
S. Ry. 



Hydraulic Driving Brass Press 

AMONG the many up-to-date machines and appli- 
ances in the new Collinwood shop of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railway we note an interest- 
ing hydraulic press for forcing crown brasses in and out 
of position in driving boxes. Another machine of sim- 
ilar design is used for rod brasses. A general view of 
this device with its connections is presented by the half- 
tone engraving Fig. 1, an end elevation and a half sec- 
tion is shown by Fig. 2, and the details of the controlling 
valve are included in Fig. 3. The press consists prac- 
tically of two vertical cylinders arranged in tandem. The 
upper cylinder is connected to the hydraulic pumping 
plant, which supplies the necessary pressure to force down 
the plunger and accomplish the desired work. The lower 
cylinder is connected to the city main, which provides 
sufficient pressure to again raise the plunger when pres- 
sure in the upper cylinder is released. It will be noticed 
that pressure of water in the lower cylinder acts against 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



159 



only a small shoulder in raising the plunger. For the 
drawing illustrating this machine we are indebted to Mr. 
R. B. Kendig, mechanical engineer of the L. S. & M. 
S. Ry. 



An Ideal Electric Plant for Railroad Shops 

COMMUNICATION. 

Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

I wish to bring out an item of expense incurred dur- 
ing the installation of electrically driven shops which is 
usually overlooked, namely, the expense of locating feed- 
ers for the direct current system. In the construction 
of a plant with which I am connected there were 69,000 
pounds of copper put into feed wires, not including in- 
side wiring of the building. This plant is operated un- 
der a 240-volt direct current system with multiple volt- 
age control of speed for machine tools. If high tension 
alernating current had been used, much of the labor 
expended in distributing the feeders might have been 
dispensed with, and the cost represented by erecting the 
feeders would have been enough to pay for the smaller 
wires for alternating current as well as to meet the ex- 
cess cost of the induction motors necessary with this 
system. This would have saved the value of the 69,000 
pounds of copper. 



There is no doubt but that the multiple voltage for 
control of speed is an excellent system in connection 
with machines of variable speed. At the same time, the 
induction motor is undoubtedly better for constant speed 
and load, and I believe a combination of the two systems 
would make an ideal general arrangement. 

Such a combination of the systems can be arranged 
as follows : Furnish a high pressure alternating cur- 
rent from the power house and put a rotary converter 
in the machine shop to convert the alternating current 
into multiple voltage direct current for the machines re- 
quiring it. For operating the motors driving machines 
arranged in groups and for lighting, use the alternating 
current. 

The advantages of such a system would be not only in 
the saving of copper and the provision of both currents 
for the shop, but it also appears practical for lighting 
freight car classification yards and depots, which may 
be within a radius of a mile or a slightly greater dis- 
tance. Instances are common wherein small amounts of 
power are required for outlying points which cannot be 
furnished by the constant current system because of the 
great distance from the central power plant. In cases 
of this kind this combination system would meet the 
requirements by supplying the outlying points with 
alternating current. O. W. Bodler. 




rto/f bottom v/en of Bed Pfate ' tiatf fop nen of Bed Ptotp ' 



Pig. 2 — End Elevation and Half Skction oe Hydrau- 
lic Driving Brass Press — L. S. & M. S. Ry. 



M. C. B. Drop Testing Machine 

HE Master Car Builders' drop 
testing machine, which has for 
some time been in process of erection, 
is now completed and ready for use. 
By direction of the association, this ma- 
chine has been installed at the labora- 
tory of Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Indiana, where it will be operated under 
conditions similar to those prevailing 
in connection with the Master Car 
Builders' brake shoe testing machine 
and the Master Car Builders' air brake 
testing rack. The conditions are such 
that the machine may "be used not only 
by committees of the Master Car Build- 
ers' Assocation, but also by individual 
railway companies and manufacturers 
as well. 

The machine has been described in 
detail in the proceedings of the Associa- 
tion for 1903. The drop weighs 1,650 
pounds and is so designed that supple- 
mental pieces may be added to increase 
its weight to 2,000 pounds. The maxi- 
mum height through which the drop 
may fall is 50 feet. The machine may 
be used in testing materials of any kind, 
provided that the form of the part is 
such as will permit it to be located 



i6o 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



under the drop. It is especially designed to test 
couplers, draft gears, axles, rails and bolsters. 
Parties interested in making" use of the machine should 



communicate with Prof. W. F. M. Goss, Dean of the 
Schools of Engineering, Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Indiana. 



Driving Wheel Drop Table — Southern Railway 



THE Southern Railway has recently constructed a 
useful drop table at their shop in Atlanta, Ga., 
for raising and lowering driving wheels, in order to save 
labor and eliminate the necessity of jacking engines for 
the removal of drivers, as the equipment of the shop does 
not include a traveling crane over the erecting floor. A 
plan view of the plant and sectional elevations are shown 
by Fig. 1, and a cross section by Fig. 2. The drop table 
operates in a pit 40 ft. 1% ins. long by 10 ft. 8y 2 ins. 
wide and is raised and lowered by supporting screws. 
The weight of the structure is carried by bearing nuts 
which engage the threads of the screws. There are 
eight such screws, set in niches in the walls of the pit, 
arranged on 12 ft. 9^ ins. centers longitudinally and 9 
ft. 6 ins. centers transversely. They are supported on 
foundations of stone and each screw rotates in a cast iron 
pedestal cap. The table is constructed of wood and each 
section between the rows of columns is stiffened by truss 
rods on which turn buckles are arranged for taking up 
any slack which may develop. The side and end walls 
are built of brick 22 inches thick and the bottom of the 
pit is of concrete. 

The mechanism operating the table entails no comlica- 



tions and is very simple. Two longitudinal shafts extend 
the length of the pit, each one carried in a heavy wooden 
box placed above the longitudinal walls. Sections of 
these shafts include worms which engage the worm 




Fig. 3 — Driving Wheel Drop Table, Supporting 
Screws. 



wheels in which the several supporting screws terminate. 
Each' shaft terminates in a bevel gear , wheel which en- 
gages one of two similar wheels arranged in two pairs 
on a transverse shaft located over the south end wall of 
the pit. The gear wheels on the transverse shaft are 
arranged in pairs to provide for revolving the main shafts 
.in either direction, thereby raising or lowering the table 
as desired. One end of the transverse shaft is supported 
by an outboard bearing and carries a pulley which is 




*—y> 




Fig. 1 — Driving Wheel Drop Table, Plan View and Sectional Elevation — Southern Ry. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



161 




Fig. 4 — Driving Wheel Drop Table, Bearing Nuts. 

connected by a belt to a countershaft above, rotating at 
600 revolutions per minute. To engage either one of the 
sets of bevel gearing for operating and reversing the 
mechanism a sleeve is placed on the shaft between the 
bevel gears nearer the pulley and a lever pinned to this 
sleeve provides for the operator's control over the move- 
ment of the table. 

To drop a set of drivers, a locomotive is delivered by 
the transfer table to the track connected with the drop 
table, and pushed into such position over the pit that 
all wheels are in the clear. Both ends are blocked 
up to support the weight of the engine and the table 
is depressed, lowering the wheels. When the table has 
been lowered a sufficient distance to permit the boxes 
to clear the pedestals, the wheels are rolled forward, lifted 
by an air hoist and placed on a track running the length 



F/?d V/ert of Table 



End V/ert of Pit 






Fig. 5 — Cast Iron Pedestal Cap for Supporting 
Screw. 



of the building, by which they are delivered to the wheel 
lathes. A specially designed truck is then lowered into 
the pit and the table. raised to its initial position when the 
weight of the engine is allowed to rest on the trucks. 
The locomotive is then returned to the transfer table and 
delivered to any desired erecting pit in the shop. The 
heaviest engine now in service on the road, and which it 
is probable will be placed over this pit in the near future, 
is a 2-8-0 freight locomotive weighing 200,000 lbs., of 
which 180,000 is on the drivers, and 20,000 on the truck. 
The wheel base of this class is 24 ft. 3^2 ins. and the 
driving wheel base 16 ft. 

In presenting the illustrations we acknowledge the 
courtesy of Mr. S. Higgins, late superintendent of motive 
power of the Southern Railway, and Mr. P. L. Raymond, 
general foreman of the Atlanta shops. 



i»»jj>»»»/u/>»>»jm 




Fig. 2 — Driving Wheel Drop, Table Cross Section- 
Southern Ry. 



Rig. 6 — Driving Wheel Drop Tap.le Controlling- 
Lever. 



l62 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



— //£ -* 


(H— ^=-» 


>* 




1 '-L 


1 






I f 










Fig. 7 — Worm and. Worm Wheel for Operating Sup- 
porting Screws of Driving Wheel Drop Table. 



The Care of Locomotive Boilers 

IN following up the subject of the care of locomotive 
boilers, a set of instructions has come to our notice 
which we are pleased to be permitted to reproduce. A 
large per cent of locomotive failures are due to the boil- 
ers, a fact which makes their care of vital importance 
to motive power men. Realizing this, a prominent sys- 
tem has developed the following rules for the guidance 
of its men in order to promote efficiency in the proper 
care and handling of its boilers and we understand that 
since their adoption engine failures due to leaky tubes 
have become almost unknown. 
instructions to foremen, enginemen and hostlers. 

1. Don't fail to examine the flues, staybolts and 
crown stays before engine leaves division points and to 
report if they are not in good condition. 

2. Don't fail to keep up the fire, with the blower 
and fresh coal, if necessary, while putting feed water 
into a boiler, when not working steam. 

3. Don't put more water into a boiler at stations 
than you can use to good advantage when pulling out. 

4. Don't work both injectors at the same time when 
the engine is not using steam, unless it is necessary to 
prevent or stop popping or to protect the crown sheet. 

5. Don't put a large quantity of water into a boiler 
at any one time, especially when there is ample time to 
put it in by small installments. 

6. Don't reduce the steam pressure more than five (5) 
pounds in putting feed-water into a boiler, but shut tlje 
injector off to allow the steam pressure to raise, then 
start the injector again. 

7. Don't open the fire door more than two (2) inches 
to prevent or stop popping. 

8. Don't fail to bring your engine to the clinker pit 
track with a full glass of water and the fire in good con- 
dition. 

9. Don't blow water out of a boiler when the fire is 
dirty, and in no case should there be more than one gage 
blown out at a time, without replacing the water blown 
out, being careful to keep up the same steam pressure. 

10. Don't put water into a boiler with the injectors, 
while cleaning or knocking the fire, or after the fire is 
out. 

11. Don't herd an engine with a dirty fire; the fire 



should be cleaned and the engine then placed on the 
herding track. 

instructions to boiler washers. 

1. Boilers cooled for any purpose should be given all 
the time possible to cool down. 

2. When an engine has a brick arch in the firebox, 
not less than four hours' time should be used from the 
time the fire is knocked until the water is out of the 
boiler. 

3. Blow the steam off slowly through the valve in the 
dome to less than ten (10) pounds pressure before cold 
water is forced into the boiler. 

4. Connect washout hose to feed pipe with injector 
throttle always open, allowing water to go into the boiler 
until full ; then open mud ring blow-off cock, allowing 
the water to run out as fast as it runs in. Continue this 
until the water coming from blow-off cock is not more 
than thirty (30) degrees warmer than the water entering 
the boiler. 

5. Remove all washout plugs and thoroughly wash 
crown sheet first, except in case of crown bar boilers, then 
wash through back belly plug hole, then through front 
belly plug hole, or front end, and, lastly, through mud 
ring plug holes. 

6. Fill boiler with water of a temperature within 
thirty (30) degrees of that used in washing. 

7. When it is necessary to put water into a hot boiler 
before firing up, it should be put through the feed pipe 
with the injector throttle open the same as when cooling. 

8. A change of water in the boiler should be made as 
per sections Nos. 2 and 3. Do not allow the water 
to get below the crown sheet and never let all of the water 
out of the boiler while changing. Proceed in this manner 
for thirty (30) to forty (40) minutes, leaving the water 
the proper height for fire. A change of water should al- 
ways be made as above, when there is not time to cool and 
wash according to instructions. 

9. Use graphite and oil on threads of washout plugs, 
and do not screw them too tight. A sixteen (16) inch 
wrench used with one hand is sufficient. 



Repairs to 9 1-2 Inch Air Pumps 

SUGGESTIONS in the practice of economy are al- 
ways of interest and means by which savings 
may be made, even in repairs of small parts, never fail 
to be appreciated. Mr. H. F. Cunning, foreman of the 
air brake department, Roanoke shops of the Norfolk 
and Western Railway, has kindly sent us two blue 
prints illustrating practices, in repairing 9^2-inch air 
pumps which he has used to advantage. These are 
shown by Figs. 1 and 2, in which Fig. 1 represents the 
method of bushing reversing valve chamber and Fig. 2 
method of bushing main valve bush. 

A little observation will show that on most West- 
inghouse 9^-inch air pumps which have been in serv- 
ice hammer marks are evidence of the reversing valve 
chamber cap having been hammered to a greater or 
less extent by the engine men in attempting to jar the 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



163 



valve when it may have become stuck. The threads by 
which this cap is held are rather fine and the practice 
of hammering strips or breaks the thread and as this 
rough treatment is of very frequent occurrence a 
number of top heads have been thrown away in con- 
sequence. To obviate this loss Mr. Cunning has 
devised the method here shown in Fig. 1 for saving 
the head. The plan is to bore out the chamber to the 
depth of 1 11-32 inches and apply a brass bushing of 
the form shown by the illustration. The top portion 
of the bushing is threaded, to a depth of J/2 inch, to 
fit the reversing valve chamber cap which is desig- 
nated in the Westinghouse catalogue as No. 74. After 
the bushing is screwed into position a light cut is 
taken to true up the chamber for the reversing valve 
bush. As the latter is made large to allow repair men 
to turn to fit, a ligh't cut taken through the chamber 
does not make any difference. The port by which 
the main valve chamber and the reversing valve 
chamber are connected and which is visually referred 
to in plates of the Westinghouse 9^-inch air pump 
as "e," is drilled after bushing is in position. This 
port is 5-16 of an inch in diameter, and is not included 
in the drawing. The outside hole through which the 
port is drilled is tapped out with a j^-inch standard 
tap, and plugged up. The face of the reversing valve 
cap is carefully scraped to seat upon the brass bush- 
ing and the reversing valve bushing. Within eight 
months 25 top heads have been saved by the method 
here described. It had heretofore been the practice 
to scrap these old heads, and the saving thus made 
can be readily appreciated. The cost of labor and 
material will not exceed $1.00 per head, and in con- 




Fig. r — Method of Bushing Reversing Valve Cham- 
ber of 9>2-in. Air IV.m p. 

sidcration of the price of a new head, a saving of 
about $500 is effected in the number mentioned. 

The method of applying bushing to worn main valve 
bush is not entirely new, but is presented with the 
idea that it may be of interest to those air brake re- 
pair men who have not tried it, and who may have 
been in the habit of scrapping their old bushing. The 
inner bushing is made of bronze and where the main 
valve bush is bored out true the bronze bushing may 
be finished before it is applied. As the main valve 



bush is very thin in places after it is bored out, the 
bronze bushing should be carefully fitted, for if the 
lit is made too tight, the main bushing is liable to be 
cracked. 






am 






i 



H3 



Taper P//? — ' 

Fig. 2 — Method of Bushing Main Valve Bush of 
9^ -in. Air Pump. 

To prevent the bronze bushing from changing its 
position by turning and thereby blocking the port, a 
taper pin is put through the two bushings as shown. 
After the bushing is pressed into the head, it is im- 
possible for this pin to work out. As the labor and 
material on each bushing will not amount to more 
than sixty cents, a considerable saving is effected. 



A Device for Planing Crown Brass Fits 

IN the smaller shops, where the facility of a slotting 
machine is not available, it is not unusual to machine 
crown brass fits on a planer. The necessity of a device for 
accomplishing this work resulted in the design by Mr. 
J. S. Booth, master mechanic of the Carolina & North- 
western Railway at Chester, S. C, shown in the accom- 
panying photo-engraving. The parts consist of a hori- 
zontal bar for carrying the tool, which is supported by 
the planer head at one end and at the other by a cast iron 
bracket which is bolted to the bed. The tool is secured 




A Device for Plani?." ' Crown .Brass Fits. 



1 64 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



by a set screw, and for rigidity is backed by a cast iron 
collar, which in turn is held in place by a set screw. With 
the motion of the planer bed the bracket slides along the 
bar and the work is carried against the tool. The bar is 
rotated by a worm and gear wheel, motion being given to 
the former by a crank handle in the hands of the operator. 
The several parts may be made at small cost and are very 
simple. In this case the bar consists of an old piston rod 
from a narrow gauge engine, the worm is merely an old 



bolt with the ends turned down, and the teeth of the gear 
wheel were cut by a standard tap. To perform this job 
the tap was placed on the centers of a lathe and the gear 
wheel supported on the tool post in such manner that 
it might rotate. The threads of the tap turned the wheel 
as it was fed forward, so that an even pitch was obtained 
on the circumference of the wheel. The construction of 
the device is clearly shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tion. 



Cinder Pit at Shop of Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis 



THE design of the cinder pit at the new shops of the 
Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, lo- 
cated at East St. Louis, 111., is one of the most interesting 
which has come to our notice. Its design is the work 
of the engineering department of the road. 

The plan, cross-section and side elevation of the pit 
are shown by the illustration. Provision is made for 
two parallel tracks on which ash pans are dumped, 
and between these tracks is a, depressed track , 
on which gondola cars are run for receiving -and 



whose bottoms and walls are formed by the founda- 
tion material, and in which cinders are held by an 
apron which is kept closed by an automatic clutch. 
When the several chutes have become filled and a car 
has been run into the pit to receive the cinders, the 
aprons are freed and allowed to fall open, depositing 
cinders into the car. In order that the aprons may 
not open beyond a certain point, they are retained by 
a chain, which is also used to again close the chutes 
when they have been emptied. That portion of the 




Side Cleyof/on 



Cinder Pit — Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis. 



transporting ash and cinders. The cinder pit 
is 271 ft. long, and throughout this length the 
depressed track is level, being elevated to grade be- 
yond the pit. Each dump track is on a concrete foun- 
dation 16 ft. deep from top of rail, of a form shown 
by accompanying cross-section. The outer rail of each 
track is supported on a timber 10 in. square, which in 
turn rests on the concrete foundation. The inner rail 
of each track is supported on cast iron pedestals. Be- 
tween the several pedestals are chutes, as shown, 



foundation supporting the pedestals and between the 
chutes provides a surface for workmen to stand upon 
when cleaning ash pans. The rails are held from 
spreading by wrought iron tie rods. On each side of 
the depressed track are two niches in the walls of the 
pit, equally spaced from the ends, for the safety of 
employes who may be in the pit when a car is ap- 
proaching. The bottom of the pit is convex, draining 
towards the sides, the side gutters being drained as 
shown by pipe connection in the cross-section drawing. 






Trbcfa 3 J d J /.eye/ f/er idi"- 


2% 




T"oc/r 1 1 eye/ f/ey 996 
7>-ac/r4 £/er 8b 4 inCinC/trM/ 








i 





P/o/7 eve/ Psof//e of Trac/r flrrongemenr 
Cinder Pit — Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



165 



Traverse Shaper With Pull Cut Head 

THE difference between this and the ordinary type 
of traverse shaper is that the cutting tools are 
reversed, the cutting" taking place during the backward 
motion of the ram and quick return during the forward, 
the operation being directly opposite to that in the usual 
form. 

The advantage of this type is that the pressure or 
thrust of the tool is taken directly back against the bed 
of the machine, and tends to draw the table and apron 
more closely to the bed, 
rather than force them 
apart. This is of a de- 
cided advantage, espe- 
cially when heavy cut- 
ting is being done, as is 
the case since the intro- 
duction of high speed 
steels. Then, in many 
cases, the work itself 
can be pressed directly 
against the bed of the 
machine, so that the re- 
sistance to the cutting 
is not altogether de- 
pendent upon the hard 

clamping of the work and the table. Large pieces can 
also be directly bolted to the bed, the tables being 
removed. This is of a decided advantage in certain 
classes of work. 

The head is so constructed that the stress due to the 
cut comes directly upon solid metal contacts, and not 
upon threads, bolts or screw points, except in the case 
of the set screws for holding the tool. These screws 
are large in diameter, and have a long bearing. The 
whole construction of the head is one of great rigidity 
and strength, having the least possible tendency to yield 
or spring under the cutting strain. Except for the 



head, ram and such other modifications as have been 
deemed necessary, this traverse shaper is similar to the 
ordinary push cut machine heretofore and still made by 
the Cincinnati Shaper Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, the 
introducers of this tool. 



A New Arch-Bar Drill 

AS an example of the development of machine de- 
sign among machine tool manufacturers to pro- 
vide for special classes of railroad work, appears a 




Traverse Shaper with Pull Cut Head. 

new arch bar drill here illustrated. It has been pro- 
duced by the Bickford Drill & Tool Company, Cin- 
cinnati, O., and is designed for drilling with equal 
facility car trusses, arch bars and brake levers, ranging 
from a straight piece of 3 feet 6 inches between outside 
holes to one having a drop of 18 inches, with a length 
of 6 feet 8 inches between outside holes. The spindles 
are driven by a constant speed pulley which imparts 
to them through the medium of change gears, located 
at the left end of the machine, 8 rates of speed, rang- 
ing, in geometrical progression, from 32 to JJ revolu- 
tions per minute. The heads, which have a horizontal 




The Bickford Akcii I.ar Drill 



i66 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



rack and pinion adjustment on the rail, are fitted with 
individual jigs for steadying the ends of the drills. 
The two center drills have a vertical adjustment of 
22 inches, readily adapting them to the offset of the 
work at hand and minimizing the reach of the outer 
spindles. The outer, or short, spindles have a vertical 
adjustment of 4^2 inches. The table feeds upward 
and has feeds of .008, .011 and .014 ins. per revolution 
of drills. It is provided with quick advance and re- 
turn, together with automatic trip and carries two end 
supports or jigs, which are adjustable horizontally and 




Fig. 2 — Adjustable Roughing Reamer. 

which clamp the work in position holding it securely, 
also a center support or jig which is adjustable verti- 
cally, so as to be readily adapted to the form of work 
whether straight or having an offset in the center. 
The work is placed in the machine with the drop, or 
offset, down, as shown in the illustration, instead of with 
the offset portion towards the spindles as is sometimes 
done. The machine is capable of absorbing sufficient 
power to drill simultaneously six 2^-inch holes with-' 
out causing undue wear in any of its parts. One of 
the chief features of this tool is its durability under 
continuous and severe duty. Its form of construction, 
practical and convenient arrangement for securing the 
work in position, together with the adjustable arrange- 
ment of the spindles, etc., is clearly shown in the illus- 
tration, and further features of interest are presented 
by the following general -dimensions : 

Diameter of short spindles, least section. . .1 15-16 in. 

Diameter of long spindles, least section 2 J /i hv 

Spindles bored to fit Morse Taper No. 4 

Vertical adjustment of short spindles. .... .4.J/2 inches 

Vertical adjustment of long spindles. ...... .22 inches 

Minimum distance between spindles 1 and 2. .6 inches 
Minimum distance between spindles 2 and 3. .9 inches 
Minimum distance between spindles 3 and 4. 12 inches 
Maximum distance between spindles 3 and 4.20 inches 
Maximum distance between end spindles. , .6 ft. 8 ins. 
Max. distance under spindles over end jigs. .143/2 ins. 
Max. distance under spindles over center jig. 2 ft. 8 ins. 

Horizontal adjustment of end jigs 15 inches 

Vertical adjustment of center jig 18 inches. 

Maximum feed of table 5 inches 

Size of driving pulley 20x5^2 inches 

Size of tight and loose pulleys 22x5^ inches 

Width of driving belt 6 inches 

Speed of countershaft 300 revolutions 

Floor space required 4 ft. 1 in. x 9 ft. 10 in. 

Approximate weight. . . 12,000 lbs. 



Adjustable Reamers 

A DEPARTURE in reamer construction has been 
introduced by the form of tools of this class 
produced by Shellenbach & Radcliffe of Cincinnati, 
O., which are here illustrated. Two types of the 
adjustable reamer are made, the universal, as shown 
by Fig. 1. and the roughing reamer, shown by 
by Fig. 2. Of the former there are three styles, the 
shell, hand and machine reamers. Taking up these 
types in order, the universal reamer consists of a 
body of machinery steel, from 6 to 12 cutting blades, 
an adjusting collar which operates over a threaded 
surface and a locking collar which secures the adjust- 
ing collar in position when the desired adjustment has 
been obtained. The body of the reamer is milled to 
receive the blades and the bottom of each groove is 
tapered. The bottom surface of each blade is arranged 
on the same taper and desired diameters of the cut- 
ting edges are obtained by either raising of lowering 
the blades in the body, the tapered form causing the 
blades to protrude or recede according to the adjust- 
ment, which is provided for by the adjusting collar. 
The adjusting collar has a groove turned on its inner 
face to engage the tongue milled on the end of each 
blade. Turning the collar moves all blades simultan- 
eously, and when the desired adjustment has been 
reached the locking collar is turned against the ad- 
justing collar. The collars are operated by a spanner 
wrench provided with each tool. The blades are held 
securely in position by set screws whose bottoms engage 
the surface of a groove milled in one of the side faces 
of each blade. When it is desired to adjust the blades 
the set screws are given about one-quarter turn to re- 
lease the blades and after they have been adjusted by the 
collar the set screws are again tightened up and the 
blades are rigid. 




Fig. 1 — Universal Reamer. 
The roughing reamer has no universal adjustment. 
Its body is of machinery steel milled to receive cutters 
of high speed tool steel. Each blade has a groove milled 
near its bottom on a taper with its bottom edge. Set 
screws passing through the body of the reamer engage 
the edge of this groove securing the blade in place. It 
is readily seen that with the taper form of the bottom 
of the groove and the location of the set screws their 
adjustment is rigid and the blades cannot be forced out 
of position when in contact with the work. The heel 
sides of the cutters are given ample clearance. When 
the cutting ends of the blades become worn, adjustment 
is provided for by driving them forward from the shank 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



167 



end of the reamer. This tool is for use in connection 
with cored work where a considerable amount of stock 
is to be removed without preliminary boring. When 
started true this tool will ream a round hole straight 
through the work, even though the cored hole may not 
have been truly located. With such work a 2-in. reamer 
will remove 24-in. of stock at one cut. The cutters are 
interchangeable and are made for hard and heavy ser- 
vice. Tools of this form are made in sizes from 1 in. 
to 12 ins. in diameter, those 3 ins. in diameter and over, 
are made in shell form. 



Improved Plain Radial Drill 

RADICAL changes have taken place in the past few 
years in the standard of construction of radial 
drills. In order to keep fully abreast of the changed 
conditions and greatly increased duties now confronting 
the radial drill, the American Tool Works Company of 
Cincinnati, have just redesigned throughout their type 
of radial drills, taking into account the several condi- 



tinct rates of feed to the spindle. These feeds are all 
obtained by the simple turning of a dial shown on the 
feed box, until the desired feed, indexed thereon, comes 
opposite a fixed pointer. This method is a simple one, 
as it requires no reference to index plates and subsequent 
handling of levers. The feeds operate through a fric- 
tion, which permits a drill being crowded to its limit 
without strain to the feed works. A plate is provided, 
indicating twist drill sizes, from iy 2 inch to 3^/2 inches 
inclusive, and their respective proper feeds, which, in 
connection with the dial index, enables the operator to 
secure immediately the proper feed for the twist drill he 
is using. This involves no guess work, saves a great 
deal of time, and insures the drill being used to its full 
capacity. Feeds can be automatically tripped at any 
position of spindle by adjustable trip dog and pointer, 
acting on the work clutch. Depth graduations are on 
the spindle, and all depths can be read from zero. Two 
or more dogs can be supplied, making it possible to 
counterbore any number of holes without resetting. The 




^J YtfMt f. /?. //>- ,* 



[mproved Plain Radial Drill. 



tions influencing modern radial drill work. In the ac- trip acts automatically at full depth of spindle, prevent- 
companying illustration is shown their new improved ing breakage of iced mechanism. The speed box is of 
plain radial drill, which can be furnished with 4, 5, 6 or geared friction type, providing four changes of speed, 
7 ft. arms. A feature worthy of attention on this new each being instantly available by use of the two levers 
drill is the feeding mechanism in the head, an entirely shown. Frictions are of patent double band type, cm- 
new and original construction. Jt provides eight dis- ploying very few parts in their construction, which can 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



thus be made of such large proportions as to be free 
from slipping under the severe cuts, and obviating the 
use of loose delicate parts. A motor of any type may be 
readily attached at any time that it may be desired to 
change to individual drive, connection being made 
through chain gear, or belt. The speed box can be 
easily interchanged with a cone- by simply breaking a 
coupling connection on the lower driving shaft of the 
machine. The spindle has sixteen changes of speed, all 
immediately available without stopping the machine. 
This wide range of spindle speeds, combined with the 
exceptional driving power of the machine, renders the 
drill equally efficient with either ordinary or high speed 
twist drills. The column is of double tubular type. The 
outer column is practically integral with the inner col- 
umn, which extends the entire height and has full bear- 
ing for outer column, at both top and bottom. This 
gives the equivalent of a double column, affording ex- 
ceptional rigidity. The arm is of parabolic beam and 
tube section, giving the greatest resistance to bending 
and torsional strain. Its design leaves the lower line 
parallel with the base, and thus permits work being 
operated upon in close proximity to the column without 
the necessity of an extreme reach of spindle. The arm 
is raised and lowered rapidly by a double-thread coarse 
pitch screw hung on ball bearings, and controlled in- 
stantly by a convenient lever. The back gears are lo- 
cated on the head, thus bringing the greatest speed re- 
duction direct to the spindle. They may be engaged or 
disengaged without shock or jar while the machine is in 
operation. The spindle is counter-balanced and has 
frictional quick advance and return. The tapping mech- 
anism is carried on the head, between the back gears and 
speed box, thus giving to the friction, already very pow- 
erful, the benefit of the back gear ratio, making un- 
usually heavy tapping . operations possible and also per- 
mitting taps to be backed out at an accelerated speed. 
The lever for starting, stopping, or reversing the spindle 
is controlled at the head from the front of the machine. 



Personals 



Mr. H. D. Taylor, superintendent of motive power of 
the Lehigh Valley,' has resigned. 

Mr. George Hr Brown has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the St. Louis & San Francisco at Fort Smith, 
Ark. 

Mr. E. J. Shipp has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Mexican Railway, with office at Apizaco, 
Mex. 

Mr. G. W. Bynbw has been appointed general fore- 
man of the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western at Scran- 
ton, Pa. 

Mr. J. R. Skinner, assistant superintendent of motive 
power of the Delaware & Hudson at Oneonta, N. Y., has 
resigned. 

Mr. H. C. Chandler has been appointed general store- 
keeper of the Chicago Great Western, with office at Saint 
Paul, Minn. 

Mr. I. T. Custer, chief clerk to the general storekeeper 
of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe at Topeka, Kan., 



has been appointed general storekeeper of the Coast Lines 
at Albuquerque, N. M. 

Mr. W. Norman Dietrich has been appointed elec- 
trical engineer of the Canadian Pacific, with office at 
Montreal, Que. 

Mr. R. H. Barber has been appointed acting mechanical 
superintendent of the Santa Fe Coast Lines, with office 
at Los Angeles, Cal. 

Mr. C. Barruzzi has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Hoosac Tunnel & Wilmington, with 
office at Readsboro. 

Mr. John Cool has been appointed road foreman of 
engines of the New York Central & Hudson River Rail- 
road at_ Syracuse, N. Y. 

Mr. P. H. Connors, superintendent of the Susque- 
hanna division of the Delaware & Hudson at One- 
onta, N. Y., has resigned. - : 

Mr. R. J. Turnbull, foreman of the Illinois Central 
shops at Burnside, 111., has been appointed master 
mechanic at Paducah, Ky. 

Mr. W. A. Meagher has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the St. Louis, Wat kins & Gulf, with head- 
quarters at Lake Charles, La. 

Mr. Wm. Miller has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Terminal Railroad Association of St. 
Louis. Effective April 1, 1904. 

Mr. T. F. Barton, master mechanic of the Illinois 
Central at Paducah, Ky., has been appointed master 
mechanic of that road at Chicago. 

The headquarters of Mr. Maynard Robinson, division 
master mechanic of the Gulf, Colorado & Santa Fe, have 
been removed from Beaumont to Silsbee, Tex. 

The headquarters of Mr. G. A. Schmoll, superintendent 
of motive power of the Baltimore & Ohio, have been re- 
moved from Newark, O., to Wheeling, W. Va. 

Mr. • F. A. Symonds, heretofore shop foreman of the 
Louisiana • & Arkansas, has been appointed master me- 
chanic of that road, with headquarters at Stamps, Ark. 

The office of Mr. Alfred Lovell, assistant superin- 
tendent of motive power of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe, has been removed from Topeka, Kan., to 
Chcago. 

Mr. John Pullar, foreman of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe shops at Los Angeles, Cal., has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Mexican International at 
Durango, Mex. 

Mr. J. F. Roberts, heretofore road foreman of en- 
gines of the National Railroad of Mexico, has been 
appointed master mechanic of that road, with office 
at the City of Mexico. 

Mr. R. E. McCarty has been appointed assistant 
road foreman of engines of the Pittsburg division of 
the Southwest system of the Pennsylvania Lines, 
with office at Carnegie, Pa. 

Mr. M. R. Coutant, heretofore division master me- 
chanic of the Erie at Susquehanna, Pa., has been ap- 
pointed master mechanic of the Ulster & Delaware, 
with office at Rondout, N. Y. 

Mr. William Wright has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, 
with headquarters at East Moline, 111. Mr. Wright was 
formerly with the Vandalia Line. 

Mr. J. A. Pool, general foreman of shops of the Sea- 
board Air Line at Americus, Ga., has been appointed 
master mechanic of the Fourth and Fifth divisions, 
with headquarters at Savannah, Ga. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



169 



Mr. H. A. Bowen, who has for some time been mas- 
ter mechanic of the Cold Biast' Transportation Company, 
Chicago, has resigned. 

Mr. M. H. McGlasson has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Midland Valley Railroad, with headquar- 
ters at Hartford, Ark., to succeed Mr. E. L. Moon. 

Mr. J. J. Shaw, master mechanic of the Denver, Enid 
& Gulf, at Enid, Oklahoma, has resigned, to take effect 
May 1 st. The office has been abolished and the duties 
are assumed by the general superintendent. 

Mr. E, B. Gilbert, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Bessemer & Lake Erie, has been appointed superintendent 
of motive power in charge of maintenance and equip- 
ment, and the former office has been abolished. 

Mr. Eugene McKann has been appointed acting 
general foreman of the Wabash Railroad at Delray, 
Mich., to succeed Mr. J. M. Barnes. Mr. McKann has 
heretofore been general foreman at Peru, Ind. 

Mr. A. Stewart, heretofore general master mechanic of 
the Southern Railway at Birmingham, Ala., has been 
appointed mechanical superintendent of that road, with 
headquarters at Washington, D. C, effective April 1, 
1904. 

Mr. W. H. Hudson, master mechanic of the South- 
ern Railway at Atlanta, Ga., has been appointed gen- 
eral master mechanic of the western district of that 
system, with office at Birmingham, Ala., effective on 
April 5. 

The jurisdiction of Mr. W. C. Ennis, master mechanic 
of the Pennsylvania Division of the Delaware & Hud- 
son Railroad, has been extended over the Susquehanna 
Division, with headquarters at Oneonta. Effective March 
23, 1904. 

Mr. T. N. Gilmore, heretofore master mechanic of 
the Terminal Railroad Association of St. Louis, has 
been appointed assistant to the general superintendent 
of motive power of the Rock Island, with headquarters 
at Chicago. 

Mr. H. L. McLow, heretofore division master me- 
chanic of the El Paso & Northeastern at Santa Rosa, 
Tex., has been appointed assistant superintendent of 
motive power of that road, with headquarters at Ala- 
mogordo, N. M. 

Mr. G. R. Joughins has resigned as mechanical super- 
intendent of the Coast Lines of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa Fe at Los Angeles, Cal., to accept the position as 
mechanical superintendent of the Intercolonial Railway 
of Canada at Moncton, N. B. 

Mr. W. S. Morris has resigned as mechanical super- 
intendent of the Erie, and Mr. George W. Wildin, re- 
cently appointed assistant mechanical superintendent, 
has been appointed acting mechanical superintendent, 
with headquarters at Meadville, Pa. 

Mr. S. M. Dolan, master mechanic of the Southern 
at Selma, Ala., has been transferred to Atlanta, Ga., to 
succeed Mr. W. H. Hudson, who has been promoted. 
Mr. N. N. Boyden, heretofore foreman of locomotive 
repairs, has been appointed master mechanic at Selma, 
Ala. 

Mr. J. R. Slack, superintendent of motive power of 
the Delaware & Hudson at Albany, N. Y., has been 
appointed assistant to the general superintendent, and 
has been succeeded by Mr. J. H. Manning, heretofore 
second assistant superintendent of rolling stock of the 
Canadian Pacific. 

Mr. H. H. Vaughan having resigned as assistant super- 
intendent of motive power of the Lake Shore & Michigan 



Southern to go to the Canadian Pacific at Montreal, the 
office has been abolished. Mr. R. B. Kendig, chief 
draughtsman, has been appointed mechanical engineer, 
with headquarters at Cleveland, O. 

Mr. J. E. Mechling, assistant master mechanic of the 
Pennsylvania lines, with headquarters at Twenty-eighth 
street, Pittsburg, has been appointed to the position of 
master mechanic of the Vandalia system, with headquar- 
ters at Terre Haute, Ind., to succeed Mr. F. F. Hil- 
dreth, resigned. 

Mr. S. L. Bean has been appointed mechanical super- 
intendent of the Santa Fe coast lines, with headquarters ■ 
at Los Angeles, Calif., to succeed Mr. J. R. Joughins, 
resigned. Mr. Bean has been master mechanic of the 
Santa Fe at Albuquerque, N. M., for about a year, pre- 
vious to which time he was master mechanic on the 
Northern Pacific. 

Mr. H. W. Arnold, who resigned as general foreman of 
the Santa Fe shops at Newton, Kan., in February, has 
gone to Raton, N. M., where he will have charge of the 
Santa Fe shops at that point. Mr. Charles Wincheck, 
who recently resigned as master mechanic of the Mexican 
Central, has been appointed general foreman of the Santa 
Fe shops at Needles, Cal. 

Mr. J. W. Oplinger has been appointed mechanical in- 
spector of the Atlantic Coast Line, with headquarters at 
Wilmington, N. C. Mr. Oplinger will report to and re- 
ceive instructions from Mr. R. E. Smith, assistant to the 
general manager. He will confer with the superintend- 
ents of motive power and the master mechanics in refer- 
ence to mechanical details. Mr. Oplinger has hereto- 
fore been master mechanic of the company at South 
Rocky Mount, N. C 

Mr. A. E. Mitchell has resigned as superintendent of 
motive power of the Northern Pacific, effective on May 
1 , to accept the position of superintendent of motive power 
of the Lehigh Valley, with headquarters at South Bethle- 
hem, Pa. Mr. Mitchell has been with the Northern Pacific 
since August 15, 1902, previous to which date he was for 
less than a year assistant superintendent motive power of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul. He was formerly 
for many years superintendent motive power of the Erie. 

Robert Sample Miller, until recently associate professor 
of machine design of Purdue University, died on March 
27, 1904, at Lafayette, Ind., at the age of 28 years. Pro- 
fessor Miller was a graduate student of Purdue Uni- 
versity, having finished his course in 1897. After his 
graduation he was appointed assistant in mechanical en- 
gineering, a year and a half later he was made assistant 
professor of machine design, and in 190 1 was promoted 
to the position of associate professor of machine design, 
which position he held until near the close of his life. 
In the summer of 1902 -he was given leave of absence, on 
account of ill health, and went to Colorado. He was 
somewhat benefited by this change, and accepted an ap- 
pointment as professor of mechanical engineerins: in the 
University of Colorado, at Colorado Springs. He was, 
however, obliged to give up this position within a very 
short time, on account of illness. He afterward returned 
to Lafayette, where he died within a few weeks. 



Technical Publications 

Suplee's Mechanical Engineer's Reference Hook. -This 
book is devoted principally to the presentation of tables, for- 
mulas, and reference data for mechanical engineers. Its 
strongest features are in the portions relating to machine de- 
sign and lo such InfoviTip.tion as will render it useful in the 



170 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



drawing room and in the designing- room, rendering it avail- 
able in furnishing a record of general principles as well as of 
detailed method. Only those formulas which are most gener- 
ally applicable have been presented thus relieving the user 
of the necessity of selecting from a mass of contradictory in- 
formation. In view of the fact that the metric system has 
been under active discussion of late, a number of the tables 
have been presented in both British and metric units, so 
that those engineers who are desirous of using the latter sys- 
tem may do so. Among these tables may be mentioned the 
metric steam table, which renders it convenient for steam 
computation to be made in the metric system. The work 
as a whole is subdivided under the following headings: 
Mathematics, Mechanics, Materials of Engineering, Strength 
of Materials, Machine Design, Heat, Air, Water, Fuel, Steam, 
Steam Boilers, Steam Engines, Internal Combustion Motors, 
Cost of Power, and Works Management. A feature of con- 
venience is the provision of thumb indexes to facilitate the 
immediate location of the several subdivisions concerning 
the subjects treated. Published by J. B. Lippincott Company, 
Philadelphia. Price $5.00. 



The 1904 Air Brake Catechism by C. B. Conger.— The twen- 
ty-second edition of Mr. Conger's air brake catechsim is now 
appearing under the above title. The work has been thorough- 
ly revised and brought up to date. It embodies the latest 
types of botli the Westinghouse and Xew York air brake 
systems and has been approved by officers of both companies. 
The text is well illustrated by line drawings of the several 
parts of the air system. In addition to the general descrip- 
tive matter, an interesting feature to those preparing for pro- 
motion is the list of air brake examination questions. The 
book is strongly bound and is of convenient size to be carried 
in the pocket. Published by Derry-Collard Company, New 
York City. Price $1.00. 



Hardening and Annealing Furnace 

The accompanying illustration represents the hardening and 
annealing gas furnace, No. 4, manufactured by the C. B. 
Manchester Gas Furnace Company, of Providence, R. I. Fur- 
naces of this type are designed to heat a square or oblong 




work of Muffle furnaces perfectly, except where the absolute 
seclusion of the work from the products of combustion is nec- 
essary. They are used for heating cutters, dies, reamers, 
shears and knife blades, saws, and for annealing all kinds of 
work of steel, iron, brass and other metals. The floor space 
occupied by this furnace is 24 by 30 ins.; its heating space is 
10 by 18 ins. and the door opening is 10 by 6 ins. It uses 125 
ft. of gas per hour. 

■» » » 



New Type of Canvas Diaphragm 

It is a fact, though perhaps unnoticed by those not directly 
connected Avith the transformation, that no part of a vesti- 
bule passenger car has undergone so complete a change in 
the matter of general practice as the diaphragm. Within the 
past three years the canvas diaphragm has displaced those 
made of rubber on fully 95 per cent of the railroads in the 
United States, and at the largest car building plant in the 
country only two cars have been equipped with rubber 
diaphragms during the past year. In that short space 
of time the rubber diaphragm has been almost univer- 




, Hardening and Annealing Furnace. 
piece of any desired dimensions evenly throughout, to any 
required degree from cherry red to white heat, and to main- 
tain the required temperature steadily. They will do the 



Fig. i — Climax Diaphragm. 



sally supplanted by a diaphragm made of canvas belting. 
There is nothing strikingly new about diaphragms made of 
belting, as the first full sized sectional model prepared for 
Mr. Sessions, the inventor of the Pullman vestibule, was 
made of belting riveted together and the second was of rub- 
ber belting cemented together. The latter form was adopted 
by Mr. Sessions, and was for many years universally used 
until owing to competitive activity the quality deteriorated 
until the average life of rubber diaphragms was reduced 
to two and one-half years. About the same time the Wagner 
vestibules were equipped with canvas sewed diaphragms, 
many of the original being still in service on the Northern 
Pacific Road. 

Several roads began about 15 years ago to substitute can- 
vas sewed diaphragms, among them being the Northern Pacific, 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, Pock Island, Chicago, Milwau- 
kee & St. Paul and Chicago & Northwestern. Later on several 
others followed, but it was not until January, 1901, that a 
canvas diaphragm was commercially made. The reduced first 
cost being one-half and the durability several times as great, 
this form found ready sale, but about a year later, owing 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



171 




Leof/?er S/r?d/f?g 
Cof/o/7 fo6r/c 



F?u6ber Foot 



Fig. 2 — Pullman Diaphragm. 
to complaints, the riveted form was abandoned by the mem- 
bers of the manufacturing firm, and a sewed diaphragm sub- 
stituted. This proved very popular and the sales of the 
riveted diaphragm dropped from about 500 in May, 1902, to 
36 in December, of the same year, while in the same period 
of time the sales of the sewed type increased from 30 to 895. 

This sewed form met the requirements very well in some 
respects, but car builders soon found that a stronger corner 
could be produced to hold up the crown or top and prevent 
sagging; a more substantial binding could be used capable 
of resisting wear and the elements, and an adjustable foot 
or bottom used which could be cut off without the material 
unraveling and preventing danger of burning. 

To meet these requirements the "Climax" diaphragm has 
been put on the market by the same firm which originally 
and for several years later exclusively supplied diaphragms 
to the Pullman Company. The "Climax" is ordinarily bound 
with belting leather, the grain being used for the inside and 




the split— which is capable of being more thoroughly water 
the weatherproofed— is used on the outside. Where especially 
requested rawhide or other binding can be used. 

The corners of the "Climax" are constructed on mechanical 
lines so as to form a keystone at the top and thus prevent 
sagging. The corner is made by inserting a solid leather 
fillet, triangular in shape as shown in figure 2. This is the 
thickness of the belting, so that it prevents cutting away 
any material at the corners and allows the inside of the 
belting to form a perfect retangular joint. The upright and 
longitudinal sections are then securely "tied" by two heavy 
locked stitches practically parallel. Then when the heavy 
binding is applied the sections are absolutely "framed" 
in as will appear from the illustrations. To prevent 
errors due to shrinkage or variations in car heights, and 
to furnish a durable wearing part where the diaphragm rubs 
against the lower buffer plates and at the same time allow 




Fig. 3 — Cross Section of the Pullman Diaphragm. 
Fig. 4 — Cross Section of the Gould Diaphragm. 



Rubber r~oof 

Fig. 5 — The Gould Diaphragm. 

the bottom to be trimmed to a proper fit and to prevent the 
material from unravelling, feet of rubber packing are used. 

The "Climax" is treble sewed throughout, with a locked 
stitch of eight strand Irish linen thread. One seam is sewed 
through the edges of the belting before the binding is applied 
and thus absolutely protected from the weather, and two 
more seams spaced about a quarter of an inch apart through 
the binding. The complete diaphragm presents a thoroughly 
substantial and mechanical appearance. 

The corner construction of the Gould is similar to the Pull- 
man type, differing only in dimensions and number of folds 
or leaves. 

The "Climax" is made to conform to all types, including 
Pullman, Gould, American Car & Foundry and Buhoup vesti- 
bules. 

In all other types the same relative points of betterment 
are retained, as will appear from the illustrations. 

Where rivets are asked for on the Pullman type they are 
supplied at no extra cost, but one of the three seams is 
omitted to make room for the insertion of the rivets. 



172 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



Patents fully covering the essential features of the above 
diaphragm have been allowed by the United States patent 
office, and, remarkable as it may appear, there was not a 
single citation as to infringement. The "Climax" is manu- 
factured by W. H. Salisbury & Co., No. 109 Madison street, 
Chicago, where they have established a complete factory, 
and the department is under the management of Mr. Fred F. 
Bennett, well known in connection with the manufacture and 
sale of canvas diaphragms. Mr. Warren M. Salisbury, the 
head of that firm, prepared the models for Mr. Sessions' 
diaphragm, referred to above, and supplied the first dia- 
phragm ever applied to a passenger car. 



Thirty-Four Inch Vertical Boring and Turning 
Mill 

The accompanying half-tone engravings illustrate a 34- 
inch vertical boring and turning mill built by the Colburn 
Machine Tool Company, Franklin, Pa., and the set of tools in 
finishing turret used in its operation. The capacity of this 
mill is 34 inches in diameter. It will take 14 inches under 
cross rail and 22 inches under the turret. It has 16 changes 
of speed, varying from 2% to 68% revolutions per minute. 
The feeds are positive, gear driven, x both vertical and hori- 
zontal, and provided with adjustable automatic stops. The 
chuck is of extra heavy design, and all parts are very strong. 
The scroll is made from a steel forging, and the chuck is 
both universal and independent. The jaws are fitted in T 
slots, planed in supplementary steel slides which can be ad- 
justed separately by an independent screw underneath. The 
driving cone shaft is placed parallel with the cross rail and 
the machine may be located under a traveling crane and 



belted back to the countershaft, leaving a clear space over- 
head for crane service. The driving gear is of cast iron and 
made fast to the chuck, so that there is no twisting strain 
on the spindle. It is driven by a 3 pitch steel pinion through 
a powerful train of gears. The ratio of the constant train 
is 7% to 1, and the ratio of back gears is 4.5 to 1. The 16 





34-iN. Vertical Boring and Turning Mill. 



Set of Tools Finishing Turret. 

changes are graded to give a perfect goemetrical progression. 
The spindle is 6 inches in diameter and runs on a bronze 
shoulder ring. 

The vertical slide has a travel of 18 inches either by hand 
or power, and is carried on a swivel saddle attached to the 
cross slide by four bolts, working in a circular T slot. When 
the power feed is used, an adjustable automatic stop regu- 
lates the length of travel as desired. A graduated scale 18 

inches long is attached to the 
turret slide cap, parallel with 
rail within easy reach of op- 
erator, and without having to 
use a wrench. 

The turret is 10 inches in 
diameter, five-sided ,and has a 
hole in each side bored to fit 
tool shanks, 2 1 / 4 inches in diam- 
eter. Each side measures 5% 
inches long by 5% inches high 
and has four %-inch tapped 
holes for clamping special tools 
to turret. The turret has a 
clamp lever, which remains in 
a vertical position when re- 
leased. The lock bolt is of 
hardened tool steel ground per- 
fectly true, and works in a 
hardened tool steel index ring 
also accurately ground. 

A micrometer dial is fur- 
nished to set over collar on 
cross feed screw, which proves 
a great convenience in provid- 
ing a fine adjustment for depth 
of cut. 

The thread cutting attach- 
ment may be quickly applied 
and the turret slide. The latter 
has an adjustable pointer which 
moves over the scale indicating 
at all times the travel of the 
turret slide. A counterbalance 
weight suspended within the 
column and connected to the 
turret slide makes it easy run- 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



173 



ning. The turret slide can be swiveled to any angle up to 
30 degrees either side of the perpendicular. This operation 
is unique and is accomplished by simply turning the crank 
on the vertical feed shaft, first having locked the weight cable 
by means of the clamp on the sheave wheel bracket on top of 
the machine, and loosening the clamping bolts on the swivel. 
The cross slide has a travel of 15% inches, either by hand or 
power. It is equipped with adjustable automatic stops for 
tripping feed, as well as means for clamping slide to cross 
remain permanently attached to the machine without inter- 
fering with its regular operation. It consists of an arm 
having a fixed stud forming a bearing for change gears. This 
is attached to the side of the feed gear case, so as to bring 
the change gear in mesh with the proper gear in the train. 



The Cleveland Pressed Steel Carline 

The use of steel in car construction is increasing rapidly, 
and a new company known as the Cleveland Car Specialty 
Company, of Cleveland, Ohio, has recently been organized to 
place on the market some pressed steel car specialties. 

The Cleveland City Forge & Iron Company has just in- 
stalled a complete plant of the latest types of heavy hydraulic 
and pneumatic machinery for the work of the Cleveland Car 
Specialty Company, and the 
first article ready for the mar- 
ket is the pressed steel carline. 
This carline is manufactured 
under the Haskell and Maltby 
patents now owned by the 
Specialty Company. There are 
now over 75,000 of them in 
service and they are constantly 
growing in favor. 

The pressed steel carline is 
light in weight, pleasing in ap- 
pearance, and very strong, be- 
ing about 2% times the strength 
of the same weight of rolled 
commercial shapes. The use of 

seven carlines per car (a reduction of practically 50 per cent 
over wooden carlines), at the same time gives greater strength 
and rigidity to the roof, and permits a saving in weight of 
from 250 to 300 pounds per car. The height at eaves with 
the pressed steel carline is from 2 to 4 ins. less, with same in- 
side dimension, or the cubic capacity may be increased. The 
cubic capacity of the A. R. A. standard car is 2,448 cubic feet, 
while the same car with Cleveland Pressed Steel Carline has 
2,537 cubic feet. 

A 38 ft. car recently built, equipped with seven steel car- 
lines was tested with a load of 15,000 pounds on the running 
board. This only caused a deflection of % in. in the carline, 
without any permanent set in the carline when the load was 
removed. 

The pressed steel carline passes over the side plates, hav- 
ing lips turned down over outside of plates, to which carlines 
are securely fastened by half inch bolts which binds side 
plates together, making spreading of sides impossible. The 
steel carlines do not stretch, cannot shrink and are always 
the same distance apart, this in connection with the purlines 
and ridge pole securely bolted to carlines results in a rigid 
and substantial construction that proves a sure cure for leaky 
roofs. 

The steel carlines are indestructible, and in cases of total 
destruction of a car by fire or other causes, they will have 
a scrap value of $2.50 to $3.00 per car, and are guaranteed 
to last for the life of the car. 

The Cleveland Pressed Steel Carline is designed to be used 
with any style of roof, whether outside or inside metal, plastic 
or double board and will increase the life of any car roof 
with which it may be used. In cars where the under course 



of boards are laid lengthwise of the car, a special nailing- 
strip is inserted in the carline. 

There are two designs of pressed steel carline, the standard 
U shape section, and a composite carline, being the wooden 
nailing strip combined with a one-half or Z section of the 
standard carline. The combined carline is designed particu- 
larly for use in connection with longitudinal roofing board 
construction. 

With the use of the Cleveland Pressed Steel Carline, rail- 
roads will be enabled to obtain in freight cars and stock 
cars the very desirable points of increased capacity, greater 
durability, lighter and stronger construction without material 
increase in cost. 

In addition to the carline, there will soon be ready for the 
market a new pressed steel spring plank and other pressed 
steel specialties. 



Catalogue of Machine Tools, Niles-Bement-Pond 

Company 

We are in receipt of a comprehensive catalogue of machine 
tools from the Niles-P>ement-Pond Company, which is one of 
the best productions of its kind that has come to our notice. 




TTir 



"iS" "P sectionB-3 SectionA-A 

r 1 



The Cleveland Pressed Steel Car Line. 

The catalogue opens with six full page illustrations of the 
various works of the Niles-Bement-Pond Company, and fol- 
lowing these are thirteen pages of medals and diplomas 
awarded the various constituent companies of this concern. 
These medals date as far back as 1871. The medals of the 
more recent expositions, however, are much in the majority. 
The reproductions of the medals are particularly excellent. 

After the medals, the main part of the catalogue begins. 
First are the machines for railroad shop use. These include 
a most complete line of driving wheel lathes. Fourteen dif- 
ferent full-page illustrations are given of these machines, show- 
ing all sizes from 51-inch to 100-inch swing, and one or two 
special machines adapted particularly to the use of modern 
high power tool steels. The other railroad tools include three 
different styles of car-wheel lathes, a large variety of axle 
lathes, cutting-off and centering machines, quartering ma- 
chines, car-wheel borers and hydrostatic wheel presses. 

The next division of the catalogue is devoted to lathes in- 
cluding all sizes from the Pratt & Whitney bench lathe to 
the massive Bement 125-inch crank shaft lathe. The large 
variety of heavy lathes shown is especially complete. Be- 
sides the standard lathes, a number of special lathes includ- 
ing pulley lathes, turret lathes and automatic screw machines 
are shown. 

Fifty pages are devoted to planing machines, and a spe- 
cially large variety of heavy planers are shown. Various 
methods of driving by magnetic clutches and motor mounted 
on the top of housings are illustrated. The large portable 
rotary planers are among the most interesting machines de- 
scribed in 1his section of the catalogue. These machines are 
self-contained, the motor being mounted on the saddle. The 
largest has a swing of 120 inches, and is arranged so that it 



174 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



can be lifted by a crane and placed in any position on a floor 
plate. Slotting machines and milling machines take a large 
number of pages; several very handsome full-page illustra- 
tions being devoted to work done on the Pratt & Whitney 
thread milling machine. A large number of heavy drills are 
shown, including vertical drills, radial drills and multiple 
drills. 

Among the most interesting pages in the catalogue are 
those devoted to boring machines. First are the horizontal 
boring machines which include all varieties of boring ma- 
chines in which the work remains stationary, the cutting 
being done by revolving cutters. A particularly complete 
line of floor boring machines or horizontal boring, drilling 
and milling machines are shown, including every conceivable 
variety of these machines. 

Fifty pages are devoted to boring and turning mills. Here 
again, the large mills are most interesting, but more space 
has been devoted to describing the smaller machines. The 16- 
foot and 20-foot mills are particularly massive. 

Following the section on boring and turning mills are a 
few pages devoted to miscellaneous machine tools, and then 
comes a very complete line of boiler shop machinery includ- 
ing plate planers, bending rolls, punching and shearing ma : 
chines, hydraulic presses, steam and hydraulic riveters. In 
the latter part of the catalogue, the full line of Bement steam 
hammers is illusrtated, together with a number of installa- 
tions of Niles electric traveling cranes. The last pages are 
devoted to the small tools made by Pratt & Whitney Company. 

In the arrangement of the catalogue, particular care has 
been taken to put the various machines in their logical order, 
so that any machine can be found without reference either 
to the table of contents in the front of the book or the com- 
plete index at the back. Metric as well as English dimensions 
are given throughout and code-words are placed under each 
machine. 

The whole catalogue is a particularly good piece of press 
work, the cuts coming out with great sharpness and clear- 
ness. Some idea of the size of the book can be obtained from 
the fact that it weighs about 10 pounds. While the catalogue 
is not intended for general distribution it will be gladly sent 
to users of heavy machine tools. 



The Joy Line's New Steamer 

The Joy Line between New York and Providence and New 
York and Boston has purchased the large and elegant pas- 
senger steamer State of Maine, for service in their daily 
line between New York and Providence. This steamer, to- 
gether with her sister ship, the Larchinont, provides a service 
to and from Providence not excelled by any line out of New 
York. These steamers are provided with all modern ap- 
pliances conducive to elegance, comfort and safety, and the 
dining room, where the meals are served a la carte, at rea- 
sonable prices, is on the saloon deck. The Joy Line is surely 
well established as one of the most popular transportation 
lines out of the port of New York, and its patrons will ap- 
preciate the action of the management in providing the best 
that is to be had, and always maintaining the lowest rates 
for either passengers, express or freight. 



Barrett Jacks for Siberian Railway 

The Duff Manufacturing Company, Pittsburg, Pa., sole manu- 
facturers of the Barrett Jacks, have received a large contract 
for a carload of track jacks for Russia, same to be furnished 
for the Siberian Railway. This railway, and in fact nearly 
all the Russian railways, have been using Barrett Jacks for 
a number of years, but this contract is unusually large on 
account of the Siberian railway being such an important fac- 
tor in the Japan-Russian War, in the way of transportating 
troops, supplies, etc., to the seat of war. 



This contract is important also in that it puts aside the 
somewhat prevailing belief that Russia did not intend to pur- 
chase any of its supplies in the United States, but would 
look to European markets for its requirements. 

The order for jacks is to be rushed forward at once as 
they are urgently needed for the repairing of permanent track, 
and for the construction of new track to take care of the de- 
mands of the Russian government. 

It is quite a coincidence that on the same day the Duff 
Manufacturing Company received the contract from Russia, 
they received an inquiry for a rush order of Barrett Jacks for 
the Japanese Railways. It is a peculiar incident that the two 
warring nations should send specifications for the same 
article to the same firm on the same day. 



Train Operated in New York Subway 

The first real train to make a trip through any consider- 
able portion of the subway in New York was taken through 
•by an "L" road engine. It consisted of one of the new 
subway passenger coaches and a flat car. The cars and 
engine were drawn by horses to One Hundred and Twenty- 
, third street and Broadway and put on the subway tracks 
two weeks ago. There the rapid transit road leaves the 
tunnel and runs on a viaduct across Manhattan valley. A 
break has been left in the wall at that point. The trip was 
chiefly for the purpose of inspection by engineers. The 
start was made from One Hundred and Twenty -third street 
at. 2: 30 o'clock. From there the train ran up to the mouth 
of the tunnel under Washington Heights. Then returning 
over the viaduct it entered the tunnel at One Hundred and 
Twenty-third street and continued downtown. The engine, 
which was between the flat car and the passenger coach, 
was fitted for burning oil, so there would be as little smoke 
as possible. 



An Interurban Railway Association 

On March 31, the managers of a number of interurban 
electric railways met in Dayton, 0., and organized the Ohio 
Interurban Railway Association. During recent years there 
has been a great deal of electric interurban railway construc- 
tion carried out in the state of Ohio, and the necessity for 
exchange of opinions and for co-operation between the vari- 
ous companies has shown the need of such an organization. 
More than sixty men, representing about thirty railway com- 
panies, were present. The president of the association is 
Mr. Harry P. Clegg, president of the Dayton & Troy Ry., 
Dayton, 0., and the secretary is Mr. J. H. Merrill, purchasing 
agent of the Western Ohio Ry., at Lima, 0. The next meet- 
ing will be held in Cleveland some time during the month 
of May. 



Exhibit of Fish by the Grand Trunk Railway 

At the St. Louis World's Fair the Grand Trunk Ry. has 
a separate pavilion in the palace of forestry, fish and game, 
in which are being installed some fine specimens of fish 
native to Canadian waters. The Grand Trunk exhibit also 
includes heads of game from the forests of Canada. The 
exhibit is being installed under the direction of H. R. Charl- 
ton, advertising agent, of Montreal, and R. McC. Smith, south- 
ern passenger agent, of Detroit. 



Car Ferry jor the Michigan Central 

The Michigan Central R. R. has closed a contract with 
the Great Lakes Engineering Company, of Detroit, for an 
ice crushing car ferry to go into commission next October 
and run between Detroit and Windsor. The new boat will 
cost $315,000. It will be propelled by two screws forward 
and two aft, each operated by an independent engine. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



175 



Golden State Limited Discontinued for the Season 

The California season having practically ended, the Chi- 
cago, Rock Island & Pacific Ry. has taken off their Golden 
State Limited. The last train, west-bound, left Chicago on 
April 15th. This train was put on only for the heavy traffic 
during the winter and will be resumed sometime during 
November. This company still runs two through trains to 
San Francisco, one by way of El Paso and one through 
Colorado, in addition to their Rocky Mountain Limited, which 
makes close connections with San Francisco and Los Angeles 
trains. 



Notes of the Month 

During the past month the offices of the Kennicott Water 
Softener Company were removed to 525-527-529 Railway Ex- 
change Building, corner Jackson and Michigan boulevards, 
Chicago, 111. 



After May 1st, the Chicago office of the Baldwin Locomo- 
tive Works will be located at 623-625 Railway Exchange 
Building, and the office of the Standard Steel Works will oc- 
cupy the same suite. 



The four world's fair locomotives recently built by the 
Baldwin Locomotive Works for the Norfolk & Western Ry. 
and forwarded to St. Louis last week were equipped with the 
"Barber" lateral motion truck. 



F. W. Bird & Son, of East Walpole, Mass., are shipping over 
four million square feet of their Neponset insulating paper 
and six hundred asphalt torsion proof car roofs to the Ameri- 
can Car & Foundry Company, for the construction of refrig- 
erator cars. 

♦ • » 

"Dust Collecting" is the title of the new catalogue No. 57 
issued by the Hartford Blower Company to describe their heat- 
ing, ventilating and drying systems as well as their exhaust 
and blow pipe system, and forced and induced draft systems. 
This establishment is located at 160 Sheffield street, Hartford, 
Conn. 

■» » » 

Mr. E. H. Symington, until recently with the Railway Ap- 
pliances Company, has opened an office at number 315 Rail- 
way Exchange Building, Chicago, where he is now located 
as general western sales manager of the T. H. Symington 
Company, Baltimore, Md., a well-known establishment han- 
dling railroad specialties. 



Handsome illustrations of the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion are embodied in a strikingly attractive souvenir booklet 
of views which has been prepared by the passenger traffic 
department of the Missouri, Kansas & Texas Railway, and is 
issued exclusively by this company. Copies of the same may 
be had for 25 cents by applying to Mr. George Morton, gen- 
eral passenger and ticket agent St. Louis, Mo. 



The Falls Hollow Staybolt Company is distributing a small 
pamphlet discussing railway motive power expenses and 
some of the causes of their increase. This pamphlet touches 
on several features in railway operation which increase ex- 
penses, laying especial stress on broken staybolts, bad water 
and imperfect combustion. Copies of the same will be fur- 
nished by application to the above named company. 



The Corliss engines, air compressors, and high pressure boil- 
ers manufactured by the Murray Iron Works, Burlington, la., 
are comprehensively illustrated in their catalogue No. 55, 
which is now ready for distribution. This company was in- 
corporated Feb. 1st, 1870, and has been for 34 years engaged 



in operating foundries, engine shops and boiler works Its 
plants are well located in Burlington and West Burlington 
la., and Aurora, 111. 



The Pittsburg Crushed Steel Company, Pittsburg, Pa 
patentees and sole manufacturers of steel emery and s'teelite 
are distributing a booklet directing the attention of the en- 
gineering field to the superiority of steel emery for grinding 
purposes. Steel emery is intensely hard, and does not puh 
verize and become inert. In ordinary grinding, steel emery 
is used in precisely the same way as ordinary emery, but 
special care must be exercised in its use on account of the 
grains of steel emery being so much smaller than other 
abrasives. 



On May 1st the Walson-Stillman Company, remove their 
offices and a large stock of goods to 46 Dey street, New York 
City. In a short time all of their machinery will be re- 
moved to their new works at Aldene, Union county, N. J., 
where there will be ample rom for the plant to expand. This 
point is located about four miles west of Elizabeth, and one- 
half mile from Roselle Depot, via trolley. The works are lo- 
cated at the junction of the Lehigh Valley Railroad, Balti- 
more & Ohio Railroad and on the low grade connection be- 
tween the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Central Railroad 
of New Jersey, with a track 1,000 feet long in the yards. 



That the Allen portable pneumatic riveting machines built 
by John F. Allen, 370-372 Gerard avenue, New York City, will 
not only do good work, but continue to do it without con- 
stant repairs, is confirmed in a statement recently made to 
the manufacturer by Mr. Wm. F. McNeill & Co., New Glas- 
gow, N. S., Canada, who says: "The riveter purchased of you 
June 27, 1901, is giving us every satisfaction and has not cost 
us one penny for repairs since we put it in the shop." This 
company has recently sold one of the latest John Allen rivet- 
ing machines to the Southern Pacific Railroad Company at 
Reno, Nevada. The machine has 55-in. reach, 12-in. cylinder 
and 20-in. gap, and is one of the largest size riveters built by 
this well-known concern. 

■» « » 

The following list of cars and locomotives were among re- 
cent orders received by the Standard Car Truck Company, 
all to be equipped with the "Barber" lateral motion trucks:' 
Chicago, Lake Shore & Eastern, 250 100,000 capacity cars; 
Canadian Pacific Ry., 1,600 freight cars; Erie Railroad Co.! 
200 refrigerators'; Erie Railroad Co., 15 elliptical spring milk 
cars; Delaware, Lackawanna & Western, 1,000 box cars; Dela- 
ware, Lackawanna & Western, 500 steel cars; Goodwin Car 
Co., 60 special dump cars; Great Northern Ry. Co., 27 special 
fish cars; Central R. R. Co. of New Jersey, 10 special cinder 
cars; A. E. Bryan Co., Chicago, 2 special purpose cars; Nor- 
folk. & Western Ry., 4 locomotive tenders; Bismark, Wash- 
burn & Great Falls, 1 locomotive tender. 



A foreign exchange states that the Cape to Cairo Railway 
will soon reach the Zambesi at the Victoria Falls, and the 
first through train from Capetown to the Zambesi will run 
in April or May. On Febuary 1 the rails were within 48 
miles of the Victoria Falls, and the excavations for the great 
bridge which is to span the Zambesi were in active progress. 
The first portion of the bridge work is now on its way to 
South Africa, and it will be followed by the remaining sec- 
tions as rapidly as possible, so that the erection of the 
bridge may be completed this year. With the setting up of 
the bridge and the completion of the line to that point, the 
present contracts will expire. The next section of the line 
to be built will be from the Zambesi northeast to Broken 
Hill, a distance of 350 miles, in the direction of Lake Tan- 
ganyika. 



176 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

Railroad Paint Shop 



May, 1904. 



Raited by 

CHARLES £.. COPP j&j&& 

General Foreman Painter B. (Sb M. Ry. 

Official Organ of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' 



Devoted to the Interest of 
Master Car and 
Locomotive Painters 

Association. 



M. C. & L. P. A. Portrait Gallery 

J. C. HAETMAN. 

Mr. Hartinan was born iu Baltimore, and at sixteen years 
of age entered as an apprentice in a large coach factory; and, 
after five years of service, was made foreman in charge of 
entire works. Two years later, on dissolution of the concern, 
he entered the employ of the Baltimore & Hall Springs Rail- 
way as foreman painter. On change of management, four 
years later, he was employed at the Northern Central railway 
shop in Baltimore, where he remained until a position as 
painter in charge was offered him on the Baltimore & Towson 




Mr. J. C. Hartman. 

Railway, where he remained eight years, when he again en- 
tered the employ of the Northern Central Railway, and re- 
mained until the year 1896, when he became foreman painter 
of the Western Maryland Railroad, to institute the piece-work 
system, and he retains his position with this company at the 
present time. 

Mr. Hartman became a member of the M. C. & L. P. A. in 
1899, and has attended each convention since, and says he 
has been much benefited, and hopes to attend the next con- 
vention at Atlantic City. 



The Sherwin-Williams Company, paint and varnish makers, 
have removed their Chicago city sales offices from the Fisher 
Building to suite 630-632 Railway Exchange Building, Jack- 
son boulevard and Michigan avenue. 



The Duty of an Association Member 

It is the plain duty of a member of the Master Car and 
Locomotive Painters' Association to accept the task assigned 
him by its officers, unless he has a good reason for declining; 
and that should be stated to the secretary in writing. He 
should have loyalty enough to his association to cheerfully 
do this, even without the thanks of the association. Some 
associations and clubs have a rule against voting thanks to 
its members for able papers presented, because it is no more 
than the duty they owe the society of which they are 
members. Outsiders, of course, are publicly thanked for sim- 
ilar favors. This seems to be a good and reasonable rule. 
On the ether hand, it is a poor rule that does not work both 
ways, if members are to be thanked for performing their 
duties, why may not they be censured for not doing them? 
What is the M. C. & L. P. A. formed for— an annual picnic 
with nothing to do except to play and swallow good things? 
A man who views it in this light, and practices it, should be 
told by his company to "Get out, or get in line." If a man 
pays his full fare and loses his time to attend a convention, 
we should say he had a right to the free exercise of his sweet 
will, but one has not, at even half fare, with his time allowed 
him. He is the servant of his company then as much as if 
at home in his shop. The mere fact of his having to pay 
half fare may be the result of an unwise rule that his com- 
pany would gladly wave in his case if they could. Still, we 
think they should reimburse him for it. 

Now the inspiration for all the above is contained in the 
following words of a private letter from Secretary McKeon, 
which we are using without his knowledge or consent: 

"On February 29 I sent notices to all who were appointed 
to prepare papers, and several have not replied at all, while 
others have refused to accept. In one case, after the mem- 
ber chosen by the committee declined, I wrote to three others 
who also declined, and I have no one yet for the subject." 

This letter was written March 29, in response to our request 
tor his full program for publication. Now these things ought 
not so to be. That is no way to use your officers, especially 
your old secretary) who is an invalid. You should rather 
rally to his support as long as you put him in office. Support 
your leaders and fight with and for them. We hate to speak 
these things out in writing, or publish them to reach the 
eyes of your superior officers, but we feel that duty demands 
it. We hope every superior officer of a mechanical depart- 
ment who reads these lines will summon his foreman plainter 
to his office and personally and kindly inquire into his case 
in this matter to find out if he has refused to do his duty 
in this respect and what the reason is. If he has refused 
to accept the duty assigned him without sufficient reason, 
and will not do his best, he should be refused point blank 
permission to attend the convention at all. It may be that 
he declines because he doubts his own ability. In that case 
his superior should stiffen his backbone and inspire him with 
courage. It may be that lie fears he will have to pay his 
fare. In this case his superior officer should assure him that 
he will do all in his power to help him in this respect, and 
reassure him that his time will be allowed not only to attend 
the convention but to visit a few relatives in the vicinity 
whom, perhaps, he has not seen in years. In a word, let the 
M. C. & L. P. A. be well supported all round, as it ought to 
be, or let us at once hang the thing up among the fossils to 
dry. If one cannot attend the convention, let him write his 
paper and send it. 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



177 



Electric Car Building at The B. & M.'S Concord 
Shops 

It is rather an unusual sight to see electric cars being con- 
structed or repaired in a steam railroad repair shop, yet such 
is often the case at the Concord shops of the Boston & Maine, 
though just at present none are under way, the last order 
having been completed some time ago. They are, however, 
frequently brought in for repairs, as the company's mag- 
nificent new car barn for the city street railway is located 
in the shop yard; and we noticed one being overhauled there 
at our last trip. 

It happens that the Boston & Maine is in the electric car 
business in this way: A couple of years ago or so the 
Concord & Montreal, a leased line of the B. & M., obtained a 
charter to build a new line to Manchester, N. II., some 18 
miles; at about the same time they came into control of the 
Concord city street railway; and they have built all the 
cars for the new line, which was built by them and the 
narrow gauge tracks of the city widened to standard gauge. 
Not long since orders were issued to letter all the street cars 
of the city to "Boston & Maine" as fast they came into the 
shops for repairs, so that this is another novel sight that 
visitors to the Granite State's capital may see, that of electric 
cars going about its street lettered with the name of the 
trunk steam line railroad of the state. 

The same is also true of the Portsmouth street railroad, 
the state's only seaport city, except that the cars there still 
bear the name of "Portsmouth Electric Railway," but it was 
built, equipped and is operated by the Boston & Maine. 

It will be seen by this that Mr. J. T. Chamberlain, master 
car builder of the Boston & Maine, and his assistants, in 




Electric Car Building at the 'B. & M. Concord 
Shops. 

addition to all their other duties, have had electric car build- 
ing thrust upon them, and they have to know something 
about it. With a very large steam equipment to look after 
it will be readily seen that this is quite an added care. 

Our illustration shows one of the last vestibuled electrics 
under construction, with a "line-up" of four of the carpenters. 
These cars are as well built as anybody's street cars— better, 
probably, as they are made by the day-work system— and are 
tastily painted on the exterior to conform to the B. & M.'s 
stoam cars, as to body color striping and lettering. They are 
finished on the interior with mahogany, with nicely decorated 
oak headlinings, and all in all are an up-to-date street car. 
The electrical work is done under the direction of the road's 
electrician. 



Varnish Removers Economically Considered 

In the craze that has developed such a myriad of varnish 
removers, some bad, some of doubtful utility and others of 
a useful character, it might be well to stop and consider 
whether or not we want any of them at all for some kinds 
of work. We must not run away with the notion that all 
varnish removing of whatever nature must be performed 
with a varnish remover, however good a one we may have 
and however well pleased we may be with it. This is not 
economy by long chalks. For carved and intricate work of 
all kinds, with any number of coating of any age and nature, 
there is no doubt of the general utility of a good varnish re- 
mover judiciously applied in the line of economy and thor- 
oughness of work; and if it is detachable work that can be 
plunged into a tank of the liquid remover, the speed of the 
work is all the more marked. Also the thinner coating of 
a varnish that has been not long since applied, which has 
become grimy and it is desired to remove it for any purpose, 
there is no doubt but that a varnish remover will facilitate 
the operation very much. But there is one condition of 
things where a varnish remover, however good, is simply an 
added expense; and that is in removing an innumerable num- 
ber of coatings of brittle varnish from a perfectly plain sur- 
face. In that case there is one speedier way— no cheaper way 
—than to take a well-sharpened hoe-scraper, made of a file- 
blank, or hexagon steel, with a blade of the required width, 
say 1*4 or 2 inches, and go at the varnish in its dry state. In 
the hands of an expert it can be done very smoothly this 
way, the brittle varnish, however thick, coming off at one 
operation clear to the wood and flying from the scraper, like 
snow from a rotary snow plow, and may be dusted from the 
work and swept up with a broom. If it is desired, the surface 
may be cleansed or finished with some liquid varnish remover, 
but, generally speaking, sandpapering will be all that is needed 
to prepare the surface for shellac or varnish to follow, un- 
less it is thought advisable to have the cabinet men dress 
it off a little with their veneer scrapers. This is the way we 
did in the old days before the advent of varnish removers; 
this is the way we should still do today where the conditions 
are as before described. But every man must be his own 
judge as to that. At any rate, unless varnish is brittle enough 
to fly from the scraper in a mealy form it is unwise to get 
along without a good varnish remover with which, thanks 
to the chemists, the market teems with a great variety at 
the present time, fully abreast with all modern appliances 
for speedy and economical work. 



Light in the Paint Shops 

We read in the third verse of the beginning of the Good 
Book that all the Creator had to do to, light up the dark 
world was to say, "Let there be light; and there was light." 
Unfortunately the master car painter, no matter how smart 
he really is, or how big he feels, cannot exercise any such 
power and prerogative, so he has to plod on and do his per- 
plexing, particular work in the dark; and then have it shifted 
out in God's sunlight later on to have it inspected by some- 
body who is not always as patient and forbearing and indul- 
gent as the One who made the sunlight. 

Noticing a train that had just been turned out of a shop 
in another state recently, we wrote the foreman painter coin- 
plimenting him on the fine general appearance of it, and 
shortly got a letter in reply in which he said: "I am much 
pleased with your opinion of the train you saw. I have not 
seen it outside of the shop. It is very dark in the shop for 
interior work. The striping was done by lamplight; not a 
very good light 1o get a good job in, but probably passable to 
the untrained eye." 
The above is a sad comment on v***^*-shop building gen- 



178 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



erally. We are glad to note, however, that in the more mod- 
ern and newer-built shops that there is a disposition to put 
in more glass and less brick, some of the fear of its getting 
broken out, or something or other, having subsided or been 
decided in its favor. They have found out a way to heat a 
shop nowadays so that if it does have a few more windows 
it does not matter so much about the lack of heat. 

Now there are railroad officials who are potent enough in 
their spheres to say, "Let there be light," and there will be 
light in the shops where painstaking work has got to be 
done cloudy days as well as bright days, and short days in 
winter as well as long days in summer. "Let there be light!" 
Also let there be patience and forbearance with men who 
wear glasses, having ruined their eyes in dark shops working 
by lamplight. Also let there be ditto with the colors at- 
tempted to be matched in such places, if they do not match; 
and with the cleaning done if it is not clean, etc. 
■» » » 

An Etching by "Jack Frost" 

That "Jack Frost" is an artist of old and high renown is 
too well known to reiterate here, but we think his work is 
seldom if ever caught for reproduction. By the kindness of 
Mr. John H. Kahler, forman painter, Erie K. R. shops, Mead- 
ville, Pa., Ave are enabled to give our readers a sample of 
"Jack's" work in these columns. 
Mr. Kahler describes this freak of nature as follows: v 
"I will tell you how it was produced. On the 22d of Janu- 
ary we had 14 inches of water in our shops, caused by the 
near-by stream becoming gorged with ice 2 ft. thick. While 
the water was at this height the temperature took a sudden 
drop below zero and froze an inch of ice over the entire shop's 
inside. Four cab sash with glass in them, 24x30 were found 
on the floor under the ice, after the water went down three 
days afterward. They were lying flat, or in a horizontal posi- 
tion when found. I noticed they were all frozen together 
and very frosty between the panes. After awhile I pulled 
them apart, and as the warmth from the stove got to them 




An Etching by "Jack Frost." 



this frost evaporated, instead of running down as we would 
expect it to do, and left plainly visible the muddy settlings 
of the water. All this time I looked for nothing out of the 
ordinary, but after the thin layer of mud became dry I looked 
with surprise when I beheld the design worked out on the 
glass which is most beautiful to all who have beheld the 
strange work of Nature. After the water had left the glass 
the mud remaining; then the freezing took place, and as the 
minute frost needles crept along over the surface in working 
out the design, the mud was shoved to either side down the 
glass, leaving the clear glass to represent the outlining of 
the design, as it represents a negative just as a photograph 
negative is produced. The design represents feathers in all 
positions, and ending in perfect scrolls at the ends. Again, 
you see fine ostrich plumes, lace work and ferns. Many fig- 
ures can be picked out. Among several is an Indian head in 
full-feathered head-gear; also a small oval about three inches 
long with a decorative frame around it and within is a three- 
masted vessel riding on the water. Another is a large spider 
on his web. The design is one that no mortal could conceive, 
much less execute, as many lines (and all are one graceful 
sweep, or curve) are fine as a hair and of soft feathery ap- 
pearance. It is not permanent, but I have protected it by 
placing another light of glass back of it and painted the back 
of this a coat of black paint, which throws out the design 
very bold and plain to see. The thin layer of mud is yellow- 
ish grey in color, and with black on the reverse side gives it 
a pleasing effect. I have two panes with this decorative work 
oh them, the two upper sash. The two lower sash, having too 
thick mud, the frost did not penetrate to the glass. I believe 
that if a vitreous pigment in different colorings composed this 
thin layer of mud, and was put into an oven and annealed 
it would become permanent and a thing of beauty. Perhaps 
a lost art. What say you?" 

♦ * » 

Sophisticated Shellac 

There is a deal of sophisticated shellac on the market. 
If one doubts this let him order the ready-cut kind by the 
barrel and subject it to close scrutiny by various practical 
experiments as a painter. If he is still in doubt let him take 
some to an expert chemist who, by some extraction process 
best known to himself, will separate the parts and give you 
the per cent of rosin that it contains. The writer has lately 
been through an experience of this kind. Years ago, having 
trouble with spurious shellac ready-cut by barred, it was de- 
cided to order it in the gum and cut it ourselves, which we 
did, and we have kept this good practice up until recently 
when, owing to the very high price of gum— double its for- 
mer quotation— and learning that it might be possibly better 
economy to order it cut of a dealer who had a stock on hand 
bought when it was lower, we ordered some; and now, having 
obtained some elsewhere and tested it and finding it to con- 
tain at least 20 per cent rosin and cut in straight- wood alcohol, 
we have repented and think strongly of returning to former 
practice and cut our own, which is the only way to be sure 
of getting the pure article. 

As with everything else, so with shellac; one can get it at 
any price he wants to pay— from about $1.65 per gallon up- 
wards, according to the amount of rosin and the kind of 
solvent it is composed of. The cheap grades are good enough 
for some purposes it is true, as is the case with paints for 
barns, barrels, bins and bunco dealers; but for interior car 
work on costly wood finish, nothing but the purest should be 
used, and little of that as an under stop-coat between the 
paste filler and the varnish to follow. Pure shellac for this 
purpose is a good friend, as Mr. Samuel Brown of the New 
Haven road will tell you, having years ago finished a car 
interior with it and nothing else, save the paste filler, and 
became so enthusiastic over it at the Boston convention in 
1890, that he was dubbed with the soubriquet of "Shellac" 



May, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



179 



Brown when this car was exhibited on the train to Plymouth, 
which the then "Old Colony R. R." so kindly and generously 
tendered to the association through his efforts. But shellac, 
like whiskey and many other things, when adulterated turns 
from a friend to an enemy and is to be eschewed. Bosin is 
no friend to the painter in any guise he may be dressed 
up in and smuggled into use. His evil traits will later de- 
velop and then you will wish that by some means you had 
kept him out. And it is fast getting to be so that the only 
way to keep him and other enemies out is to keep on every 
railroad an expert chemist as a doorkeeper who, if in touch 
with the practical painter, ought to make a strong team for 
purity. 



The Shop Boy 



Disastrous results can sometimes be traced to the indiffer- 
ence and thoughtlessness of a boy. What is wanted of these 
employes is right actions and not useless words. 

Good management of little tasks brings promotion, whereas 
those who neglect small details are generally failures in all 
things, regarded as shiftless and unlucky, and are not in 
demand. 

Attention to small things is meritorious, because "trifles 
make perfection." Observation of details is the secret of 
success in every pursuit. An employer sees how his work 
is done and he does not promote or reward the unsteady and 
incompetent. But he never forgets those who make his in- 
terests their interests. Accuracy, method, punctuality and 
dispatch are always appreciated by all sound business men. 

Everyone who believes in accuracy and thoroughness has 
at some time echoed the complaint of the man who wrote: 
"I hate to see a thing done by halves; if it be right, do it 
boldly; if it be wrong, leave it undone." 

There must be the right spirit among boy workers. A 
youth should never be satisfied until he has done his best. 
It should be his constant aim to excel and have the quality 
of his work appreciated by others. This is the real beginning 
of success. Inferior work should be avoided. A celebrated 
pottery maker used to destroy ware that did not come up 
to his idea of what it should be, and begin work again. That 
is the spirit shown by all honest and competent workmen, 
however modest their position— Extracts from an editorial in 
Boston Globe. 



A Novel Cleaning Material 

There is much a-going in these days for ground pumice 
stone for scrubbing cars in cleaning them outside ready for 
varnishing, that is not pumice at all. It is anything and 
everything, the Lord only knows what not, ground up to 
gether and put up in barrels and shipped to us, in this, sec- 
tion of country at least— silax, tene alba, marble dust, oyster 
shells, etc., ad infinitum, ad nauseam. Its grit is lacking, 
or cutting power, to remove umoke and dirt properly when 
loosened up with the usual cleaning liquids. Such as it is— 
and they always manage to have it weigh heavily— it comes 
at so much per pound, and a barrel of this stuff costs 
about $5. 

Dissatisfied with it, yet knowing of nothing better, we were 
strolling along a certain ocean beach last summer when our 
attention was attracted to the fineness of the sand that had 
washed up in large quantities along the shore. We exam- 
ined it and found it to be the finest of the kind that we had 
ever seen and at once thought, why will not this 
be a good article to use in place of so-called pumice stone 
to clean cars with preparatory to rovarnishlng? We took 
an empty envelope from our pocket and filled it and brought 
il In our home shop and tried it, and found it to be "satisfac- 
tory;" also sent wme to the veteran Warner Bailey at Con- 



cord, who is famous for looking into things, and he got his 
magnifying glass onto it and reported it to be nearly all 
quartz of a good, sharp quality and well adapted for this 
work. v We ordered a few barrels, one each to Lawrence, Con- 
cord, Salem and Somerville, for trial and set the open bar- 
rels side by side with the pumice stone that they had been 
using, and the cleaners took the sand thereafter in place of 
the pumice stone. At Somerville they were asking for more; 
and, before the cold weather prevented, we had a car load 
shipped to the various shops for each to take out their allow- 
ance and forward the car to the next, and so on to the last 
shop in the list. We do not know how long this can be kept 
up, but at present it is furnishing us with our cleaning 
material for cars outside. Of course, we are obliged to have 
some fine pumice stone for rubbing down varnish and for 
interior work for a suitable finish. The sand, however, does 
not scratch or in any way injure the surface or exterior for 
re varnishing. 

We suggest that others in their respective localities, wher- 
ever there are beaches, look into this matter and see if they 
cannot find sand fine enough for this purpose. It stops the 
imposition of sending pumice that is not pumice, and effects 
a good-sized saving. This is nothing new, of course, to the 
women folks near the beaches for a house cleaning material, 
but it is rather new for car cleaning on the varnished sur- 
face outside before varnishing. 



Painting Car tiatforms and Steps 

A certain railroad in the North has been painting its steps 
and platforms to passenger cars for more than thirty years 
as follows: Shellac the worn parts and, when dry, follow 
with one coat of Tuscan red mixed with varnish, with the 
result that a glossy surface is produced, if such a surface 
could be said to be thus produced on such a worn, rough 
surface, and yet even this is worn dead by the shop men 
running in and out of a car before it leaves the shop. And 
now in winter weather, with snow and ice everywhere, and 
frost accumulating on the platforms and steps from the con- 
gealed vapor of leaky steam couplings between cars, comes 
the complaint from the claim department that red paint 
is slippery; that women are slipping down upon it and get- 
ting hurt and presenting claims for damages! Nevertheless 
cue long-suffering and patient head of that car department, 
willing to do almost anything to please, has, at the sugges- 
tion of his master painter, cut out the use of shellac for this 
purpose and abolished the mixing of platform paint in var- 
nish and is mixing it in oil of a suitable drying nature so 
that the paint will strike into the bare wood and present a 
dead instead of a glossy surface under foot. The painter has 
gone a step farther and is putting in a handful of fine beach 
sand to each pot of paint! The latter will wear off by the 
time the paint is gone, so that when, in the course of a year 
or so, the car is again shopped for varnish, there will be 
none of the old sand left to paint over. 

We give this as an item and suggestion for what it is 
worth to others. It is barely possible that the extensive use 
of rubber heels on shoes within a few years may account for 
much slipping on some surfaces, especially when wet. We 
have come near getting "floored" ourself from this source, 
though not on car platforms. And possibly the freak-shaped, 
high heeled shoes of women may account for much of this 
slipping. We should think it would be a task to stand still 
in them on dry land, as only the toes and tapering high heel 
rest on anything stepped on. 

]ST. B.— Paint makers are hereby notified not to take a hint 
from this to put any more sand in their paint! We will put 
it in ourselves; we get it for nothing on the line of the road. 



i8o 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



May, 1904. 



The Sherwin-Williams Railway Paints and 

Varnishes 

The latest issue o±' the railway catalogue of the Sherwin- 
Williams Company, presents the form of a comprehensive text 
hook on paints and varnishes, rather than the usual appear- 
ance of a catalogue. The different lines of paint have been 
classified therein according to the equipment for which each 
is primarily intended, and particularly adapted. These are 
necessarily limited in number and represent but a few 
samples of the large assortment furnished railroads by this 
company. The samples shown have evidently been selected 
with much care and present a very complete list of paint 
material. Under each heading have been summarized briefly 
the principal qualities of the paint, the uses for which it is 
intended and suggestions have been offered as to the best 
method for its use. Special attention should be given to 
page 75 wherein is described the Sherwin-Williams method 
for painting passenger coaches. 



Notes and Comments 

Chairman Dane informs us that he is to reconvene the spe- 
cial committee on locomotive painting that met in New York 
in March, as he wishes to amend the report in some features 
and this is the most feasible way to do it, in order that there 
may be no hitch and that the report may be ready for de- 
livery to the Master Mechanics' Association at their conven- 
tion in June, for which purpose and at whose request it is 
made. 



The Boston & Maine R. R. is building fifteen standard re- 
frigerator cars at its Concord shops. The exteriors are being 
painted yellow in oil— 5 lbs. golden oetive mixed with 20 lbs. 
white lead in oil is the regular formula — and lettered in black 
with Roman letters. The interiors are coated with "Primelac" 
to prevent the absorption of moisture and preserve the wood 
and keep them sweet. This shop is also turning out three 
60-foot new baggage cars and four new 60-foot combination 
smoking and baggage cars. 



Two hundred and five cars was the B. & M.'s paint shop out- 
put for the month of March, as agaiust 187 for that month 
the previous year, so the deficit of some 100 cars of a few 
months ago is being overcome and will disappear if the 
shops can be supplied with men and cars until the middle of 
June or the first of July. But it is hard to keep men at rail- 
road wages and reduced hours when balmy spring comes 
and tempting prices for house painting in the open air at 
eight hours' work, knowing they will be laid off later. 



The editor of these columns as been chosen to prepare a 
paper for the next convention of Master Car and Locomotive 
Painters on "Passenger Car Roofs — Treatment and Attention 
of Same." Did the committee put him on the roof to place 
him at the top, or out of sight? He has, . however, cheer- 
fully accepted the assignment and will try to report, whether 
in attendance at the convention or not; but expects to be 
there, "should no untold circumstance militate against it." 
And will try not to forestall his report in these columns 
meanwhile, though it is hard to keep still. 



burg, resumed full working hours— 10-hour time— Monday, 
April 18th, having been put on a 9-hour basis November 16th. 
The Concord and Lyndon ville shops, where both locomotive 
and car work is done, being electrically lighted, work full 
time the year round. The N. Y., N. H. & H. shops resumed 
10-hour time recently, having been for some weeks on an 
8-hour basis. The Maine Central shops worked full time 
through the winter and were put on 9-hour time in the early 
spring and were so working at last accounts. 

Old track men say that the long cold winter just passed 
has been a severe one on rails and that bad accidents have 
been narrowly averted. We have noticed its unusual effect 
in throwing off old paint, by the action of continued frost, 
from the iron hoods over platforms of passenger equipment. 
Always a source of trouble, they are looking worse this 
spring than ever before. Eight years ago cars began without 
this attachment and they did not begin any too soon in their 
abolition, for they are a nuisance and an expense to main- 
tain. It has also been particularly severe on that other 
nuisance, the tin car roof. 



"The reason given for the advance in the price of shellac 
is the drouth in India two years ago. The seed crop was 
largely drawn upon to make up the shortage, and it will take 
several years to recover from the effect. Most people prob- 
ably have not known till now that shellac grows from seed." 
We clip the above from "Editorial Points" in Boston Globe, 
April 20. We wonder if the Globe editor is jesting, or knows 
that "seedlac" is the form of the gum as it is stripped from 
the twigs or branches of the trees around which it is formed, 
and that is "sticklac" when shipped on the twig, and "shel- 
lac" when dissolved, strained and run out into shell form and 
broken up, like glue. 



We learn that one large railroad system has ordered 
eighteen barrels of varnish remover (No. 11 in our recent 
Test Committee report) in liquid form! The same concern 
has received an order from the government for 800 gallons! 
We are inclined to be a little facetious about this and sug- 
gest the building of a dry dock to put it in and put a train 
or battleship into it all over, and clean them inside and out 
at same time! 



B. & M. shops at Lawrence, Salem, Somerville and Fitch- 



Mr. H. M. Butts, master car and locomotive painter of the 
N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R., at West Albany, is to read a paper at 
the Central Railway Club, Buffalo, May 13th, on "What ad- 
vancement has been made in paints for the protection of 
metal parts and particularly steel cars." 

Concerning the general work of the shops on his line he 
writes the following interesting item: 

"At present we are very busy in the paint shop, as a great 
deal of work crowds in before the summer season of travel 
begins. We are now turning out of our paint shop about 7 
cars a day. The number of cars which must go through our 
shops this season is considerably less than last season for 
the reason that many of our cars are in condition to run 17 
or 18 months. On account-of this extension of time we have 
been shopping about 37 per cent less cars than formerly. We 
attribute this better condition of our cars to the manner in 
Avhich they have been cared for during the past year, they 
having been cleaned with an oil cleaner which acts as a 
protection to the varnish." 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MAStER MECHANIC 



181 



Established 1878. 

RAILWAY 
MASTER MECHANIC 

Published by the 
BRUCE V. CR ANDALL COMPANY, CHICAGO 

BRUCE V. CHANDALL, President ' CHABLES 8. MYERS, Vice-President 

MAHAM H. HAIG, Editor 



Office of Publication, Rooms 501 and 502 The Plymouth Building, 
305 Dearborn Street, Chicago 



TELEPHONES 



Harrison 3357 
Automatic 7357 



Eastern Office: Room 716, 132 Nassau St., New York City. 

Entered a/ the Post Office in Chicago as Second-Class Matter 
A Monthly Railway Journal 

Devoted to the interests of railway motive power, car equipment, 

shops, machinery and supplies. 
Communications on any topic suitable to our columns are solicited. 
Subscription price $1.00 a year, to foreign countries $1.50, free of 

postage. Single copies 10 cents. Advertising rates given on 

application to the office, by mail or in person. 
In remitting make all checks payable to the Bruce V. Crandall 

Company. 



Vol. XXVIII. CHICAGO, JUNE, 1904. 



No. 6. 



ik-S usual, the convention issue of the Railway Master 
Mechanic will be published in July, following the 
conventions almost immediately. As heretofore, this num- 
ber will contain the important features of the several 
committee reports, a synopsis of the discussions in the 
convention hall, the decisions arrived at, together with all 
other features of interest, including an account of the 
exhibits, as well as a large number of attractive "snap 
shots" taken among the railway men and exhibitors. The 
exhibits assembled at this time are always attractive and 
illustrating, as they do, the most recent improvements in 
car and locomotive appliances, they add a valuable educa- 
tional feature to the other influences of the convention. 



/L PRACTICAL method has come to our notice 
whereby the steam cylinders of locomotive air 
pumps may be retained in good service when small 
cracks have developed therein. The plan is to plug 
up the cracks with copper. This is done by drilling 
holes for a ^-in. standard tap all the way through 
the metal throughout the length of the crack and 
plugging the holes carefully with copper. Beginning 
at end of crack a hole is drilled and plugged. The next 
hole is drilled so that it cuts into the copper plug, 
which has already been applied, and so on throughout 
the length of the crack. Each copper plug is made 
sufficiently long to permit a portion remaining above 
the casting to be pcaned to such an extent that the 
heads of the plugs may be riveted into a mass which 
extends the length of the crack, covering it entirely. 
By using a little care in performing the work a very 
neat job may be accomplished, and the probability of 
a leak is entirely eliminated. This method has been 
successfully tried and is giving good satisfaction. 



IT is interesting to observe the extent to which die 
work is being introduced into the blacksmith shops 
of the more progressive railroads. As an enterprising fore- 
man of a modern shop recently remarked to us with re- 
gard to the use of dies : "I can not keep up without 
them." The reduction in time and labor which may be 
secured by the intelligent use of such forms in connec- 
tion with forging machines and heavy hammers, is read- 
ily appreciable in actual dollars and cents. 

The most recent feature in the application of die work 
brought to our notice is in the manufacture of the 
smaller section of an eccentric. Considerable difficulty 
had been experienced with eccentrics cracking and break- 
ing in their smaller sections, and to overcome this diffi- 
culty it was decided to form this part of wrought iron. 
The work is very simply done with two forms under the 
steam hammer. The part is made from a short bar of 
square iron, and when formed the rough ends are cut off 
by a metal saw and the joint planed. 

Some foremen take a great deal of pride in the sav- 
ing made by using die work to advantage and such men 
usually have very interesting figures to show incident to 
their economy. 



AN acceptable feature provided for the comfort of 
passengers traveling at night on the sleeping 
cars of the Georgia Central Railway is the manner of 
preparing the sections without letting down the upper 
berths unless they are to be occupied. This arrangement 
is one appreciated by passengers and speaks well for the 
considerate thought on the part of the managament. 

It is not only more comfortable for the passenger oc- 
cupying the lower berth when the upper is not let down ; 
but it is also far more healthful for the occupant. When 
the upper berth is in a horizontal position, little or no 
fresh air gains access to the small, box-like space be- 
tween the two berths and the location of steam heating 
apparatus immediately beneath the lower berth adds fur- 
ther to the discomfort of this close and poorly ventilated 
enclosure. When the upper is not let v dowri the warm 
and impure air has an opportunity* to rise |and escape 
into the main portion of the car_ where the ventilators 
have some effeqfe 

. The convenience in dressing consequent upon the ar- 
rangement of berths here advocated is too readily ap- 
parent to require further comment. 

Efforts oh the part of a railway company to serve its 
patrons are^ not usually followed by expressions of 
thanks directed to the management, yet provisions of 
comfort seldom fail to be appreciated except by the most 
narrow minded and there is a case on record of the sub- 
urban passengers who patronize the D. L. & W. Ry. 
having sent a vote of thanks to the management for the 
manner in which the road had been handled during the 
winter. 

In this day of close competition where several differ- 
ent roads are striving for the same traffic and all make 
the same time between two points, for instance, say 
Chicago and St. Paid, the little things and small details 
of comfort are what count in attracting patronage. 



i82 RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC June, 1904 

Prominent Railway Officials who Received their Training in the 

Motive Power Department 

IT is a pleasure to the management of the Railway achieved such advancement and it is a matter of no 
Master Mechanic to be able to present in this little pride to this publication, representing as it does 
issue photographs of a majority of those men who mechanical matters exclusively, that there seems to be 




Mr. E. T. Jeffery, 

PRESIDENT, 
DENVER & RIO GRANDE R. R. 




Mr. Frank W. Morse, 

THIRD VICE-PRESIDENT," 
GRAND TRUNK RY. 




Mr. C. H. Schlacks, 

GENERAL MANAGER, 
COLORADO MIDLAND RY. 




Mr. W. W. Atterbury. 

GENERAL MANAGER, 
PENNSYLVANIA R. R. 



occupy positions of responsibility in the higher depart- 
ments of railway service to which they have advanced 
through the motive power department. It has been only 
within a very recent period that motive power men have 



an increasing tendency to look to the motive power de- 
partment for the men who are to take up the larger and 
more responsible positions in the higher operating de- 
partments. From master mechanic to general manager 



June, 1904, 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



183 



is fast becoming more general than was the case a few 
years ago. 

We mention with pride the names of Mr. George L. 
Potter, recently general manager and now third vice- 
president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company; 
Mr. Waldo Marshall, general manager of the Lake Shore 
& Michigan Southern Railway, and Mr. Tracy Lyon, 
assistant general manager, Chicago Great Western Rail- 



Morse, third vice-president, Grand Trunk Railway Sys- 
tem ; Mr. E. A. Williams, assistant general manager of 
the Erie Railroad; Mr. W. W. Atterbury, general mana- 
ger of the Pennsylvania Railroad; Mr. Samuel Higgins, 
general manager of the New York, New Haven & Hart- 
ford Railroad ; Mr. F. A. Delano, general manager of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway ; Mr. C. H. 
Schlacks, general manager of the Colorado Midland Rail- 




Mr. E. A. Williams, 

ASSISTANT GENERAL MANAGER, 
ERIE R. R. 




Mr. F. A. Delano, 

GENERAL MANAGER, 

CHICAGO, BURLINGTON & QUINCY 

R. R. 




Mr. L. E. Johnson, 

PRESIDENT, 
NORFOLK & WESTERN R. R. 




Mr. Samuel Higgins, 

general manager, 
new york, new haven 
hartford r. r. 



way, all of whom have come up from the motive power 
department. We regret that wc are unable to present 
their portraits with those of Mr. E. T. Jeffery, president 
of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad ; Mr. Frank W. 



way, and Mr. L. E. Johnson, president of the Norfolk & 
Western Railway. The following is a brief sketch of the 
respective careers of these several gentlemen : 

Mr. L. E. Johnson, President of the Norfolk & West- 



1 84 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



ern Railway. — Mr. Johnson entered railway service in 
1866 with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railroad, 
holding various positions in the locomotive department ; 
in 1888 he was appointed superintendent of the St. Louis 
and Chicago division of the same road; in 1890 he was 
appointed superintendent of the Montana Central Rail- 
way, and in 1893, superintendent of the Michigan divis- 
ion of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway ; 
in 1897 he was appointed general superintendent of the 
Norfolk & Western Railway and in 1899 became general 
manager of the same road, from which position he was 
advanced to his present position as president. 

,Mr. George L. Potter, Third Vice-President of the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. — Mr. Potter entered railway 
service in 1876 as machinist apprentice of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad, serving successively as machinist at 
Renova, Pa., assistant master mechanic and master me- 
chanic at Fort Wayne, Ind. In March 1893 he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power of the Northwest 
System of the Pennsylvania lines west of Pittsburg, and 
in November, 1899, became general superintendent of 
motive power; on January 1, I90i,>he becaihe general 
manager of the same lines. From the Pennsylvania he 
went to the B. & O. as general manager and then third 
vice-president. 

Mr. Waldo Marshall, General Manager of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. — Mr. Marshall 
entered railway service in May, 1897, since which he has 
been consecutively to June, 1899, assistant superintendent 
of motive power of the Chicago & Northwestern Rail- 
way ; in June, 1899, he became superintendent of motive 
power of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, then gen- 
eral superintendent and from that to general manager, 
which position he now holds. For several years Mr. 
Marshall was the editor of the Railway Master Mechanic. 
Mr. Tracy Lyon, Assistant General Manager of the 
Chicago Great Western Railway.— Mr. Lyon was born in 
1863 at Oswego, N. Y. ; he graduated at the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, entering railway service in 
1894 as master mechanic of the Chicago Great Western 
Railway, and in July, 1899, he was appointed general 
superintendent of the same road ;» from which position he 
was advanced to the office of assistant general manager. 
Mr. E. T: Jeffery, President Denver & Rio Grande 
Railroad. — Mr. Jeffery entered railway service with the 
Illinois Central in 1856, beginning at the very bottom 
of the ladder; in February, 1871, he became assistant 
superintendent of machinery of the same road, being ap- 
pointed successively general superintendent in 1877, and 
general manager in 1889; in 189 1 he accepted the position 
of president and general manager of the Denver & Rio 
Grande Railroad. 

Mr. E. A. Williams, Assistant General Manager of 
the Erie Railroad.— Mr. Williams entered railway serv- 
ice as machinist apprentice of the Milwaukee & Prairie 
du Chien Railroad. In December, 1880, he became 
roundhouse foreman of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. 
Paul Railroad, serving successively as general foreman 
and assistant general master mechanic of the same road ; 
in July, 1890, he was appointed master mechanic of the 
Minneapolis, St. Paul Sr Sault Ste. Marie Railway and 



became mechanical superintendent of the same road in 
1 89 1 ; in January he accepted the position of superinten- 
dent of rolling stock of the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way, which position he held till his recent appointment 
as assistant general manager of the Erie Railroad. 

Mr. W. W. Atterbury, General Manager of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad. — Mr. Atterbury was born in 1866 at 
New Albany, Ind. ; he graduated from Yale University, 
entering railway service in 1886 as apprentice in the 
Altoona shops of the Pennsylvania Railroad, since which 
he has been consecutively assistant road foreman on var- 
ious divisions of the same road; in 1892 he became assist- 
ant engineer of motive power of the Northwest System, 
and in 1893 master mechanic at Fort Wayne, Ind. ; in 
1896 he was appointed superintendent of motive power 
at Altoona, Pa., and then recently advanced to the posi- 
tion of general manager. 

Mr. Samuel Higgins, General Manager of the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford Ry. — Mr. Higgins entered 
railway service in 1881 with the New York, Lake Erie 
& Western, serving successively as machinist apprentice, 
machinist, assistant foreman and general foreman in the 
Susquehanna shops. He was for two years assistant 
engineer of the motive power department, division mas- 
ter mechanic from 1887 to 1892, and assistant superinten- 
dent of motive power to Feb. 1, 1904, when he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of motive power of the Lehigh 
Valley. On April 1, 1901, he became superintendent of 
motive power and machinery of the Union Pacific, ac- 
. cepting the appointment of mechanical superintendent of 
the Southern Railway June, 1902, which position he left 
for his recent appointment on the N. Y., N. H. & H. Ry. 
Mr. Frederick A. Delano, General Manager of the 
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway. — Mr. Delano 
was born September 10, 1863, at Hong Kong, China. 
He is a graduate of Harvard University, and entered rail 
way service in 1885 as machinist apprentice in the Aurora 
shops of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, with 
which road he has held consecutively the positions of 
inspector, assistant to second vice-president, superinten- 
dent of freight terminals at Chicago and superintendent 
of motive power, having been appointed general manager 
in July, 1 901. 

Mr. C, H. Schlacks, General Manager of the Colorado 
Midland Railway. — Mr. Schlacks entered railway service 
in 1870. with the Illinois Central Railroad. He remained 
with this road until 1 891 when he accepted a position 
with the Grant Locomotive Works at Chicago ; • soon 
afterward he became identified with the Denver & Rio 
Grande Railroad, receiving the appointment of assistant 
general manager in in 1894; on July 1, 1900 he accepted 
the position of general manager of the Colorado Midland 
Railway. 

Mr. Frank W. Morse, Third Vice-President of the 
Grand Trunk Railway System.— Mr. Morse was from 
1889 to 1896 master mechanic on the Wabash Railroad; 
from l8q6 to 1901 superintendent of motive power of the 
Grand Trunk Railway; on July 15, iqoi, he was ap- 
pointed third vice-president with direct jurisdiction over 
the transportation, motive power and car departments, 
which position he now holds. 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



185 



Danville Shops of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois Railway 



HE Chicago & Eastern Illinois is one of the 

T roads constituting the Frisco system and 
operates 7373^2 miles of track, owning 198 
locomotives, 147 passenger cars and 14,612 
freight and miscellaneous cars. The old 
shops of this road were located at Danville 
Junction, west of the town of Danville, and 
as this plant has been outgrown by the de- 
mands of the motive power department, a 
new shop has been constructed east of Danville on a 
tract known as Oaklawn, near the old soldiers' home. 
The present new shop includes the locomotive repair de- 
partment only. However, provision has been made to 
accommodate the car repair department, and in laying 
out the plant the buildings erected were located with this 




the machinery installed is new, while a portion of the 
machinery from the old plant has been moved over to the 
new shop. It will be observed that the buildings are 
located as near as practical to provide against fire risks 
and at the same time they are so located as to be readily 
extended, as future demands require. The power house 
is so located as to be between the locomotive and car de- 
partment when the latter has been erected and it is plan- 
ned to extend the machine shop towards the power house, 
doubling its capacity. When this is done the present 
location of the power house will render it adjacent to the 
end of the machine shop. The boiler shop is located im- 
mediately east of the machine shop and any additions to 
it will be in the direction exactly opposite to the pro- 
posed extension of the machine shop. As in the case of 




Fig. 1 — View Showing Location of Power House with Relation to Other Buildings of Plant. 
Large Building at Right is Machine and Erecting Shop— C. & E. I. R. R. 



end in view. Fig. 2 shows the general layout of the 
entire plant, including the proposed buildings for the 
car department and the tracks in the proposed repair 
yard. The several illustrations presented herewith af- 
ford a good general idea of the locomotive department, 
which, together with the layout providing for the future 
car department, evidences that ample room has been 
provided for extensions in both departments. Most of 



the two shops just mentioned the capacity of the black- 
smith shop may be doubled by extending it in the direc- 
tion parallel to the proposed extension of the machine 
shop. Already the necessity of this provision for doubl- 
ing the capacities of the several shops has been felt inas- 
much as the headquarters of the St. Louis, Memphis & 
Southeastern Railroad and the St. Louis & Gulf Railway, 
branches of the Frisco system, have been located at Dan- 




Frc; 2 — General Layout, Danville Snors -C. & E. I. R. R. 



i&5 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



ville and the general repair work of these 
roads will be done there. 

The machine and boiler shops are served 
by a transfer table and, as shown by the gen- 
eral layout, the coach shop and paint shop 
will be located directly opposite and served 
by the same table. This table is 70 feet long 
with a capacity of 150 tons. It is carried on 
five rails and the pit through which it operates 
is 615 feet long. There is no overhead trol- 
ley for delivering current to the motor ope- 
rating the table, but transmission is by two 
wires arranged along one of the walls enclos- 
ing the pit. The speed of travel under load 
is 125 feet per minute and 300 feet per minute when 
running light. The table is driven by a 59-h. p. motor 
and the whole structure, together with its machinery, 
was supplied by Messrs. George P. Nichols & Brother 
of Chicago. 

The present offices are temporarily located in the 
second floor of the storehouse. An office for the superin- 
tendent of motive power and the master mechanic with 
their respective forces is to be built near the power house 
as shown in the plan, and when the car department has 
been arranged, this office will be centrally located for the 
entire plant. The office of the master mechanic will be 
temporarily located in a small building near the round 
house and the remainder of this building will be used by 
engine crews between trips, for making their reports, 
etc. 




Fig. 3 — Side View Showing Steel Construction. of 
Machine Shop— C. & E. I. R. R. 

Power for the entire plant is distributed from the 
power house. The distribution of electrical power is by 
a 250 volt direct current system using the two wire sys- 
tem of distribution for motors and the three wire system 
for lighting. Wires are led from the power house at a 
point near the roof to a line of cast iron poles by which 
they are distributed to the several buildings. The main 
piping lines connecting the power house with the various 
shops are carried through a tunnel about 1200 feet 
long. The tunnel is rectangular in section about 6 feet 
high by four feet six inches wide and the walls are of 
concrete nine inches thick. The top and bottom are also 
of concrete and in the bottom a suitable slope and gutter 
are arranged for drainage. The top is 4 inches thick 
carried by expanded metal and supported at intervals of 
9 feet by steel rails. The top of the tunnel is at grade 
level and serves as a walk among the several buildings. 
In the tunnel are installed a 6-inch high pressure steam 




Pig. 4 — Erecting Floor, in which Attention is 
Traveling Crane and Method of Arranging 



Directed to Machine Tools at Right, Served by 
Counter Shafts — C. & E. I. R. R. 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



187 



main, 12-inch low pressure 
steam main, 6-inch air main, 
and 4-inch return of the 
heating system. No expan- 
sion joints have been used, 
but such an arrangement of 
elbows and bends has been 
employed as to take care of 
all expansion. The piping 
is securely anchored at a 
point about the middle of the 
length of the main line of 
the tunnel. The tunnel starts 
from the end of the power 
house and its location and 
points of distribution to the 
several shops is readily ap- 
parent in the plan drawing. 




Fig. 5— End View, Showing Steel Construction of Machine Shop — 

C. & E. I. R. R. 



The tunnel is lighted by incandescent lamps hung at fre- 
quent intervals throughout its length and is well venti- 
lated, a certain amount of air being drawn through the 
tunnel into the fan room of the roundhouse. 

All buildings of the plant are connected by a tele- 
phone system installed by the Automatic Electric Com- 
pany of Chicago. The automatic exchange is located in 
the_power house where it may be under the observation 
of the engineer who is duly informed by a signal lamp 
in the event of any disorder. In calling up any desired 
station the calling apparatus so operates switches located 
in the exchange as to connect the calling station with the 



station called. When the stations are so connected a 
button is pressed which rings the bell of the station 
wanted. A suitable busy signal is given in the event 
of the desired station being in service. Hanging up the 
receiver returns all switches to their normal position. 
When two stations are connected it is impossible for any 
other station to interfere so that they have practically all 
the advantages of a private wire. 

The shops were designed under the supervision of Mr. 
T. A. Lawes, late superintendent of motive power, and 
Mr. W. S. Dawley. chief engineer. The achitectural 
work was executed under the direction of Mr. Ernest 




Fig. 6— Machine Bay— C. & E, I, R. R. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 





Fig. 8 — Exterior- View of Machine Shop — 
C. & E. I. R. R. 

Walker and the installation of the electrical equipment 
was in charge of the Arnold Electric Power Station Com- 
pany. In presenting the data and information regarding 
this shop we acknowledge the courtesy of Mr. George 
W. Smith, superintendent of motive power, and Mr. S. 
T. Parks, master mechanic. 

The Machine Shop. 

The machine shop and locomotive erecting floor are 
located in a building 316 feet in length by 121 feet wide. 
The building is of brick supported by a steel structure 
carried on concrete foundations. The floor is divided 
into two bays. In the main bay there are arranged four- 
teen transverse erecting pits, which are served by an elec- 
tric traveling crane of 80 tons capacity, and in this bay 
are a number of the heavier machine tools which are so 
disposed as to be served by the crane. The main bay is 
76 feet 7 inches in width and the second or side bay, in 
which the majority of the machine tools are located, is 40 
feet wide. The height of erecting shop from floor to 
roof truss is 43 feet 10 inches and the height between 
the- same points in the machine bay is 20 feet. The 
crane girders and roof trusses are supported by the same 




Fig. 9 — Niles 7-FT. Boring Mill Driven by 15-H. p. 

Commercial Electric Motor and Having 3- h. p. 

General Electric Motor for Operating 

Cross Rail— C. & E. I. R: R. 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



189 




Fig. 10 — Plan of Machine and Erecting Shop — C. & E. I. R. R. 

steel columns and the construction of the building is has seven motors and each trolley has an auxiliary hoist, 
readily seen by the several illustrations presented. The This traveler was supplied by Pawling & Harnischfeger, 




Fig. 11 — General View of Blacksmith, Machine and Boiler Shops During Erection — C. & E. I. R. R. 

electric crane has a span of 74 feet 6^ inches and as be- Milwaukee, Wis. In the main bay the rail beads of the 
fore mentioned has a capacity of 80 tons. The crane crane runways are 31 feet above the floor and above 



ia'-^o tf 




Fig. 12 — Cross Section of Machine and Erecting Shop — C. & F, E. R. R. 



i no 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 




Fig.' n— View Showing Steel Construction of Boiler Shop— C. & E. I. R. R. 



13 

this line both side walls contain a double row of glazed 
sash. The wall on the transfer table side contains an ad- 
ditional row of sash above the line of pit doors. 
Throughout the shop light is afforded by an abundance 
of glazed sash and in addition to the light received 
through the windows in the walls there are 'skylights in 
the roof of both sections. A single saw-tooth skylight dis- 



posed longitudinally over the machine bay affords addi- 
tional natural light in this department. 

Between the ends of the pits and the heavy machine 
tools in the main bay, there is a longitudinal track ex- 
tending the entire length of the shop which is used for 
the storage of driving wheels, etc. The bottoms of the 
pits are convex and gutters are arranged to drain 




Fig. 14— Partial Plan of Boiler Shof— C. & E. I. R. R. 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MAST£R MECHANIC 



191 



towards the inner ends of 
the pits, so providing at all 
times that the men will have 
a dry place to stand when 
working beneath an engine. 
There are steam connections 
in every other pit and a wa- 
ter connection in each pit. 
The compressed air line ex- 
tends all round the shop and 
there are air connections ar- 
ranged at each post and two 
in each pit. 

As shown in the plan 
drawing of the machine 
shop the tool room is locat- 
ed in a small wing against 

.. r ., 1 • * Fig. 15 — Mac 

the wall of the machine u 

bay so disposed as to be centrally located. Ample 
light is provided in this room and the partition 
between the two rooms and the main portion of the shop 
is of expanded metal. Above the tool room and reached 
by a stairway is a comfortable lavatory supplied with 
both hot and cold water. 

The larger machine tools are driven by electric motors 
varying from i]/ 2 to 25 h. p. and the lighter machines 
are arranged in groups and belted to line shafts, each 
group being driven by an electric motor varying from 5 
to 20 h. p. All machines are wired from a loop which 
extends all around the machine bay, giving an excellent 
system of distribution by which very little voltage is lost. 
To accommodate those tools in the machine bay which 
are driven in groups there are two lines of shafting ex- 
tending in sections the whole length of the shop. Each 
one of these sections is driven by a motor and the shafts 
are so arranged that one shaft may be connected to its 
neighbor and run thereby in case of accident to its own 
motor. The shafting is supported on a structural steel 
lattice girder laid flat with channels at each side to which 
the shaft hangers are bolted. There is no traveling crane 
over the machine bay and to facilitate work in and out 
of the machines suitable jib cranes and air hoists are to 
be provided. Most of the machines above mentioned as 
being located in the main bay, where they are served by 
the traveling crane, are individually driven by 'motors, 
while a few of them are belt driven. The arrangement 





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PJSt, *S£ mm***-* 


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hine Bay in Boiler Shop — C. & E. I. R. R. 

of counter shafting for these machine tools and the loca- 
tion of the motors together with the form of lattice gird- 
ers carrying the hangers are shown by Fig. 17, and also 
partially shown at the right of Fig. 4, which gives a 
general view of the main bay. 

The motors are installed on brackets supported by 
building columns or attached to the side wall as shown 
in several of the half-tone engravings. The starting 
boxes are mounted on the wall on iron columns as may 
be convenient. These are all provided with double-pole 
circuit breakers which take the place of main switches. 
The controllers for the individually driven machines are 
mounted on pedestals of special design which provide 
space in the base for necessary resistance. On the back 
of each controller is mounted the circuit breaker, thus 
bringing all the operating mechanism within easy reach 
of the operator. In general the drum type of starting 
box is being used. All starting boxes and controllers 
are provided with no load release attachments, which 
in connection with the circuit breaker for overload will 
provide adequate protection for the motors. General 
electric motors have been installed for constant speed 
work and for such small ranges in speed as can be ob- 
tained by field weakening. On those tools where a range 
of speed of about 4 to 1 is required the Commercial Elec- 
tric Co.'s system of variable speed tool drive is being 
used. The tools embraced by this system are the boring 
mills, 2-wheel lathes, slotter, and a special planer referred 




Siote Roof 




Fig. [6 — Cross Section and Partial Side Elevation ck Boiler Shop — C. & E. I. R, R. 



\g2 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



to a little later. Three 
speeds are secured for these 
motors by a combination of 
Commutators, which about 
equally divide the total 
range, and intermediate 
steps are obtained by a small 
amount of field weakening. 
The variable speed motors 
on this equipment operate 
on a 220 volt circuit and no 
armature resistance is used 
to obtain a speed variation. 
The planer mentioned 
above is used for all around 
work and a variety of cut- 
ting speeds is required to 
attain maximum efficiency. 
Two separate motors are 
used in driving this ma- 
chine, a constant speed mo- 
tor on the return and a vari- 
able speed motor for cut- 
ting. A constant return 




Fig. 17 — Showing- Arrangement of Counter Shafting and Location of 
Motors for Driving Machine Tools Served by 
Traveling Crane — C. & E. I. R. R. 



speed is obtained irrespective of the cutting speed. 

The largest tools in the shop are two 90-inch wheel 
lathes which are deserving of attention. They are driven 
by 20 h. p. motors which have speed ranges from 250 to 
1,000. There are no belts used on the tools as the feed 
is operated by a shaft and bell crank attachment below 
the floor. Each machine is conveniently handled by the 
operator as the controller is placed in easy reach and he 



can increase, decrease, stop or reverse the motor as de- 
sired. The quartering attachments are operated by two 
individual ify h. p. motors which are controlled by sepa- 
rate controllers. 

A Niles 7-fOot boring mill is shown by Fig. 9. This 
machine is driven by a 15 h. p. reversible, Commercial 
Electric Motor and a 3 h. p. general electric motor oper- 
ates the cross rail. The location and arrangement of the 




Fig. 18— View Between Blacksmith and Machine Shops, Showing Portion of Each Building, Line 
of Posts Carrying Wires for Electrical Distribution and Tunnel for 
Steam and Air Mains — C & E I. R. R. 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



193 




Fig. 19 — Concrete Foundation of the Cinder Pit — 
C. & E. I. R. R. 

motors is clearly shown by the illustration and also the 
controller which appears to the right of the photo- 
engraving. 

The heating system was installed by the Pope Heating 
Company according to the design of the Consolidated 
Engineering Company. By this system steam pipes are 
attached immediately beneath the roof trusses and the 
radiant heat therefrom is transmitted to the mass of 
metal on the floor below. The metal in turn acts as a 
radiator warming the surrounding air. The originators 
of this system claim that the metal parts congregated in 
the shop will be maintained at a temperature from 3 to 
7 degrees warmer than the surrounding air. Under such 
conditions the men are working in surroundings which 
are warmer than the air in the shop, a condition more 
enervating than when the air is warmer than the sur 
roundings. 

For general illumination and working at night or on 
dark days there are provided 33 arc lights disposed at 
different intervals about the shop and 300 incandescent 
lamps. Each machine is provided with an individual in- 
candescent lamp which is carried by a bracket supported 
on the wall or by one of sufficient height to stand on the 
floor. On the erecting floor each work-bench is provided 




Fig. 21 — Showing Relative Positions of Storehouse, 
Blacksmith and Machine Shops — C. & E. I. R. R. 

with two wooden masts carrying two brackets which may 
be adjusted to arrange the light carried thereby as de- 
sired. These masts are also provided with sockets for 
extension wires to facilitate work on inaccessible parts 
about the locomotive. 

Boiler Shop. 
The construction of the boiler shop is similar to that of 
the machine shop and is arranged in two bays though 
its main bay is of less vertical height owing to the smaller 
range of lift required by the crane. There are eight 
stalls in the main bay in which the principal work is 
done, and three of these stalls extend through the ma- 




Fig. 22 — Cross Section of Blacksmith Shop- 
C. & E. I. R. R. 



m 



9%A 



. 



■i 1 1 1 
111 



Fig. 20 — View in Blacksmith Shop — C. & E. I. R. R. 



194 



RAILWAY 




Fig. 



23- 



-Plan of Lavatory in Machine Shop — 
C. & E. I. R. R. 

chine bay to provide for tank work. The machines are 
disposed as shown in the accompanying plan drawing of 
the boiler shop and the machine bay is served by a crane 
of three tons capacity. 

Several of the tools are grouped and driven by a sin- 
gle motor and the heavier tools are driven by individual 
motors. As shown by the plan view, the flue work is 
done at one end of the building and the flue rattler is 
located in a small wing adjacent to the corner of the 
house, connected with the remainder of the building by 
standard gauge tracks and small turn-cables. A second 
wing adjoining the wall opposite to the transfer table in- 
cludes the tool room and foreman's office on the first floor 
and the lavatory on the second floor. In this wing and 
adjacent to the tool room as shown by the plan the anneal- 
ing furnace is located. The side walls contain an ample 
amount of glazed sash affording a large amount of nat- 
ural light which is supplemented by skylights similar to 
those in the machine shop. The building is 209 feet long 
by 109 feet wide. The main bay is 58 feet wide and the 
machine bay is 58 feet 4 inches wide. The former is 
served by a crane having a span of 55 feet and a capacity 
of 20 tons. Both cranes in this shop were supplied by 
Messrs. Pawling & Harnischfeger. 

The Blacksmith Shop. 

As shown by the general layout the blacksmith shop is 
located between the machine shop and the store house at 
a short distance from the roundhouse. The building is 
100 feet by 136 feet with brick walls and a steel roof 
truss, covered with tile. As in the other buildings, the 
smith shop is lighted by an abundance of natural light. 
The roof framing is of a different design from that of 



MASTER MECHANIC June i 9 o 4 

the machine and boiler shop having a ventilating louvre 
running nearly the entire length of the building. There 
are 18 forges operated by the down draft system of the 
Buffalo Forge Company. An interior view of this build- 
ing is presented by Fig. 20, which shows the location of 
the fans for blower and forges, a number of the forges, 
the arrangement of crane facilities, and at- the right is 
shown a portion of the frame furnace. Two steam 
hammers are installed, one of 3,000 lbs. capacity and the 
other of 800 lbs. 



LIST OF DIRECT CONNECTED GENERAL ELECTRIC MOTORS. 



Motor. 




Horse- 
power. 


Speed. 


Tool 


5 
5 

5 
6 
6 

IV* , 
10 
10 
10 
10 
15 
15 
15 
15 
25 
25 


800 
900 
900 

550 1100 
700-900 
700-1200 
815 

550-800 
650 
650 

600-900 
650 

690 1 
690 f 
600-900 
600-900 
560 
1300 


36-inch upright drill, cap. 2-inch holes. 

Heavy single shear, 48-inch throat, cap 6x1 inch flat. 

7-foot vertical boring mill, two saddles. For operating" 

rail only. (See 754-horsepower Commercial motor.) 
Plain radial drill. 

25x26 inches by 10 feet metal planer. 
42 inches by 19 feet triple gear engine lathe. 
30 inches double combined punch and shea^ cap. 5x% 

inches flat. 
30x30 inches by 8 feet metal planer. 
36-inch shear. Old tool. 
Double combined punch and shear. Old tool} 
25x90 inches open side planer. Old tool. 
84 inch wheel press. Old tool, 

12-foot bending rolls. Old tool. 

80-inch wheel lathes. Old tool. 
48-inch car wheel lathe for steel tires. 
Fan for forges. 
Blower for forges. 





LIST 


OP GROUP 


DRIVEN MOTORS. 




No. 


Horse- 
power. 


Speed. 


No. 


Horse- 
power. 


Speed. 


3 


5 

7% 

10 


1.100 R. P. M. 
815 R. P. M. 
650 R. P. M. 


2 


15 

20 


690 R. P. M. 




1 


650 R. P. M. 


6 











LIST OF DIRECT CONNECTED COMMERCIAL ELECTRICAL MOTORS. 



Motor. 


Horse- 
power. 


Speed. 


5 


450-1800 


5 


1200 


5 


280-1120 


7y s 


250-1000 


~v° - 


350-1400 


7H 


350-1400 


7H 


300-400 


15 


250-1000 


20 


250-1000 


1& 


1600-2400 


1?4 


1600-2400 



Tool. 



37-inch vertical boring mill. Old tool. 
36 by 36 inches planer, for reversing only 
36-inch planer, for cutting stroke only. 
For 7-foot vertical boring and turning mill. For cutting- 
only. (See 5-horsepbwer General Electric above.) 
18-inch slotter. Old tool. 
Horizontal boring mill. 
38 by 48 inches metal planer. 
48-inch horizontal boring and drilling machine. 
90-inch wheel lathe. Old tool. For operating spindle. 

For quartering attachments, 90-inch- wheel lathe. 



The power house, round house, store house and fur- 
ther details of interest will be presented in a later issue. 



Concerning Boiler Design 



THERE appeared on page 154 of the May issue of 
the Railway Master Mechanic a design of loco- 
motive boiler with deep, narrow fire-box and short flues, 
to be built for a Pacific type locomotive, and editorial 
comment referring thereto, appeared in the same issue. 
The boiler in question _was designed with the idea in view 
of reducing troubles believed to be consequent upon long 
flues, and a shallow, wide firebox. That this design has 
attracted attention and that the boiler is a live issue, is 
evidenced by the following communications which we are 
privileged to reproduce: ^ v -- 
Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

I was much interested in reading in your May issue 
~,u article entitled, 'An Interesting Design of Locomo- 



tive Boiler." The design of the boiler is certainly novel 
and extremely unusual: It is not to be examined, how- 
ever, from this standpoint, but rather from its proposed 
performance in actual service. 

The first point that attracts attention as being very 
much smaller in proportion than usual is the grate area. 
With 37 square feet of grate area it will be absolutely 
necessary to maintain a very high rate of combustion per 
square foot of grate surface per hour, and in fact it is 
questionable whether with the grate, area in question 
enough coal can be burned to produce the necessary 
amount of heat. There is no question whatever of the 
value of fire-box heating surface, the fire-box evaporat- 
ing at least 35 to 50 per cent of the total evaporation, 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



195 



and that the greater the heating surface of the fire-box, 
the better steamer the boiler will be. While apparently 
the later designs of engines have shallow fire-boxes with 
less proportion of fire-box heating surface than the older 
feypes of engines, it is very probable that in all these de- 
signs there was no desire to decrease the fire-box heating 
surface, but rather to obtain the necessary grate surface. 
The depth of firebox had to be sacrificed in order that 
it might be widened out as the length had either reached 
the firing limit or was restricted by other features of the 
design. With the wider type firebox, which must at 
least clear a trailing wheel, it is impossible to get the 
depth as great as when the fire-box rested on top of the 
frames or between the frames. The question becomes, 
whether it is better to have sufficient grate area to prop- 
erly and economically burn the necessary fuel, or is it 
better to have a smaller grate area and a greater area 
of fi "e-bcx heating surface. Evidently the boiler in ques- 
t'on is going to determine this point. We may, how- 
ever, from an analysis of the best designs, form some 
opinion as to what the new boiler will or will not do, and 
from such analysis it would seem that it is going to be 
deficient in great area. 

Mr. Vaughan, Superintendent of Motive Power of the 
Canadian Pacific Railroad, read a paper before the April 
meeting of the Western Railroad Club on "The Value of 
Heating Surface." He brought out on this paper some 
very valuable points that have hitherto been overlooked 
to a large extent as regards value of heating surface in 
different parts of flues and fire-box. He also calls atten- 
tion, very emphatically, to the value of the ratio of trac- 
tive power by the diameter of the driving wheels, to the 
area of grate. He also draws the conclusion that for a 
satisfactorily steaming engine your ratio should not be 
greater than 5 for passenger engines, nor greater than 
6 for freight engines. On this basis the proposed boiler 
would be a very poor steamer, having a ratio of 7.71 
which is away beyond the limit for freight service, let 
alone passenger service. In the proceedings of the Mas- 
ter Mechanics' Association for 1902, on pages 212 and 
221, will be found a similar method of getting practically 
the same ratio in different terms. The ratio in this case 
being that of cylinder horse-pow'er to the grate area, and 
from the results of a large number of engines which have 
been built at different times, it was found that the best 
practice gave this ratio as 25, while the limit was prac- 
tically 47 for a single passenger engine burning bitum- 
inous coal. The proposed boiler falls short also by this. 
method in that its ratio is practically 46. It would there- 
fore appear that, while it may be desirable to obtain a 
large firebox, it is not advisable to do so at the expense 
of grate surface. 

'Idle shorter length Hue is undoubtedly desirable from 
a maintenance standpoint, and will give less trouble and 
at the same time waste a very small amount of heat din- 
to the shortening of the flues, it is questionable, how- 
ever, where any gain is made between a flue \(> , /j feel 
long, i inches in diameter; over a 2;/ inch line propor- 
tionately longer as regards strength and life. The short- 
ening of lines by setting the flue sheet back, considering 
the distance from the centre of the stack, euvolves an 



exceedingly large volume in the smoke box. What ef- 
fect this will have upon maintaining the desired vacuum, 
the working of the fire, draft arrangement, etc., will be 
an interesting study. It is a radical departure from the 
present practice, and further information as to results 
obtained will be doubtless appreciated by all who have 
read the article. F. F. Gaines^ 

Mast. Mech. Wyoming Division, Lehigh Valley Ry. 



Editor, The Railway Master Mechanic : 

In your issue for the month of May d note the editor- 
ial in connection with boiler troubles. In this editorial 
you seem to group in the same category of evils the long 
tube and the wide fire-box and you place upon them the 
tlame for having aggravated boiler troubles. 

There seems to be a great diversity of opinion as to 
the effect of long tubes, in causing trouble in locomotive 
boilers. Some master mechanics who have been using 
the extremely long tubes have claimed that they have 
had no additional bad results attributable to the length 
of tubes ; while others have at once seen in the long 
tubes the source of new troubles. 

The very long tube is an accident. Engines were not 
designed purposely to permit the use of tubes twenty 
feet long, but rather the desire for greater adhesion and 
tractive power made it desirable in some cases to use 
three pairs of driving wheels on passenger locomotives, 
and in order to provide plenty of steam a large fire-box 
was required, which had to be carried back of the rear 
drivers, resulting in the necessity for considerably ex- 
ceeding sixteen feet in length of tubes. 

It is open to reasonable doubt, if the addition of three 
or four feet in length of the sixteen foot tube can of it- 
self be the cause of any great additional tube leakaee. 

The wide fire-box itself is scarcely open to the blame 
for being the cause of greater boiler leakage, unless it 
be due to the fact that it has been in many instances too 
small to give sufficient grate area, so that no unusual 
forcing of the boiler would be required to produce the 
needed steam for the service which the locomotive was 
expected to perform. 

With the advent of the recent mammoth locomotives 
has come a tendency to load them up to their full capac- 
ity at all times, leaving no reserve power for emergency 
conditions. This has resulted at frequent intervals in a 
severe forcing of the boilers, consequent poor firing, fol- 
lowed by hurried cooling, and unwise admission of cold 
air into the fire-box. The large demand for power the 
past two winters has caused operating officers to urge 
the hurried turning of the power, and the boilers have 
not had the proper 1 character of care in washing, and 
in thorough round house repairs at terminals. The larger 
demand on the locomotives has meant unusual evapora- 
tion of water, meaning where poor water was used, a 
large and rapid deposit of scale. 

It is believed by many (hat to these causes, together 
with the fad thai in tloi a few cases poor boiler work has 
been done by the manufacturers, are due the added boiler 
troubles thai have been found in connection with many 
of (he locomotives having long tubes and wide fireboxes. 

The writer believes thai railway companies in general 



196 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, IQ04. 



have overdone the fad for increasing the size and hauling 
capacity of locomotives. There would seem to be strong 
grounds for calling a halt, and in some cases reducing the 
size of future construction, even though the size of the 
trains hauled is correspondingly reduced. The greatly 
added cost of locomotive maintenance, together with the 
greatly increased destructive effect on cars and on track, 
calls for serious analysis and careful consideration. 

The special design of boiler shown in your May issue 
has many excellent points, and also some modifications 
which are open to serious doubt. 

The proper design of a locomotive boiler cannot be 
made without careful consideration, not only of the size 
of the cylinders which are to be supplied with steam, but 
also the wheel arrangement of the locomotive, and last, 
but most of all, the class of service for which the locomo- 
tive is intended. A boiler which is well suited to supply 
the needs for carrying a ten or twelve-car train at an 
average speed of forty miles an hour, making frequent 
stops, or handling an eight-car train on' long 1 to 2 per 
cent grades would not be suited for being a free furnisher 
of the necessary steam on a fast express hauling six or 
eight cars,, and running long distances between stops at 
an average speed of from fifty to sixty miles per hour. 

Not knowing the kind of service for which the boiler 
shown in your illustrations is to be used, one is some- 
what at a loss in commenting upon the design. 

The length of tubes shown seems to be an average 
length for a modern up-to-date locomotive. It surely 
does not have the claim to be called a boiler with short 
tubes. 

A firebox that is ten feet and six inches long inside 
would appear to be too long for a man to successfully 
fire. It does not seem practical to. expect a fireman to 
satisfactorily throw coal over ten feet into a firebox, and 
to keep it up, as they would have to do for several hours 
each trip, and do good work. The short, wide fireboxes 
surely have the advantages in making good fireing easier. 

Deep fireboxes require the carrying a thicker fire than 
with the wide boxes. There is a large amount of the 
firebox heating surface, namely; that which is below the 
line of the fire, which is of little^value. In the firebox 
shown there is at least twenty-fbtir_ square feet which 
is of very little benefit. Three inches more in the length 
of the tubes would undoubtedly be of more value than the 
additional heating surface gained by using a deep fire- 
box. 

It is doubtful if the total heating surface in the boiler 
is sufficient to make this boiler a free steamer, for rea- 
sonably fast passenger service, if the size of the cylinders 
is to be taken as the index of the power wanted in ordi- 
nary service. 

It might be open to question whether the grate sur- 
face is sufficient to make steam economically with ordi- 
nary grades of bituminous coal, in view of the highly 
successful results which have been obtained during the 
past few years with fireboxes having a very much larger 
grate surface. 

I am inclined to fear that in the zealous effort to avoid 
tubes of excessive length, and wide fireboxes, that possibly 
matters of more importance may have been sacrificed, 



and that the net results in the end may be disappointing, 
as compared with what might have been obtained with 
the use of the wide firebox in the place of the long and 
deep box. Yours very truly, 

A. M. Waitt. 
Yonkers, N. Y. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

In your May issue you illustrate a locomotive boiler 
intended for a new passenger engine, which is interesting 
because it embodies what might be called old ideas in- 
stead of new ones, and in an editorial reference to this 
same boiler you state that "'many boilers have been re- 
cently built embodying wide grates and long flues with 
no more seeming reason than that they are up-to-date." 
I think this criticism on locomotive design is an unfair 
one, at least in the majority of cases. The wide firebox 
especially is the outcome of necessity, and it cannot be 
considered a "fad" in any sense. When the wide firebox 
was introduced for the purpose of burning anthracite 
culm, every one recognized the fact that a large grate 
was essential for this purpose, the reason being that the 
rate of combustion could not be forced much beyond 50 
pounds per square foot of grate per hour. The other 
alternative was to keep the original -grate of about 30 
square feet area and make the cylinders so small that the 
steam consumption would not unduly tax the grate. But 
this would never be accepted by railroad managers, 
who want a heavy train, and, in passenger service at 
least, a fast run as well. The same is true of soft coal 
burners. Several years ago, when connected with the 
C. & N. W. Ry., the largest passenger locomotives had 
19^4 by 26 inch cylinders, 75-inch drivers, and 190 
pounds of steam, giving an available tractive force at 
slow speed of 20,000 pounds, the grate area being 30 
square feet and heating surface 2,500 square feet. The 
conditions of traffic required stronger engines — that is, 
engines that would make up time with heavier trains, 
and although these engines had been built but one year 
before, a lot of engines with practically the same tractive 
force, 20,800 pounds, were ordered, but with 3,000 feet 
of heating surface and 46 square feet of grate. The 
power of these engines at high speed was so great that 
it was some time before the men realized the force under 
their control and took advantage of it. They could be 
run 70 miles an hour cutting off about half stroke; this 
did not tear the fire, as the grate being liberal, the com- 
bustion was distributed over a large area. The tubes 
were 2 inches in diameter and 16 feet long, and the 
machines were so successful that several later batches 
were ordered just like them. I understand that these 
engines have given less trouble with stay bolts and side 
sheets than the narrow boxes, with the sharp O G bulge 
just above the wheels that were previously used. The 
M. M. Committee of last year reached the same con- 
clusion. 

With alkali waters the trouble seems to be greater, 
probably because the radiant heat from a larger fuel bed, 
must be taken up by a reduced firebox heating surface, 
and the water being light is at times driven away from 
the side sheet, resulting in the rapid destruction of the 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



197 



sheet; with solid (non-foaming) waters this does not 
occur. 

Under any circumstances, the locomotive that makes 
the most steam will do the most work, and we cannot 
afford to curtail the generating powers. The boiler 
shown in the Railway Master Mechanic has a ratio of 
91 for heating surface to grate area. With western coal 
(Illinois, etc.) the greatest rate of evaporation which we 
could expect per square foot of heating surface per hour 
would be 12^2 pounds of water from and at 212 degrees 
If we made this ratio 70, by increasing the grate to 48 
square feet, we could expect 14^2 pounds. For the 
same heating surface, this means 16 per cent more 
boiler power, or say horse power. Or again, at the same 
total coal consumption, we should have a rate of com- 
bustion of 154 pounds of coal per square foot of grate 
per hour in the wide box against 200 pounds in the nar- 
row. Owing to the smaller cinder and spark losses through 
the stack and the more complete combustion (because 
slower) we should evaporate about 70 per cent more 
water per pound of coal. These facts are certainly logical 
reasons for using the larger grate; — that it must be wider 
is due to the limitations of locomotive dimensions and 
length of throw for firemen. 

Long tubes are due as much, if not more, to the type 
of engine, as to the wide box. With the 4-4-2 type, 16- 
foot flues work in very nicely — when we try to put a third 
pair of drivers between the cylinders and the firebox we 
must lengthen the tubes ; as a rule, however, the diameter 
is increased nearly in proportion to the length ; 2^4 -inch 
tubes 19 feet long would have the same proportions as 
the 2 in. by i6 l / 2 ft. tubes to be used in the new boilers, 
and it must surely be the relative and not the actual 
length that governs the heating value of the tubes. The 
answers to question 28 of last year's boiler committee 
seems to indicate that the length does not greatly affect 
the maintenance of flues, but that quality of water and 
severity of service are the principal causes of trouble. 
This we believe to be correct. The large boilers will 
do more work, the superintendents know they will, and 
they must work to the utmost limit. As an example of 
this, in oil burning, locomotives will perform 25 per cent 
more work (in horse power) than the same engine burn- 
ing coal — the division superintendent realizes -this and 
loads them" so that they will have to do it; and the boiler 
deteriorates so much faster. I do not deny that firebox 
surface is a better evaporative medium than tube surface, 
and believe that water tubes of some form could be 
placed in the firebox with advantage, giving a rapid 
evaporation, and at the same time protecting the side 
sheets from some of the radiant heat. The flue sheet is 
bound to suffer — if an arch could be maintained, it would 
protect the back ends of the (lues from radiant beat, but 
in bad water territory, the fines must be caulked every 
trip, and the arch interferes with tin's work. 

( )ne thing must be borne in mind : coal contains a deli 
nite number of beat units to tin 1 pound — if we burn (bis 
in a firebox without any tube surface, we will evaporate 
almost as much water as if tube surface be Used, and if 
we keep the temperature of the up-takc to tbe rtormal 



heat, it matters little how the heating surface is disposed. 
But we cannot get more heat out of the coal than its 
constituents indicate, even if our heating surface was 
measured by the acre, and if more heat is needed to gen- 
erate steam, we must burn more coal. Even with 7^ 
inches of water for draft the spark losses are about 22 
per cent and as this draft is necessary to burn coal at the 
rate of 200 pounds per square foot per hour, the limiting 
rate of combustion seems to be fixed thereby, so that more 
coal means more grate, regardless to a certain extent, of 
heating surface. Yours truly, 

G. R. Henderson. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

I have noted carefully the cuts in your May number 
representing the proposed new type of locomotive boiler. 
It, of course, is a novelty in design, and may result in 
proving that we are, up to date, quite wrong in having 
adopted the wide firebox, long flue boiler. From past 
experience, however, I am not disposed to admit that 
the wide firebox with long tubes has been a mistake. Our 
experience with this type of boiler dates over a period of 
about two years, and we have not as yet found them more 
prone to leak than the narrow firebox boiler with shorter 
flues. We find, however, very much in them to commend. 
Taking engines of the same size and in the same kind of 
service over the same territory, also carrying the same 
pressure, one type equipped with narrow and long firebox 
and the other with short and wide firebox, we find that 
the wide firebox engine will do the same work with more 
regularity of steam pressure, and burning a great deal 
less coal. With the narrow and long firebox engine our 
observation has been that the length of firebox, 120 inches 
or over, prevents the fireman from distributing the coal 
to any such advantage as may be done in the short wide 
firebox, and in cleaning the fire it is also a hard matter 
for the fireman to reach to the front part of the grates 
in order to clean the fire at that point, the result being 
that the fire close to the flues becomes dead and the air 
rushing in at that point is not heated sufficiently to pre- 
vent chilling the flues. 4 We believe, with that type of fire- 
box, all else being equal so far as water spaCe between 
sheets and between the flues are concerned, the long fire- 
box, short flue engine will be found prone to cause more 
trouble with leaks than the wide firebox long flue engines 
would be. We have, I believe, in the past more than 
reached the limit in the length of firebox over which 
a fireman can distribute coal to good advantage, unless 
the furnace door be raised from tbe footboard. This, of 
course, has its objectionable features, in the fact that it 
might then lie claimed that tbe work of raising the coal 
from the level of tbe lloor of the tender to tbe furnace 
door would also mean more labor, but I believe this 
labor would be more than compensated for by the de- 
creased effort necessary to distribute the coal over die 
grates. What, in my opinion, is more to he desired than 
anything else at present so far as the construction of 
our boilers is concerned, is an increased distance between 
firebox sheets, permitting of a larger body of water, and 



1 98 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



freer circulation, longer stay bolts, smaller in diameter 
and spaced closer. Boiler tubes spaced farther apart than 
has been done in the recent past and placed in vertical 
rows, so as to permit of freer circulation. With this 
construction and a sane method of cooling, washing and 
repairing boilers at our terminals, and more thorough 
education of our men in caring for boilers, both on the 
road and at terminals, I believe, our trouble with boiler 
tubes and sheets will largely disappear. 

Yours truly, 

J. F. Walsh, 
Supt. Motive Power, Chesapeake & Ohio R. R. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

Commenting briefly and superficially upon a design of 
a large locomotive boiler — 73 inches in diameter — with 
a 42 x 126 firebox which appeared in May issue of Rail- 
way Master Mechanic. The distance between driving 
wheels is a fixed quantity, and I do not believe that an 
attempt to squeeze the firebox of a big boiler into this 
space can be considered as a step in advance. This can 
be done with the firebox of a 50 or 6o-irich boiler with- 
out distortion, but to jam the firebox of a 73-inch boiler 
between the same wheels brings about an undeniable dis- 
tortion which means constricted water spaces, curved side 
sheets (which pockets the steam) and, in consequence, 
cracked sheets and broken 'stay bolts, to say nothing of 
a grate io^4 ; feet long. 

Boilers are growing bigger and any real advance ,in 
locomotive design must be on lines that are capable of a 
development to the limit, and the right of way should be 
the limit rather thap the distance between driving 
wheels. 

The wide firebox, with straight side sheets and ample 
water spaces has, in my experience, reduced side sheet 
and stay bolt troubles to the minimum, and has given 
the boiler a chance to breathe in. an unconfined and entire- 
ly healthful way. 

But then there are flues. If we assume that the wide 
firebox in itself is good design, does not the solution of 
the flue trouble lie in some form of combustion chamber 
which would move the flue sheet ,away from the fire 
and give shorter flues and more firebox heating surface at 
the same time? - Yours truly, 

Tracy Lyon, 
Asst. Gen. Manager, Chicago Great Western Ry. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

I have not had experience with the modified wide fire- 
box as recently applied to some of the western locomo- 



tives, though have with regulation narrow firebox en- 
gines for soft coal burning, and the full wide firebox of 
the Wooten type as used in the anthracite coal region. 

With anthracite coal the wide firebox is a success. I 
attribute this to the uniform heat maintained with hard 
coal, and also to the practice of never allowing the fire 
to go out, except when necessary to blow off the steam 
for washing out, or other purposes. 

I think that there will be more or less difficulty with 
any kind of a shallow firebox with soft coal as fuel for 
the reason that there is a great variation in temperature, 
ranging from cold draughts of air over the surface of an 
indifferent fire, to the intense heat of perfect combustion ; 
and, with the additional disadvantages of bad water, and 
harsh treatment, both in the way of excessive load, and 
indifferent handling by the enginemen, a lot of grief is 
bound to be experienced with any kind of soft coal 
burning engine, and probably more as the dimensions of 
the firebox are increased. Yours truly, 

W. M. McIntosh, 

Supt. Motive Power, Central Railroad of New Jersey. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

The writer has had no personal experience with boilers 
with flues longer than 16 feet, and so far as the locomotive 
designs are concerned for which he has been responsible, 
has had no difficulty in getting ample heating surface for 
boilers of reasonable size with flues of this length. Not 
being able to speak with the authority of experience on 
the subject of troubles with very long flues, we can only 
say that we look upon very long flues with a little dis- 
trust, but rather fear that the design of the boiler referred 
to, while tending to reduce the trouble from leaky flues, 
has gone back to a form of firebox which will give very 
much greater trouble with broken stay bolts on account 
of the sharp "O G" bends at both sides of the firebox, 
which all master mechanics know are apt to produce grief 
without end on account of broken stay bolts. 

The reasonably shallow firebox with 12 to 16 inches 
under the flat bricks carried on the water tubes at the 
front where the grate is not of unusual length so that the 
fire can be efficiently spread and looked after, seems to 
give with our fuel and water very good service, and by 
using the wide grate we accomplish a distinct saving by 
reducing the number of pounds of coal burnt per square 
foot of grate per hour to produce a given evaporation. 

Yours truly, 
R. P. C. Sanderson, 
Supt. Motive Power, Seaboard Air Line. 



Criticism of Modem 

By L. S. 

THE enormous demands which have been made in 
recent years on locomotives, both as regards 
their tractive and horse-power capacity, has pressed the 
design of the boilers forward more rapidly than our 
engineers have been able to study the conditions sur- 
rounding the new work required of them and apply the 
proper remedies, which but for the hurry and bustle with 



Locomotive Boilers 

Randolph 

which the work has been done, would have been fully 
foreseen and arranged for. , 

The writer read before the Louisville meeting of the 
American Society of Mechanical Engineers an article on 
"Strains of Locomotive Boilers," in which the stresses 
under which locomotives boilers were working at that 
time were pointed out and some remedies suggested. As 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



199 



long ago as 1885, the writer also published a paper on 
the "Strength of Stay-bolts" and was the first to call 
attention to the failure of stay-bolts due to the vibratory 
motion. This latter subject is now fully understood and 
designers are fully aroused to its importance, but the oth- 
er stresses due to the unequal expansion and contracting 
caused by the unequal temperature and unequal rates of 
heating and cooling is not understood, has not been 
studied to any extent and remedies are not being worked 
out for the dangers arising therefrom. 

If we take the fire-box and tubes which are, of course, 
the weak point and compare them with the earliest de- 
signs, we find that the tubes are longer, the fire-box is 
longer and higher, the temperature of combustion has 
been increased and the boiler pressure has been raised 
and consequently the temperature of the steam has been 
increased so that the three factors governing the flue and 
fire-box, namely, their total length, their total height, 
and the temperature of the metal, all three have been 
increased, and yet, with the exception of one or two 
cases, there has been no concerted effort to apply remedy 
and furthermore, the writer, with all modesty, would say 
that he believes very few locomotive designers have made 
the above analysis and are aware of these difficulties. 
Larger boilers have been built simply in proportion to 



the smaller previous designs which give only fairly good 
satisfaction under requirements very much less severe. 
We have had corrugated fire boxes which seem to have 
worked very well, namely Tn the Strong locomotive and 
later in the Vanderbilt type. Whether this is a complete 
solution of the problem is doubtful, and it would seem 
to the writer that they introduce objections which are 
almost as difficult to overcome as these troubles which it 
is intended to obviate. 

The purpose of this article is merely to call attention 
to this difficulty and point out the writer's idea of the 
method of the solution which is that boilers must be de- 
signed so that the expansion due to the different temper- 
atures of the different parts of the boiler will be taken 
up easily and readily and where the motion incident to 
unequal expansion and contraction will not be thrown 
on the slip joints of the flue sheets and the small radii 
of the fire-box corners. Until this is done, we are likely 
to have trouble, and serious trouble, with our flues and 
fire-boxes. The present design practically makes of 
each flue end an expansion joint; which is required to 
operate at high pressure and abnormally high tempera- 
ture, a thing which is not satisfactorily done at low pres- 
sures and temperatures. 



Four Cylinder-Balanced Compound Locomotive, N.Y.C. 6 H.R.R.R 



THE Schenectady Works of the American Locomotive 
Company has recently completed the most inter- 
esting engine which has been built since the construction 
of the Vauclain four-cylinder balanced compound built 
about a year ago by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for 
the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway. This new 
engine has been delivered to the New 'York Central & 
Hudson River Railroad and was built according to the 
design of Mr. F. J. Cole, mechanical engineer of the 
Schenectady Works. It is evident from a consideration 
of this design that an effort was made to avoid complica- 
tions and introduce the compound feature with as imv 
changes as possble from the usual type of American 
simple engine. 

The low pressure cylinders are located in the position 
common to simple engines, being outside of the frames' 
and attached by a saddle casting to the smoke arch. The 
high pressure cylinders are situated forward of the sad- 
dle casting and between the frames which are extended 
to such length as to support them. The pistons of the 
high pressure cylinders are connected to the forward axle, 
which is suitably cranked to accommodate such connec- 
tion between the frames. The low pressure cylinders arc 
connected to the rear pair of drivers in the manner com- 
mon to locomotives of the 4-4-2 type. By this arrange- 
ment of cylinders long connecting rods are possible both 
ii.side and outside of the frames. 

The cranks on each axle are at 90 degrees to each other 
and so disposed that the outside crank is at 180 degrees 
with its adjacent inside crank. The valves are of the piston 
type and the valves of both the high pressure and low 



pressure cylinders on one side are connected to the same 
valve stem and operate within a continuous valve chest 
which acts as a receiver between the high pressure and 
low pressure cylinders very much as in the design of 
Schenectady tandem compound. The valves are operated 
by the usual Stevenson link motion so that no complica- 
tions are introduced in this particular. The high pressure 
cylinders 15^ inches in diameter by 26 ins stroke, and the 
low pressure cylinders are 26 ins. in diameter by the same 
length of stroke. The engines operate under 220 lbs. of 
steam and the outside diameter of drivers is 79 ins. Ap- 
plying these figures to the usual formula for four-cylinder 
compound locomotives evidences this engine capable of a 
tractive power of 23,800 lbs. 

The general dimensions are presented by the follow- 
ing table : 

General Dimensions. 

< lauge 4 ft. 8% ins. 

Fuel : Bituminous coal. 

Weight in working order! 200,000 lbs. 

Weight on drivers 110,000 lbs. 

Weight, engine and tender in working order 321,600 lbs. 

Wheel base, driving 7 ft. 

Wheel base, rigid ] G ft. 6 ins. 

Wheel base, total 27 ft. 9 ins. 

Wheel base, total, engine and lender 53 ft. 8 ins. 

Cylinders. 

Diana, of cylinders 15'X. ins. and 26 ins. 

Stroke of piston 26 ins. 

Horizontal thickness of piston 

L. V., outside, 5y, ins.; II. I'., inside, 6'/ 4 ins. 

Diain. of piston rod 3 ins. 

Kind of piston packing Cast iron rings. 

Kind of piston rod packing 

I'. S. metallic with Gibbs' vibrating cup. 

Valves, 
Kind of slide valves Piston type. 



20O 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 




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June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



201 




202 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



Greatest travel of slide valves 6 ins. 

Outside lap of slide valves 1 in. 

Inside clearance of slide valves. / H. P. % in., L. P. % in. 

Lead of valves in full gear < % in. lead 

forward motion when cutting off at 11 ins. of the stroke. 

Kind of valve stem packing U. S. metallic. 

Wheels, Etc. 

No. of driving wheels 4 

Diam. of driving wheels outside of tire 79 ins. 

Material of driving wheel, centers .'..... .Cast steel. 

Thickness of tire 3% ins. 

Tire held by Shrinkage and retaining rings. 

Driving box material Cast steel. 

Diam. and length of driving journals. 10x12 ins. 

Diam. and length of main crank pin journals (back side 

6%x4 ins.) Back, 6x6 ins. 

Diam. and length of side rod crank pin journals 

. . Front 5x3% ins. 

Section of rods Main, I; side, I. 

Engine truck, kind .4 whl. swing 

cen. bearing spring centering device, R. R. Co.'s style. 

Engine truck, journals 6%xl2 ins. diam. 

Diam. of engine truck wheels 36 ins. 

Kind of engine truck wheels 

Krupp No. 3, cast iron spoke, 3y s -in. tire. 

Boiler. 

Style Straight top. radial stay. 

Outside diam. of first ring 72% ins. 

Working pressure 220 lbs. 

Material of barrel and outside of fire box 

Coatsville( Worth Bros. ) steel. 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of firebox.... 

13-16 in., 9-16 in., % in. 

Horizontal seams. Butt joint, sextuple riveted. 

Circumferential seams Double riveted. 

Firebox, length 96% ins. 

Firebox, width 75% ins. 

Firebox, depth Front, 80% ins.; back. 69 ins. 

Firebox, material Carbon steel. 

Firebox plates, thickness 

. .Sides, % in.; back, % in.; crown, % in.; tube sheet, % in. 
Firebox, water space 4 ins. and 5 ins., front; 



3% ins. and 5y 2 ins., sides; 3% ins. and 4% ins. back. 

Firel:ox, crown staying Radial. 

Firebox, stay bolts '. . .Taylor iron, 1 diam. W. S. 

Tabes, material and gauge 

Worth charcoal iron No. 11 B. W. G. 

Tubes, number 390 

Tubes, diam. 2 ins. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 16 ft. 

Fire brick, supported on Water tubes. 

Heating surface, tubes 3248.1 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, water tubes 23 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 175 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, total 3446.1 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 50.3 sq ft. 

Grate, style Rocking in 4 sections. 

Ash pan, style Hopper bottom, dampers F. & B, 

Exhaust Pipes Single. 

Exhaust Nozzles 5% ins., 5% ins., 5% ins. diam. 

Smoke stack, inside diam 18 ins. 

Smoke stack, top above rail 14 ft. 8 ins. 

Eoiler supplied by N. & Co., Monitor No. 11. 

Tender. 

Style U. 

Weight, empty. 51,600 lbs. 

Wheels, number 8 

Wheels, diam 36 ins. 

Journals, diam. and length 5%xl0 ins. 

Wheel base 16 ft. 9% ins. 

Tender frame 10-in. channels. 

Tender trucks' 2-4 

wheel cen. bearing, Fox pressed steel frames and bolsters. 

Water capacity .' 6000 U. S. gals. 

Coal capacity .10 tons. 

Erake — Westinghouse American combined on all drivers and 
trailers operated by air. Westinghouse American com- 
bined on tender, and for train Corrington Consolidated 
Engineers' valve and parts. Signal schedule Westing- 
hoiise J. air pump, 9% ins. left hand. One main reservoir, 
• 20 13-16x128 ins. trailing truck, rigid with outside jour- 
nals. Trailing truck journals, 8x14 ins.; wheels, 50 ins.; 
tire, 3 ins. thick. Tires held by lip and shrinkage. 



Handling Injectors on the Road 



OUR last number contained editorial comment con- 
cerning a method of pumping boilers which we 
are pleased to see has excited some discussion. We re- 
mark that we'are pleased, because it is by means of dis- 
cussion that we can learn to best advantage how practices 
are generally considered. In support of the position taken 
we would refer to a recent round trip of an engine which 
had previously given trouble with leaky flues. This is 
a wide firebox engine which burns bituminous coal and 
operates over a division of 131 miles. Before starting 
on the run it was explained to the engineer that he was 
desired to put in as much water as possible while working 
steam and as little as possible when shut off. He be- 
came interested, and adhered very closely to this method 
and at the end of the run remarked that it was no more 
trouble to handle water in this manner than by his ac- 
customed way. On the runs referred to the engine had 
its full tonnage, steamed freely, and popped but once dur- 
ing the round trip. It reached each terminal dry in spite 
of the fact that its condition had been such as to lead 
the engineer to remark before starting that he thought 
it would be impossible to get in on either occasion -with 
dry flues. During the return trip the grates became dis- 
connected and the end of the rnn was made under the 
disadvantage of a very dirty fire and in spite of this fact 
the engine came in dry. 



Presented herewith are several communications which 
have been forwarded to us discussing this very interest- 
ing subject : 
Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

With reference to your editorial in the May issue of 
the Railway Master Mechanic, would advise that the 
practice Of pumping boilers while standing at stations is 
to the disadvantage of the boilers, and would also say 
that your idea of the matter as presented therein is cor- 
rect, namely, when the throttle is opened, circulation is 
again suddenly started, temporarily knocking the steam 
pressure back, and not only doing some harm to the boiler 
by starting the flues to leak, but it certainly will start 
them to leak. It is not only hard on the flues but on the 
firebox sheets ; besides, when starting out of the station 
you will not have steam when you need it the most to get 
your train in motion. 

In several years' practice as a locomotive engineer, I 
find that the only way to maintain sure water level is to 
hold your level while engine is working. Simply work 
injector enough after shutting off the steam to avoid the 
disagreeable noise of popping while around stations, hav- 
ing water enough in the boiler so that it will not be 
necessary to work your injectors until after the train is 
started and your full' pressure of the steam has been 
raised.' In case it becomes absolutely necessary to work 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASftll MECHANIC 



203 



the injector while around stations to keep your water 
level up where it belongs; the fire should be forced with 
the blower to the extent that the steam pressure allowed 
be kept up against the water that is being pumped into 
the boiler, Yours truly, 

W. O. Thompson, 
Div. Supt. Motive Power, N. Y. C. & H, R. R. R. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

Your editorial in the May issue of the Railway Master 
Mechanic concerning the effect of feeding cold water into 
a locomotive boiler while the engine is not working steam, 
is no doubt theoretically correct and is couched in words 
that would also look practical to most anybody except a 
locomotive runner but there are other things that depend 
upon boiler feeding beside the care and the maintenance 
of the flues, which are mainly : Fuel consumption and 
hauling heavy tonnage with dispatch. These require- 
ments necessitate the skillful engineman's storing away 
thousands of heat units by keeping the boiler as full of 
water as practical when the engine is at rest, thus having 
a reserve to draw from while the engine is laboring into 
speed, to recover from the effects of the stop, and the evil 
effects are not as great from delivering water to the boiler 
when the fire is not under forced draft, as is naturally 
supposed considering the fact that there is a good fire 
in the fire box under natural draft, and the saving that 
accrues from skillful manipulation of the injector far 
outweighs the damage to flues and fire box caused by 
the variation of boiler temperature. You state the most 
practical method of handling the injector to advantage, 
is to hold the water level while the engine is working 
and use the injector after shutting off steam, merely to 
the extent to avoid popping off. 

Again from a theoretical view point this is absolutely 
correct, but is it practical to held water in a boiler any- 
where a level considering the sporadic conditions at- 
tending locomotive practice ? We think not. 

First. Because it is necessary to keep the injector at 
work after shutting off steam, to prevent the wasteful 
escape from the safety valves. 

Second. To store water enough in the boiler so that 
the engineman may fayor the fireman by leaving the in- 
jector closed when starting and should the engineman 
not 'do this, he would not make many stops be'fore the 
fireman would be in a demoralized condition with his 
fire spoiled. 

I would like to mention here that a badly clinkered 
fire is far more injurious to flues and side sheets than 
putting water into the boiler under any condition when 
the fire is clean and it can be safely said that the engine- 
man who skillfully handles the injector most favorably 
to the steaming of his engine and keeps the fire in good 
condition, adds 50 per cent to the life of the Hues and 
fire box. 

In conclusion would state that from observation and 
many years experience, T am led to believe that flue and 
fire box deteriorations arc mainly clue to hostling and 
firing dp locomotives and can be eliminated to a great ex- 
tent in this direction and Article 8, — in the "Care of 



Locomotive Boilers," published in your May issue, i. e., 
— To bring the boiler to the clinker pit as full of water 
as possible before the fire is cleaned or knocked out, will 
give greater relief than anything else in hostling the en- 
gine. The most noticeable cause for leaky flues and stay 
bolts came when the railroads changed their method of 
firing up locomotives, by changing from wood with 
natural draft to coal and oil under forced draft. This 
radical change has been responsible for more leaky boilers 
than anything that has come under my observation. 

W. E. Widgeon, 
Road Foreman of Engines, Vandalia Line. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

Referring to editorial appearing in the May issue of 
your publication on the subject of care of locomotive 
boilers. I beg to say that I agree with you as to the 
advisability of care in the operation of injectors, and 
there is no doubt but that a large proportion of boiler 
failures reported are due to the water supply being 
handled carelessly and unintelligently. 

The rules of instructions for foremen, enginemen 
and hostlers appearing on page 162 of your May issue 
are, in my opinion, to the point, and if observed, will 
largely reduce the number of cases of trouble with 
tubes reported. I would suggest, however, the addi- 
tion of a few more "don'ts" to the list shown, as 
follows : 

Don't leave a terminal with fire in condition that 
will permit of steam pressure reducing twenty to 
thirty pounds the first two -or three train lengths, as 
this procedure will necessitate delaying admission of 
water to permit of steam pressure reaching normal. 

Don't permit the fireman to become careless in his 
work. See that he places the coal where needed and 
keeps his fire as uniformly level as possible, to p-e- 
vent banking and pitting, with a consequent bad effect 
on tubes. 

Don't forget, when you get over a hill and cut your 
engine back, to ease your injector proportionately, to 
enable the fireman to keep steam at normal pressure. 

Don't use the blower any more than you can pos- 
sibly help, , for it results in making your fire solid and 
fills up the box, and anything that is bad for the fire 
will eventually be bad for flues. 

I would suggest the following additions to instruc- 
tions : 

To hostler: Don't forget to close the dampers and 
door after fire is cleaned, so the cold air will not pull 
through the firebox and Hues when you put engine 
in the house. 

To boiler inspector, I would say: Don't open the 
damper's and the door and then turn on the blower 
wide open when you inspect firebox, for if you do, if 
the Hues are not leaking then they probably will be 
as soon as engine is fired up and expansion takes 
place. 

Yours truly, 

James E. Keegan, 
Master Mechanic, G. R. & I. Ry. 



204 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : , 

Since the transportation department began charg- 
ing engine failures for everything that occurs on the 
road where time is not made or tonnage hauled, it has 
forced the mechanical department to try all means 
possible iO avoid them. 

Leaky flues and staybolts figure largely in these 
failures, and as it has become recognized that the 
boiler is the life of the engine and source of power, 
this department is doing everything to increase the 
efficiency of the boiler and life of the flue. 

In localities were the water is bad the troubles from 
leaky flues are greatest, and there is where every 
effort should be made to protect the boiler. From the 
time the engine comes out of the shop until she has 
completed her mileage every possible effort should be 
made to guard against failures. First, in cooling 
boilers to be washed, especially if a brick arch is used, 
as much time as possible should be given, the in- 
jector put to work and left on until it breaks. Then 
attach the washout hose to feed pipe and open blow 
off cock and let water run through uritil water is luke- 
warm. It is bad practice to blow the steam off and 
then let the water out and allow the boiler to stand, 
as this will cause scale to' harden on the flues and 
sheets. 

In preventing failures after the engine is turned out 
for her run every one that has the handling of her from 
the time she crosses the turntable until she is housed 
again has a duty to perform, and if done indifferently 
or carelessly will result in a failure ; if not the first trip, 
it will come soon. 

The hostler should leave the engine with proper amount 
of water and a fire covering all the grates and about 125 
pounds of steam with dampers closed. 

The engine crew on taking charge should note the 
condition of the fire and amount of water. Do not start 
injector with a dead fire; build it up first. 

. The engineer should know his fire, is in proper con- 
dition before starting his train. On coming into a sta- 
tion where fire is going to be cleaned do not let it burn 
down to dead fire. Be sure and shut off the injector be- 
fore cleaning and use the blower as light aspossjble. If 
the injector is working at station to fill boiler keep the 
blower on and good fire to hold up the steam pressure. 
He should leave the engine at the terminal with a live 
fire and plenty of water. At the ash pit the blower should 
be used just enough to draw smoke and gas from the 
cab, and as soon as it is knocked out and pan cleaned, 
the dampers closed and engine put in the house, more 
damage can be done by moving engines after the fire is 
out than at any other time ; .but after, all this care has 
been taken, if the boiler maker does not use the proper 
tools in caulking they will soon start leaks that cannot be 
overcome by the watchfulness of others. 

I do not know of anything that will assist the mechan- 
ical department in reducing engine failures of this kind 
more than treated water. Since using it on the Union 
Pacific the failures have almost entirely disappeared. 



Where in March, 1903, there were 23 failures from en- 
gines leaking on a division 173 miles long, in March, 
1904, there was none. This water, with the care given at 
terminals and by crews following out these instructions, 
are responsible for bringing around these results. 

Yours truly, 

W. J. Stuart, 
Traveling Engineer, Union Pacific Ry. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

I have carefully read the editorial referring to the 
method of handling injectors which appeared in the May 
issue of the Railway Master Mechanic and the set of 
rules on page 162. The rules are something new to me ; 
I did not think there was a road in the country that had 
gone into this question so deeply. 

I certainly agree that a very large percentage of the 
engine failures are due to boiler troubles, and anything 
that will have a tendency to reduce them is a good thing. 
There is one part of the editorial that I do not quite 
agree with, that is : "The most practical method of hand- 
ling the injector to advantage is to hold the water level 
while the engine is working and use the injector after 
shutting off steam merely to the extent necessary to 
avoid 'howling' or the disagreeable noise of popping 
while around stations." The best and most economical 
engineers I have ever ridden with play their injectors to 
lose a little while the engine is working and manage to 
reach the water tank, coal chute or station with the blow- 
er on and the injector working; that is, conditions in the 
firebox are practically the same in both cases, heat being 
generated and stored in the boiler by the water level 
being gradually raised. The injector is shut off when 
starting the train and left off until the lever is hooked up 
and normal conditions restored in the firebox, then the 
injector is again worked to lose a little to the next stop- 
ping, place. The man who manages in this way has the 
least trouble with flues leaking. The reckless roar of the 
■blower at the cinder pit will undo in five minutes all 
that a careful crew has done on the entire trip to take 
care of their boiler, firebox' and flues. 

I personally talk to our boys at the cinder pit and have 
them just use the blower strong" enough, when cleaning 
fires, to take the gas and smoke out of the firebox instead 
of allowing it to go into their faces and lungs. 

The care of the boiler is paramount in keeping it in 
good order. Still there are a great many things that 
have an important bearing in this subject that are seldom 
noticed or spoken of. At any rate, they, are not given the 
attention they should receive. I believe if you were to 
give the matter a thorough sifting, aside from bad water, 
you will find that the greatest number of boiler failures 
are where the least attention is paid to stopped flues. 
When flues stop they are lost as to usefulness; heating 
surface is reduced ; engine don't steam ; engineer begins 
to favor the fireman by shutting off the injector; reaches 
the station, tank or top of hill with just barely water 
enough to hold his office; both injectors on; fire crowded 
by the fireman ; there is a struggle between the cold 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



205 



forces and hot forces for supremacy, all at the expense 
of the boiler. How to run and fire a locomotive without 
stopping many flues would be an interesting paper and 
would have a tendency to reduce boiler failures a great 
deal. It is no uncommon thing to get on a locomotive 
that is in heavy and hard service and find from fifty to 
a hundred flues stopped up. Still we wonder why she 
leaks. We have no regular printed rules or instruc- 
tions here. All that are given are along the lines outlined 
in this letter. Yours truly, 

J. W. Hardy, 
Road Foreman of Engines, Colorado Midland Ry. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic: 

I have read your editorial on care of locomotive boilers 
with much interest and offer the following : 

I cannot agree that most damage is done when throt- 
tle is closed, or when drifting or standing on side tracks 
or over clinker pits. True, much damage can be and is 
done under these conditions, but the greater amount of 
damage by far results through using steam when the 
firebox is poorly protected through insufficient fire on the 
grates, or exposed for too long a period of time to the 
inrush of cold air through a wide open door, the latter 
often being resorted to in order to "cool her off" before 
shutting off for a station. 

It is not very often, in practice, that the water level 
will be high enough at the moment that the throttle is 
closed to enable or justify the enginemen in shutting the 
injector off. Nor do I think it is practical or at least 
prudent to do so. In any service — freight or passenger 
— that I am familiar with, the work is so exacting, in 
most instances, that the fire must be kept up to 
the top temperature right up to the shutting off point, 
otherwise fresh coal in large quantities will need to be 
added to the fire between the time the thottle is closed 
and time same is opened again. This, to my mind, will 
do more harm in the matter of reducing firebox tempera- 
ture by absorption of heat from the live fire than would 
be likely to result if fire was kept up hot, the injector left 
working and the blower applied lightly while the engine 
is shut off for a town or drifting. 

Of course, unless the fire is in such shape as will main- 
tain steam pressure without loss, using the v injector 
would be likely to do much harm. We recommend com- 
ing into stations with a hot fire, controlling the pops with 
the injector and shutting the latter off before start is 
again made. 

Evenness of temperature in fireboxes is more easily 
maintained in this way than in any other, I believe. • 

It is safe to say that the bulk of abuses to locomotive 
boilers are due to other causes than that of working in- 
jectors after engine is shut off for; drifting. Taking, 
for example, a case where engine crew would figure to 
have water enough and shut the injector off simultan- 
eously with the throttle, at each stopping or drifting 
point, it would be necessary in order to avoid popping to 
have the fire well burned out approaching the shutting 
off places, and it is almost certain that a larger quantity 



of fresh coal would need to be added before a start could 
be made, the fresh coal absorbing the heat from the fire 
that should be imparted to the firebox sheets, during the 
time that the start is being made. 

Damage is often done after drifting a considerable 
distance and pulling out again without coming to a stop, 
through the fire having been allowed to burn down too 
low. It is certain that pulling out with a fire that is not 
hot enough to take jcare of the cold air that is drawn 
through the grates, or with a fire that is too new, will 
do more damage than any other form of abuse we 
know of. 

The most practical method of handling an injector on 
a passenger engine, to our mind, is to come into stations 
so that the injector can be kept working up to about the 
moment that the start is to be made, as in that way the 
fire can be kept up to the proper temperature in ap- 
proaching stations and the start out from such station 
can be made with a hot fire, which, in my opinion, is the 
most important factor of all. Keeping a uniform steam 
pressure at all times as closely as possible, and not leav- 
ing firebox door open longer than is necessary to put in 
from one to three scoops of coal, are the points that are 
valuable and should be persevered in. 

To accomplish the former the fireman must keep his 
fire up to a high temperature all the time in order that 
the heat absorbed in disintegrating the fresh coal will 
not seriously curta-il that which should be absorbed by 
the firebox sheets. 

To accomplish the latter the fireman should not put in 
more than one to three scoopsful of coal at a fire, thus 
shortening the period of open door and avoiding too 
much heat absorption by the fresh coal as above. 

The most potent factors in boiler and firebox abuses, I 
believe, are, first, too light a fire pulling out of stations ; 
second, allowing fire to burn too low and then adding 
large quantities of fresh coal while start is being mad?. 
In either case the results are about the same ; in i\v<; 
former the fire is too thin to heat up the cold air that is 
drawn through the grates, and in the latter the little fire 
that is on the grates will not give off much more heat 
than is necessary to raise the fresh coal to the igniting 
point, and in both cases the air that is drawn into the 
firebox will be cold, so to speak, and the box, especially 
the tubes, will suffer from contraction. 

Yours truly, 

D. R. MacBain, 
Division Master Mechanic, Michigan Central R. R. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

I heartily agree with your deductions as brought out 
in your editorial in the May issue of the Master Me- 
chanic relative to the care of boilers, both on the road 
and in the shop. 

I agree with you that more care in pumping an engine 
while in the hands of the engineer will, in a large meas- 
ure, overcome many of the road failures due to leaky 
flues, etc., especially in the bad water districts. Some 
objections might he urged in thai it is not always prac- 



2o6 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



tical to follow out this method while on the road, yet if 
it is not entirely practical, an effort should be made to 
follow this practice as far as possible, and the engineer 
will soon realize that it is not as difficult as he .first 
imagined. 

Referring to your article on the "Care of Locomotive 
Boilers," page 162 of the same issue, -I will state that, 
while our rules are not exactly similar, they cover prac- 



tically the same ground, and we have found that we can 
very materially add to the life of the flues and firebox 
by giving them the attention as -outlined in these instruc- 
tions, and especially in the instructions to the boiler 
washers relative to cooling an engine preparatory to 
washing same. Yours truly, 

F. P. Roesch, 
Master Mechanic, Chicago & Alton Ry. 



Mallet Articulated Compound Locomotive for the B. & O. R. R. 



THE Schenectady Works of the American Locomo- 
tive Company has recently built a large Mallet 
articulated compound locomotive for the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad, which is the largest engine ever con- 
structed. Its total weight is carried on drivers and is 
therefore entirely available in providing for tractive 
effort. Bituminous coal is the fuel, used and the engine 
operates under 235 lbs. of steam. The arrangement of 
cylinders, wheels, valve motions, etc., is such as prac- 
tically to constitute two .engines supplied with steam 
from the same boiler. The high pressure cylinders are 
located about centrally between the two ends of the 
boiler and the low pressure cylinders are situated forward 



secured between the upper and lower bars of the rear 
frames. The forward portion of the boiler is carried by 
castings, including bearing surfaces which are free to 
slide within limits, thus giving the forward frames and 
drivers the freedom of a radial truck. Above the guide 
yoke a spring attachment is arranged on each side of the 
boiler to bring it central when the locomotive has re- 
- sumed the tangent after passing a curve. 

The high pressure cylinders are 20 ins. in diameter by 
32-in. stroke, having piston valves, and the low pressure 
cylinders are 32 ins. in diameter by the same stroke, using 
the ordinary type of balanced slide valve. Steam distri- 
bution is accomplished by Waelschaert valve gear. The 




Mallet Articulated Compound Locomotive- 
B. & O. R. R. 



of the smoke arch. The driving wheels operated by the 
high pressure cylinders are independent of the forward 
drivers, or those operated by the low pressure cylinders, 
and carry separate and independent frames. The boiler is 
attached to the rear frames in the usual manner witha sad- 
dle casting and expansion pads. The attachment of tke 
boiler to the forward frames is such as to permit the three 
forward pairs of drivers considerable lateral motion to 
enable the locomotive to take any curve which it may 
encounter, so that the 10-ft. wheel base of the rear drivers 
practically constitutes the rigid wheel base of the loco- 
motive. The rear ends of both the upper and lower 
bars of the forward frames are joined by pieces which 
form a swivel joint about pins carried by two castings 



motion work operating both the high and low pressure 
cylinders are controlled by the same reverse lever so that 
while both valve motions are independent of each other; 
they operate in concert. 

Steam is delivered to the high pressure cylinders from 
a steam dome located immediately above them by care- 
fully lagged pipes which pass down on each side of the 
boiler. Exhaust steam from each high pressure cylinder 
passes to a large pipe carried beneath the boiler and 
located a little below the top line of the frames, which acts 
as a receiver and delivers steam to the low pressure cylin- 
der. To provide for the lateral motion of the fore part 
of the locomotive,, this pipe is supplied with flexible 
joints. From the low pressure cylinders exhaust steam is 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



207 




RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



carried to the smoke arch through a horizontal pipe 
located above the top line of frames, made necessary by 
the extreme forward position of the low pressure cylin- 
ders. This pipe is provided with elbows and flexible 
joints. 

The boiler is of the straight top, radial stay type, 84 
ins. in diameter at front. There are 436 tubes, 2]/^ ins. in 
diameter and 21 ft. long, giving a tube heating surface 
5366.3 sq. ft. The heating surface in the firebox is 219.4 
sq. ft., making a total heating surface 5585.7 sq. ft. The 
grate surface is 72.2 sq. ft. Coal is fired through two 
openings which are closed by sliding doors operated by 
levers. Both check valves are placed on the back head of 
the boiler and feed water is delivered through pipes in- 
side of the boilers to the forward end. The reverse lever 
is operated by a steam reversing mechanism. 

Determining the tractive effort by the usual formula 
for tandem compounds, this locomotive is capable of a 
tractive power of 70,000 lbs. ; the ratio of tractive effort 
to total heating surface is 12.5; the ratio of total heating 
surface to firebox heating surface is 25.4 ; the ratio of 
total heating surface to grate area is 77.3, and the ratio 
of firebox heating surface to grate area is 3.03. The 
several weights have not yet been determined. 

While the origin of this type of locomotive is foreign, 
. it is used but little abroad and the present engine is the 
first of its kind to be built in America. 

The following table contains the principal dimensions 
of interest : 

General Dimensions. 

Gauge 4 ft.- 8% ins. 

Fuel Bituminous coal. 

Wheel base, driving 10 ft. and 10 ft. 

Wheel base, rigid : 10 ft. 

Wheel base, total 30 ft. 8 ins. 

Wheel base, total, engine and tender 64 ft. 7 ins. 

Cylinders. 

Diameter of cylinders - 20 and 32 ins. 

Stroke of piston 32 ins. 

Horizontal thickness of piston 5% ins. and 5% ins. 

Diam. of piston rod • 33^ ins. 

Kind of piston packing 3% in. square packing rings. 

Kind of piston rod packing 

U. S. metallic; With Gibbs' vibrating cup. 

Size of steam ports L. P. 20x2% ins. 

Size of exhaust ports .L. P. 20x3 ins. 

Size of bridges., L. P. 1% ins. 

Valves. 

Kind of slide valves H. P. Piston, L. P. Allen Richardson 

Greatest travel of slide valves 6 ins. 

Outside lap of slide valves H. P. 1% ins., L. P. 1 in. 

Inside clearance of slide valves % in. 



Lead of valves in full gear 

%-in. lead F. & B., both engines constant. 

Kind of valve stem packing TJ.- S. metallic. 

Wheels, Etc. 

No. of driving wheels 12 

Diam. of driving wheels outside of tire 56 ins. 

Material of driving wheel, centers Cast steel. 

Thickness of tire 3 ins. 

Tire held by Shrinkage. 

Driving box material Best cast iron. 

Diam. and length of driving journals 9x13 ins. 

Diam. and length of' main crank pin journals ( main side 

7MX5 ins) 6%x7 ins. 

Diam. and length of side rod crank pin journals (inter 

5x4% ins ) F 5x3% ins. 

Section of rods, main I Side, rectangular. 

Boiler. 

Style Straight top, radial stay. 

Outside diam. of first ring 84 ins. 

Working pressure 235 lbs. 

Material of barrel and outside of firebox Worth steel 

Thickness of plates in barrel and outside of firebox 

1 in., % in. and % in. 

Horizontal seams Butt joint sextuple riveted. 

Circumferential seams -.Double riveted. 

Firebox, length 108% ins. 

Firebox, width 96% ins. 

Firebpx, depth, front 80% ins. back, 72 ins. 

Firebox, material .Worth steel. 

Firebox plates, thickness 

. Sides, % in.; back, % in.; crown, 7-16 in.; tube sheet, % in. 

Firebox, water space. .. .6 ins. front; 5 ins. sides; 6 ins. back. 

Firebox, crown staying Radial. 

Firebox, stay bolts . 

Wrought iron to B. & O. spec'n, 1 in. diam. W. S. 

Tubes, material and gauge 

National charcoal iron No. 11 B. W. G. 

Tubes, number 436 

Tubes, diam 2% ins. 

Tubes, length over tube sheets 21 ft. 

Heating surface, tubes 5366.3 sq. ft. 

Heating surface, firebox 219.4. sq ft. 

Heating surface, total - 5585.7 sq. ft. 

Grate surface 72.2 sq. ft. 

Grate, style Rocking. 

Ash pan, style... Hopper. 

Exhaust pipes Single. 

Exhaust nozzles . 5^-in. diam. 

Smoke stack, inside diam 20 ins. 

Smoke stack, top above rail 15 ft. 

Boiler supplied by 

. .... .2 inspirators, Hancock, type F, 5000 gals, capacity. 

Tender. 

Style Water bottom, hopper type. 

Wheels, number 8 

Wheels, diam. . 33 ins. 

Journals, diam. and length 5%xl0 ins. 

Wheel base '. 20 ft. 2 ins. 

Tender frame Steel channels. 

Tender trucks 4 whl. cen. bear- 
ing with wrought iron side bars and cast steel bolsters. 

Water capacity 7000 U. S. gals. 

Coal capacity 13 tons. 

Brake '. .Westinghouse, American, 

combined on all drivers and tender, operated by air. 
Two 9V L rin. left hand air pumps. 
Two main reservoirs, 18 1 /l.xl40 ins. 



Valve Lubrication 



REPORTS of fancy records with valve oil impelled 
an expression which was published in the May 
issue of the Railway Master Mechanic, with regard to 
the effect produced by excessive wear as a consequence 
of seeming oil economy. The writer of this article ex- 
pressed a readiness to compare repair accounts, main- 
taining the position that a good oil record at the expense 
of fuel and repair work represents a loss. 

Referring to this subject we have received the follow- 
ing communications : 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

Replying to the statement of Mr. E. N. Wiest, M. M. 
of the M. & N. E. Ry., regarding the use of valve oil, 
w r ill say that I have no figures that I can compare with 
Mr. Wiest as all our engines are switching and transfer. 
It has been the practice of all the master mechanics for 
the past twenty-five years to hold the engineers account- 
able for the use of more than one pint valve oil for one 
hundred or two hundred mile runs. They seem to lose 
sight of the loss of coal, etc., and hold nothing else in 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



aog 



account but valve oil. I am surprised at the number of 
miles they make without ruining the cylinders, and no 
doubt they would be ruined if it was not that the steam 
is somewhat of a lubricant in itself. If you take into ac- 
count the number of square feet, etc., in an engine to be 
lubricated in one day, it is very hard tu see how it can 
be done. The cylinders of an engine 31 x 20 ins., piston 
20 x 6 ins., valve, seat, and packing on valve, makes for 
one cylinder 2,704 sq. ins., and the two 5,408 sq. ins., and 
for one revolution 10,816 sq. ins., or 75 sq. ft. to be lubri- 
cated. A 5 1 -in. driving wheel makes 390 revolutions in 
a mile and therefore 29,250 sq. ft. to be lubricated. Then 
take it for 40 miles it would be 1,170,000 sq. ft., equal to 
26 acres of surface to be lubricated. This is figuring 6,500 
drops of oil to the pint. One hundred miles would make 
2,925,000 sq. ft. of surface, equal to 67 acres, and with 
600 miles to the pint, makes 17,500,000 sq. ft, equal to 
403 acres of surface. I give these figures in acres just 
to show the amount of wearing surface, which does not 
include the piston rod and the surface of the cylinder 
heads which, of course, would collect some oil and some 
possibily might be lost out of the stack in stopping and 
then starting. 

I have never seen a road on which they stinted the en- 
gineers on oil, that there was not more or less blows in 
the valves which, of course, would cause the loss of a 
considerable amount of steam and it takes coal and water 
to make it. For instance coal at $2.00 per ton, makes 
10 lbs. for a cent, and a shovel of coal about 24 lbs., 2^2 
cents value. It is not an unfrequent occurrence to see 
a fireman throw in 8 or 12 shovels of coal when stopped 
waiting for a signal, etc., value of which is from 20 to 30 
cents, more than the value of the oil an engine will use 
in a whole day. I think if we paid a little more atten- 
tion to the keeping of our valves and pistons in good 
shape, and allow a little more oil, we would save money 
at the end of the year. I have never yet stinted the en- 
gineers on valve oil and we have faced but very few, 
seats and have no engines blowing. I have spent days rid- 
ing in the cab with engineers and seen the engines ope- 
rated where the engineers complained about not having 
enough valve oil, and when I found they were not getting 
enough more was allowed them. We are sat- 
isfied with 40 or 50 miles for one pint valve oil, and 
we are not troubled with the valves blowing, and have 
no waste of steam or fuel, from valves or pistons blowing. 

Yours truly, 
1 'etcr H. Peck, Master Mechanic, 
Chicago & Western Indiana R. R. 



Editor^ Railway Master Mechanic: 

"Are not valves, false seats and cylinder bushings 
cheaper than valve oil ?" 

This text is taken from an article in the May issue of 
the Railwa) Master Mechanic, by Mr. E, N. Weist 
M. M., entitled "Valve Publication." 



There is no doubt that the saving of oil in recem 
years has been carried to the extreme and : as a naturau 
consequence valves and cylinders have suffered. An en- 
gine that makes 600 miles to a pint of oil has not, in m* . 
opinion, been treated right and the foundation has been 
laid for a disease that will gradually and surely effect 
all of its vital parts, growing worse day by day, and the 
man who handles the lever regularly and feels its pulse 
can detect this — to his sorrow. It consumes more fuel 
and water each trip and is worked harder until finally 
laid up for extensive repairs to eccentrics, links, valves, 
cylinders, etc., whereas if 18 cents worth of oil had been 
used instead of 6 cents worth, per 600 miles it might 
have made three times the mileage and been a more sat- 
isfactory machine while in service. It is customary in 
some instances to make monthly statements showing oil 
used on different divisions. The man using least is con- 
sidered economical and the one using the greatest quantity 
extravagant, while it may be the one using the greatest 
quantity is the most economical. I cannot give 'any 
figures that would be interesting, for the engines now in 
service have not been in use long enough to make com- 
parisons. I have, however, a 16 x 24 in. 8 wheel Bald- 
win, 56 in wheel centers and 140 lbs. steam pressure, 
Richardson balanced valves, in daily service which has 
run for 21 months, one month of which it only made 63 
miles. Its record shows 78,193 miles on 637 pints cylin- 
der oil in 21 months, averaging 123 mile.s per pint. Its 
seats and valves are in perfect condition and may not, 
from present appearance, need facing for at least 18 
to 24 months. This engine has a g l / 2 in. air pump lubri- 
cated at both ends with the same oil. I might add that 
a little of this oil was used on main pins. 

J. S. Booth, M. M., 
Car. & N. W.-Ry., Chester, S. C. 



(From a Master Mechanic.) 
Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

The quality of material being lubricated has so much 
to do with the wear to the lubricating parts that any 
statement of wear and pints of oil per 1,000 miles, would 
be of little value, unless there was a complete information 
of the quality of the cast iron. 

Our oil records are watched closely, not so much with 
the view of making excessive mileage per pints of oil, 
but to keep tab on possible waste. My instructions to 
enginemen are to run the engine cool and do it with as 
little oil as possible, but run them cool, remembering 
that if three drops fill an oil hole, four or rive drops is 
a waste, that gallons of oil on the machinery and ground 
will not prevent hot boxes. 

So tar as the valve and cylinder lubricants are con- 
cerned, we always find thai they have been lubricated, 
and some are badly worn and others show little wear. 
This is purely a question of material and statistics of 
miles run to pint of oil would throw no light on the 
matter whatever. 



210 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

Vanderbilt ioo,ooo-lb. Capacity Steel Flat Car 



June, 1904. 



THE accompanying engravings illustrate the design 
of a 1 oo,ooo-l bs. capacity flat car recently built 
by the South Bethlehem Steel Car & Foundry Co. for the 
Lackawanna Steel Company. The design and construc- 
tion was supervised by Mr. L. A. Shepard and the car is 
patented by Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt. The entire frame 



disposed as needle beams which are firmly secured to 
both by heavy angle plates thus strengthening the car 
laterally. Cross braces of angle iron are disposed at in- 
tervals between the center and side sills and these con- 
stitute floor beams to which the nailing strips are secured. 
The. sills are supported at each truck by a bolster of 'cast 



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Vanderbilt ioo,ooo-lbs. 
is of structural steel and the flooring is of wood. The 
most interesting feature of this construction is the de- 
sign of sills. The use of an unusually light sill is made 
.possible by a form of truss of structural steel instead of 
using the usual truss rod, thus producing a sill which 
is much lighter than an entire channel section or the 
deep fish belly. The center sill is a 10 inch channel 
weighing 20 lbs. per foot, 35 ft. $% ins. long, trussed 
by a 10 in. channel weighing 20 lbs. per foot bent as 
shown in the elevation of the car and riveted at 
the ends with the web of the truss against the 
web of the sill and the lower flanges flush. The 
side sill is a similar construction composed of a 10 
in. channel weighing 15 lbs. per foot and trussed by a 6 
in. channel weighing 13 lbs. .per foot. On account of 
the absence of metal along the neutral axis the construc- 
tion' of each sill is unusually light and the sill proper con- 
stitutes a compression member while the truss constitutes 
the tension member of the entire structure. Between 
the upper and lower members, two 8 in. channels are 

,-j^-. ... $\ r __ TT ~ - , n 



Capacity Steel Flat Car. 

steel arranged in three sections between the sills, as in- 
dicated by the sectional view of the car showing the bol- 




Crd view at broke n-fee? aid of Car. 




Vanderbilt 100 ,000- lbs. Capacity Steel Flat Car- 
Sectional Views. 

n 10" c is*? ni }3 „ £JL 




Vanderbilt 100,000 lbs. Capacity Steel Flat Car— Plan and Side Elevation. 



June. 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



211 



ster. The structure at this point is strengthened by a 
steel plate 12 by ^4 bis. secured with JA in. rivets to the 
upper flanges of the sills and bolster castings. Each end 
sill is a yi in. steel plate bent to L shape, cut away at 
the center to accommodate the coupler and stiffened by 
angle irons rivetted at the bottom. The car is 35 ft. 6 
ins. long over end sills, 9 ft. 2^ ins. wide over side sills, 
24 ft. between truck centers, with a light weight of 28,650 



lbs. The height from top of rail to top of floor is 3 
ft. 8 ins., and height to top of brake shaft 6 ft. 6 ins. 
The capacity of the car is 100,000 lbs. between bolsters 
or capable of a concentrated load of 55,000 lbs. between 
the needle beams. They are equipped with Tower coup- 
lers having M. C. B. 5 inch by 7 inch shank. Xew York 
air brakes, Sessions standard friction draft gear, Vander- 
bilt brake beam and Atha cast steel bolsters. 



Some Suggestions Regarding Methods of Educating Shop 

Apprentices 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

Several years ago the writer inserted a short article 
in the Railway Master Mechanic advocating a certain 
amount of technical education for shop apprentices, and 
pointed out a few problems that would have to be solved 
before a system that would be beneficial both to employer 
and apprentice could be decided upon, and that the 
greatest obstacle to be overcome was the person who 
teaches them. The purely technical man is hampered by 
his technicalities, and the practical man by his numerous 
rules of thumb. The personnel of the apprentices, their 
fitness for their calling, and their adaptability to assimi- 
late education of a technical character, should be consid- 
ered, their classification by trades into different classes, 
the amount of education they have, the interest they take 
in their studies, and the trades they are to follow. 

The system inaugurated by the L. S. & M. S. at 
Elkhart has several features that are to be commended, 
especially the lectures at one class, and their discussion 
at the following one. But I think two features will stand 
some criticism, and that is all branches of trade into 
one class ; and instead of having the management sup- 
porting it, the boys should have an incentive to study by 
supporting it themselves ; they could pay into a general 
fund a nominal sum monthly to provide text books and 
instruments, and make their advancement in the shop 
keep pace with their advancement in their studies, the 
classes to be divided into two distinct classes, one in one 
class who are learning boilermaking, tin smithing and 
sheet metal work, their studies to consist of practical 
geometry, development of patterns and arithmetic, in- 
cluding all branches up to square root. Those who are 
learning the machinist and pattern making trades to be 
taught mechanical drafting, elementary machine design 
and mathematics, including the branches taught the metal 
trades, cube root and the reading of formulas. Although 
I am sure that the outlined plan is open to criticism and 
that certain modifications will render it more perfect, I 
will submit it as a ground work of something more effi- 
cient. 

Of late years the correspondence method of teaching 
has accomplished a large measure of good, but I find 
from my observation a singular fact, and that is those 
who are deriving the most benefits are the ones with 
settled habits; men who arc out of their apprenticeship, 
who realize education is the only road to advancement, 
men who are married and are looking ahead to a future, 
and what good shop apprentices are deriving from it is 



almost nil. Of course my observations have been some- 
what limited, but what is a fact in a small circle may 
apply to one of a larger radius. 

Yours truly, 

W. H. Graves, 
General Foreman, C, R. I. & P. Rv. 



Editor, Railway Master Mechanic : 

There is a rule upon our road that the employees' sons 
are given the first chance for apprenticeship. They are 
required to stand a written examination consisting of ex- 
amples in arithmetic, writing and spelling. We have no 
night school, but some of them have taken up the corres- 
pondence system, with success, while ethers have made 
very little progress which is due to their own fault. 

I feel that the apprentice question is one of the most 
important questions to be dealt with, both for the good 
of the employer, the maintaining of the standard of pro- 
ficiency of the trade in which the apprentice has started, 
and to the apprentice himself. 

W "hen a boy enters the shop the company knows that 
it will be some time before he can earn his wages, but 
the} - are in hopes to be able to make a good man out of 
him. 

The question where to start a boy and have him the 
most useful and where he can learn the most in a given 
time should be studied with the utmost care. 

You may put the best of tools in a shop and place the 
boy on one of them, give him a certain piece of work to 
do ; if he does not have an idea where that piece goes on 
an engine, how it should be fitted, or had no instructions 
in the reading of drawings, he will make very little 
headway if left by himself and with all the duties that 
are now required of a foreman, there is very little of bis 
time left to instruct the apprentice. If we had a teacher 
in our public school who would advocate the putting of 
a boy in algebra before he had had addition of numbers, 
we would think he was departing from all good sound 
reason. Is it not the same with putting a boy upon a 
machine first? Should not that boy be placed where he 
can learn every pari of an engine? Their names, loca- 
tion, and bow each should be fitted? How will he learn 
this the most quickly? By being thrown in with them 
and seeing them in their worn-out condition, and then 
next seeing a new one inserted in its place. 

If a boy spends, say. two 'cars on the pits, if he has 
applied himself as he shoe' 2 will know pretty nearly 



212 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



where every part of an engine goes. If he does not in 
that time, he had better learn the baker trade. Should 
he show some mechanical ability then put him on the 
machine side of the shop. Should a drill press fall to 
his lot first, he will know the importance of having a 
hole drilled where it is laid out and not a 1- 16-inch out 
of the way. Should a bolt cutter come next' he will know 
whether the bolt should be cut a loose or tight fit for the 
nuts. 

If he is given a frame bolt to make next he will know 
where to find the hole to fit that bolt to and how it 
should be fitted. 

As he passes along down from one machine to another 
for the next two years he will at the end of his appren- 
ticeship be able to do any of the ordinary jobs on the 
engine, and his employer will find that he is of .some use 
to him, and not merely a machine capable of doing but 
one thing. 

During the apprentice time the boy should be taught 
to say I can. 'Be made to see that there is always room 
at the top of the ladder. That there is always a place 
waiting to be filled by men of experience and new ideas. 
That he, can not reach them by sitting down and saying 
"I can't. I have no one to push me along," but he must 
be shown that he must improve every spare moment. 
If he has not the advantage of a night school take up 
one of the many correspondence schools that may be had. 



Let him know that he is being watched and if he 
spends his time hanging around street corners, pool 
rooms or dance halls, try to show him the folly of such 
thing. 

If it is possible to organize a class as a great many of 
our shops are doing, make it an evening that they will 
look forward to. Have them make the evening profit- 
able by having questions to ask, don't always try to 
answer them that evening, put over, have them study 
on them and come prepared at the next meeting to 
answer them ; by so doing they will remember them a 
great deal longer. It is knowledge gained by actual 
work which can never be lost. Show him, though he 
may be black and greasy for ten hours a day, that it is 
an honest and noble calling, and it is better to be the son 
of toil than a nabob waiting for dead men's shoes. Teach 
him economy, not to spend all of his wages, and that by 
saving a small portion each month, at the end of his 
time he may be able to take a course in some well estab- 
lished mechanical school; thus- combining the practical 
and technical work and making a man that in after years 
his first employers can point to with pride. 
Yours truly, 

H. A. Beech, 

Foreman Locomotive Department, Ann Arbor R. R. 
Owasso, Mich. 



Locomotive Testing Plant at The Louisiana Purchase Exposition 



THE first locomotive to be tested on the plant 
established at the Louisiana Purchase Expo- 
sition as a part of the exhibit of the Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad was placed on the plant early 
in May and was run daily for the purpose 
of breaking in the apparatus. The plant was 
placed in regular service on May 10th and 
has since been running smoothly. The princi- 
pal features of the plant have been described in 
Bulletin No. 2, issued by the Pennsylvania. From this 




bulletin we take the following, together with the illus- 
trations of the plant : 

The Pennsylvania Railroad System has been assigned 
a space in the Transportation building of the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition, three hundred feet in length and 
ninety feet- in width, a portion of which will be devoted 
to the locomotive testing plant. Located in the second 
bay from the south side of the building and facing one 
of the wide entrance of its western exposure, this space is 
easily accessible for the locomotives which will be tested. 

The general arrangement of the plant is shown on 



^;^^^^^<;^^;^^;^^ , ^^"^^^^^^l^^ 



i^^w^H^;^c-^<^ 




Locomotive Testing Plant at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition — Side View 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



213 



three plates forming a part of the bulletin, in end eleva- 
tion, side elevation and in plan. The letters designating 
the essential parts are the same on each plate. 

The locomotive under test is carried on supporting 
wheels whose axles are extended to receive absorption 
brakes. The turning of the driving wheels causes the 
supporting wheels to revolve, but these are retarded by 
the brakes to any extent desired. 

The work actually done by the locomotive consists in 
overcoming the frictional resistance of the supporting, 
wheels and brakes, the resulting force exerted at the 
drawbar being measured by a traction dynamometer. 

The upper faces of the supporting wheels "J" are at 
the level of the tracks and of the floor of the building, 
with a pit of sufficient depth for these wheels and their 
supports. 

The base of the plant consists of two longitudinal 
bed plates, "A," of cast iron, secured to concrete founda- 
tions of ample depth for the weight to be carried, and to 
resist the shocks transmitted from the locomotive driving 
wheels when revolving at high velocities. The bed plates 
are provided with T slots running longitudinally, and by 
means of suitable bolts the pedestals, "B," are secured 
to them, thus permitting adjustment lengthwise, in order 
that the supporting wheels may be located to correspond 
with the spacing of the driving wheels of the locomotive 
to be tested. 

There will be two sets of supporting wheels, one con- 
sisting of three pairs, 72 inches in diameter, for use 
under passenger types of locomotives having large driv- 
ing wheels, and one set of five pairs, 50 inches in diameter, 
to be used under locomotives with smaller wheels and 
designed for freight service. The pedestals will be of two 
heights ; the lower ' ones for the supporting wheels of 
larger diameter, the higher ones for the smaller sup- 
porting wheels. 

The journal boxes carried in the pedestals are self- 
adjusting so as to secure uniform support for the jour- 
nals. The lower half of the box contains a bronze bear- 
ing of suitable composition, while the upper half, which 
acts only as a cap and carries no weight, is made of cast 
iron. The bearing surface is ample for the weight to be 
carried, but in order to provide against any possibility 
of heating, the journal boxes are cored out and arranged 
for cooling by water circulation. The lubrication is 
accomplished by two chains over each journal dipping 
into a bath of oil. 

( )n the ends of each supporting shaft are the absorp- 
tion brakes "('," which form the resistance which the 
locomotive must overcome, in order to exert its tractive 
effort at the drawbar. They are designed on a plan which 
enables them to work with perfect smoothness, to be 
used with ease and convenience and to have a large 
capacity. This type of brake was first used' as a dyna- 
mometer at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, and is 
the invention of Mr. ('.. T. Aldcn, M. M. E., formerly a 
member of the institute faculty. 

The brake in its simplest form consists of: 

1st. A smooth, circular, revolvable cast iron disk, with 



radial grooves, keyed to the shaft which transmits the 
power to be absorbed. 

2d. A non-revolvable housing having its bearings upon 
the hub of the revolvable disk. 

3d. A pair of thin copper plates fastened to the hous- 
ing, one face to each copper plate being close and paral- 
lel to the sides of the revolvable disk, the other face of 
each plate having back of it a chamber in the housing. 

4th. A system of piping and connections by means of 
which water under pressure can be circulated through the 
chambers between the copper plates and the housing. 

5th. A system of piping and connections by means 
of which oil is circulated in such manner as to insure 
perfect lubrication of the copper plates which are next to 
the revolvable cast iron disk. 

To insure sufficient capacity, each brake is provided 
with two disks revolving- inside of each housing- with an 




Locomotive Testing Plant at the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition — End View. 
arrangement of copper plates and water chambers, to 
allow pressure to be exerted on both sides of each disk. 

Oil for lubrication between the revolving surfaces 
enters near the hub of the disks and is carried by cen- 
trifugal force along the radial grooves in their sides and 
out to their peripheries, completing the circuit through 
external tubes. 

The housings of the brakes are secured against turn- 
ing by rods attached to brackets "K," which in turn are 
held to the sides of the bed plates by bolts in T slots. 

The seats on the supporting shafts for the hubs of the 
brake disks arc tapered, as shown at "D," keys being 
placed in the shaft and hub to prevent turning. Nuts on 
the smaller end hold the hubs in position. Eight absorp- 
tion brakes are provided, and may he used either on the 
shafts having the 72-inch supporting wheels, or on the 
shafts with the 50-inch supporting wheels, means for 
removing the brakes readily being provided by the taper 
fit, already mentioned, and a nut at the large end of the 
taper, so that the hub of the brake can be backed off 
without difficulty or delay. 



214 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



When the brakes are in use, water under pressure flows 
through the chambers in the housings pressing the copper 
plates against the sides of the revolving disks and causing 
resistance to their rotation. The pressure of the water 
is regulated by valves controlling both the inlet and 
outlet independently. The water thus performs the double 
function of supplying by its pressure, the required fric- 
tion, and by its rate of flow means of carrying off the heat 
generated. 

The pipes leading to and discharging from the brakes 
are brought together at one point where all the valves will 
be located, so that the pressure and rate of flow, can be 
readily adjusted to the work being done. 

To keep the speed of the locomotive constant, would 
ordinarily require hand manipulation of the valves con- 
trolling- the ingoing- and outflowing water, but in order to 



made in sections, so that it can be removed as occasion 
may require. The central portion of the pit, however, 
will be entirely open with the exception of sufficient plat- 
form to enable those taking part in the tests to secure 
indicator cards, make observations of temperatures and 
obtain other information of this character. 

A traveling electric crane "E" of 10 tons capacity, and 
having a span of 43 feet between centers or runways 
"F," serves the entire space occupied by the testing plant, 
also sufficient space beyond the pilot of the longest loco- 
motive to be tested, to reach the cars loaded with supplies 
for the plant. The crane will be used for handling the 
supporting wheels, axles, brakes, pedestals and other 
parts, when necessary to change their setting and, further, 
for handling all of the coal used during the tests. 

The water required for locomotives under test will be 




Locomotive Testing Plant at the Louisiana 

secure as nearly as possible constant speed, there is a by- 
pass around the main valve controlling the supply of 
water for all the brakes, and in this by-pass is an auto- 
matic valve controlled by the speed of the locomotive. 
If the speed increases beyond the desired number of revo- 
lutions per minute, the by-pass valve opens, so as to 
increase the pressure on the brakes, and if, on the other 
hand, the speed of the locomotive falls below that desired, 
the automatic valve closes, and decreases the pressure on 
the brakes. 

The supporting wheels resemble in form, the usual 
locomotive driving wheels, having cast steel centers with 
tires shrunk on, and held in addition by retaining rings. 

The contour of the tire is approximately that of the 
head of a rail, but provided with means of keeping away 
from its bearing surface the oil. which will necessarily 
drip from the locomotive while running. 

The pit containing the parts already mentioned is ex- 
tended sufficiently to provide room for the storage of the 
supporting wheels, axles, brakes and pedestals which are 
not in use, and provides storage for such other supplies 
and appliances as will be necessary for the operation of 
the plant. The floor covering this portion of the pit, is 



Purchase Exposition — Plan. S 

weighed in two tanks, filled alternately, and run from 
these into a third tank, from which it will be taken by 
piping to the connections for the injectors. As a check 
on the weights thus obtained, the whole supply used will 
be metered and readings taken at such intervals as will 
enable the amount shown by weighing to be compared. 

The traction dynamometer "G" which measures the 
drawbar pull of the locomotive is of the lever type and 
is constructed on the "Emery" principle, in which flex- 
ible steel plates take the place of knife edges used in 
ordinary scales. The weight of each lever is taken by a 
vertical plate in a plane intersecting that of the receiving 
fulcrum plates at their center of rotation, thus relieving 
these plates of all transverse load. The yoke embracing 
the dynamometer and to which the drawbar is attached is 
also mounted on flexible plates and braced by long and 
flexible rods, to insure frictionless motion in the hori- 
zontal plane only. 

The total motion of this yoke and drawbar, due to the 
leverage of the machine and to stress of parts when under 
full load, does not exceed four one-hundredths of an inch, 
so that a locomotive exerting a drawbar pull equal to the 
full capacity of the dynamometer, will not move forward 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



215 



on the supporting wheels more than the amount specified. 
The drawbar is provided with a ball joint, to allow for 
any side motion of the locomotive, or motion of the loco- 
motive on its springs. 

Near the base of the dynamometer, the oscillating mo- 
tion of the ends of the last levers is transformed into a 
rotary motion by means of steel belts wrapped around a 
drum and kept in constant tension by suitable clamping 
devices. The belt drum is mounted on a tube guided in 
ball bearings, and inside of it is a rod, the upper part of 
which is securely fastened to the tube, the lower end 
being firmly attached to the frame of the machine. It will 
thus be seen that when the belt drum is rotated, the 
rod inside of the tube is in torsion, and this resistance 
forms part of the total resistance of the machine, and 
is constant for the same travel of the recording pen. 

To the upper end of the tube already mentioned are 
secured two radial arms, the extreme ends" of which are 
finished to a circle having its center at the center of the 
tube. The angular motion at the end of one arm imparts 
straight line motion to a carriage, guided by a grooved 
track and carrying the recording pen. The opposite arm 
is coupled by steel belts to a rotary oil dash pot, to reduce 
violent oscillations of the. recording pen, the extent of 
which can be controlled as desired. The principal resist- 
ances in the dynamometer are flat springs, placed under 
the second levers and deflected by the motion of these 
levers. There are three sets of these springs, varying in 
resistance so that a travel of eight inches of the recording 
pen, corresponds to a drawbar pull of either 80,000 
pounds, 40,000 pounds or 16,000 pounds, as may be de- 
sired. The drawbar pull is traced upon a strip of paper 18 
inches wides, made to travel at a known rate of each mile 
run by the locomotive, and this will form the permanent 
record of the drawbar pull in each test. 

The yoke and drawbar of the dynamometer can be 
adjusted vertically through a range of 12 inches by means 
of a wheel "H," in order that the different heights of 
locomotive drawbars can be accommodated. 

The smoke from the locomotive will be carried out of 
the building by a stack, which can be moved longitud- 
inally of the plant to any position required, and the lower 
portion of which will be made telescopic, so that it can be 
raised and lowered for adjustment, and permit' the 
passage of the electric crane, when necessary. The stack 
has deflectors, so that the sparks discharged by the loco- 
motives can be caught, weighed and form a part of the 
data obtained. 



The instruments necessary to get full information for 
the tests will consist, in addition to the dynamometer, of 
steam engine indicators, gauges for steam pressures, draft 
gages for smoke box, fire box and ash pan, thermometers 
for temperatures in the smoke box, calorimeters for get- 
ting the quality of the steam, a revolution counter and a 
tachometer for showing the speed in revolutions per 
minute. 

Means for bringing the locomotive safely to its posi- 
tion on the plant form a most important part of the in- 
stallation. The supporting wheels have been placed in 
position corresponding to the spacing of the drivers, I 
beams resting on the supporting shafts, and extending 
the full length of the pit, will be bolted securely to the 
inside faces of the supporting wheels. Supports at the 
ends of the pit and at as many intermediate points as may 
be necessary will be provided. On the upper flange of 
I he I beams is riveted a grooved rail, so located that the 
flanges of the driving wheels will run in this groove ; in 
Other words, the locomotive will be moved to its position 
on the plant by being run on the flanges of its driving 
wheels, leaving the treads free to come into position 
upon upon the supporting wheels. When in place, the 
special rails and I beams will be disconnected, from the 
supporting wheels and removed, so as not to interfere 
with the operation of the plant. Provision will also be 
made for taking care of the driving wheels without 
flanges, which wi-11 be run over the same grooved rails, 
the grooves being filled by a suitable section of rolled 
steel. 

A director of tests will be in direct charge of the plant, 
and of all the tests made. Under him, will be an as- 
sistant, and a foreman, who will give his attention to 
the machinery, care of the intruments and other necessary 
work of this character. There will be a large staff of 
observers for the coal and water used, for taking indicator 
cards, temperatures and readings from all the instru- 
ments forming the equipment of the plant. 

In order that all of the data obtained may be worked 
up promptly, computers will be employed, so that the 
data coming from the observers on suitable blanks, will 
be tabulated and final results for comparison completed 
for each test, before similar data for the next run comes to 
the computing room. A force of 25 men will be con- 
stantly employed. All apparatus has been carefully 
selected and the most approved methods will be used to 
insure accuracy ; the results will be put in a form con- 
venient for reference. 



Equalizer Truck for Freight Cars 



THE sides and transoms of this truck consist of 13- 
in. rolled steel channel beams cut to the required 
lengths and united by gusset plates and connection angles. 
The ends of the side pieces are notched out to receive 
light cast metal pedestals with flanges which guide the 
journal boxes. The equalizers are of cast metal and sup- 
port U-shaped hangers, one leg of each hanger passing 
through a hole in the web of a side piece. The springs 



rest upon cast metal seats located beneath the side pieces 
and the latter are supported upon the springs. To adjust 
the frame and car body so as to bring the draw bar and 
coupler to the required distance above the track it is 
necessary only to turn the nuts upon the hangers. 

An equalizer truck for freight cars has long been a 
desideratum, hut the excessive first cost of the ordinary 
types has heretofore prevented its general adoption. A 



2l6 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 




Equalizer Truck for Freight Cars. 



compound spring, two springs, or a nest of four springs 
may be employed, as occasion may demand. The design 
shown was worked out by Mr. R. C. Wright, of Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. 



Personals 

Mr. O. M. Laing, heretofore purchasing agent of the 
Tennessee Central, has been appointed general store- 
keeper. 

Mr. M. Marea, heretofore road foreman of engines of 
the St. Louis, Kansas City & Colorado, at Eldon, Mo., 
has been appointed general foreman of shoos of the Bal- 
timore & Ohio at Garrett, Ind. 

Mr. F. F. Hildreth, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Vandalia, at Terre Haute, Ind., has been appointed me- 
chanical engineer of that road. 

Mr. J. H. Stearns has been appointed road foreman of 
engines of the St. Louis, Kansas City & Colorado, at 
Eldon, Mo. 

Mr. Howard D. Taylor has been appointed Superin- 
tendent of Motive' Power and Rolling Equipment of the 
Philadelphia & Reading Railway Company, and also of the 
Atlantic City Railroad Company," owned by the Phila- 
delphia & Reading. 

Mr. John Dickson, superintendent of shops of the Great 
Northern at Everett, Wash., has been appointed master 
mechanic of that road at Larimore, N. D., and is succeed- 
ed in his former position by Mr. K. Frowbergh. 

Mr. W. H. McNoldy, night foreman of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad shops at Juniata, has been appointed fore- 
man of the machine shops of the. Buffalo & Allegheny 
Valley railroad at Olean, N. Y. 

Mr. W. L. Harrison, master mechanic of the Chicago, 
Rock Island & Pacific, at Little Rock, Ark., has resigned. 

The position of superintendent of locomotive and car 
shops on the Nebraska division of the Union Pacific has 
been created, and Mr. Alex. W. Whiteford, piece-work 
inspector at the new Omaha shops, has been appointed to 
fill it, reporting directly to the superintendent of motive 
power. 

Mr. W. R. Carrie has been appointed division foreman 



of the Frisco System at Enid, Okla., vice Mr. W. R. 
Randell, transferred. 

Mr. John Howard, division superintendent of motive 
power of the New York Central & Hudson River, has 
been appointed superintendent of motive power and roll- 
ing stock of the Boston & Albany. Mr. C. H. Hogan, 
master mechanic of the New York Central at East Buf- 
falo, N. Y., has been appointed division superintendent 
of motive power at Depew, N. Y., and Mr. William Smith, 
master mechanic at Mott Haven, N. Y., has been trans- 
ferred to East Buffalo in a similar capacity. 

The position of superintendent of machinery of the St. 
Louis & San Francisco has been abolished and Mr. 
George A. Hancock, formerly holding that office, has been 
appointed superintendent of motive power. 

Mr. George W. Smith, superintendent of motive power 
and machinery of the Chicago & Eastern Illinois, with 
headquarters at Danville, 111., has had his jurisdiction ex- 
tended to cover the St. Louis, Memphis & Southeastern 
and the St. Louis & Gulf. 

Mr. H. M .Meason has been appointed assistant master 
mechanic, Pittsburg division, Pennsylvania railroad, with 
office at Pittsburg, vice Mr. J. E. Mechling, who has 
been made master mechanic of the Terre Haute & In- 
dianapolis. 

Mr. C. E. Boss has been appointed superintendent of 
motive power and machinery of the Paris & Great North- 
ern, with headquarters at Paris, Tex. 

Mr. W. A. Nettleton, formerly superintendent of mo- 
tive power and machinery of the Kansas City, Fort Scott 
& Memphis, and afterwards assistant superintendent of 
motive power of the Atchison, Topeka & San Fe, has 
been appointed general superintendent of motive power 
of the St. Louis & San Francisco system, and the Chi- 
cago & Eastern Illinois, with headquarters at Saint Louis, 
Mo. 

Mr. T. F. Olsen has resigned as master mechanic of the 
Houston & Texas Central at Ennis, Tex. 

Mr. H. A. Bowen has resigned as master car builder of 
the Cold Blast Transportation Company at Chicago. 

Mr. B. E. Stevens has been appointed general foreman 
of the locomotive department of the Illinois Central at 
the shops at Burnside, 111. 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



217 



Mr. W. L. Davis has been appointed assistant master 
mechanic of the Buffalo division of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, with office at Buffalo, N. Y. Mr. Davis here- 
tofore has been employed in the erecting shop at Altoona, 
Pa. 

Mr. J. J. Thomas, Jr., has been appointed master me- 
chanic of the Atlantic Coast Line, with headquarters at 
South Rocky Mount, N. C. 

Mr. F. E. Sowersby, heretofore chief clerk to the 
master mechanic of the Erie at Susquehanna, Pa., has 
been appointed assistant to the master mechanic of the 
Ulster & Delaware, with office at Rondout, N. Y. 

Mr. W. L. Wilt, assistant to the chief motive power 
clerk for the Pan Handle, at Columbus, O., has been ap- 
pointed chief motive clerk of the northern system of the 
Pennsylvania, at Fort Wayne, Ind. He succeeds Mr. F. 
D. Reed, who goes to Chicago as chief motive clerk for 
the Rock Island. George N. Sweringen, chief shop clerk 
at Wellsville, O., has been transferred to Columbus, go- 
ing into the motive power department as assistant and 
chief clerk. 

Mr. J. J. Dewey, heretofore acting master mechanic of 
the Erie at Gabon, O., has been appointed master me- 
chanic at Galion, and T. J. Cole, acting master mechanic 
at Meadville, Pa., has been appointed master mechanic 
at that point. 

Mr. T. Rumney, heretofore master mechanic of the 
Erie, at Jersey City, N. J., has been appointed assistant 
mechanical superintendent of that road with office at 
Meadville, Pa. Mr. H. B. Hunt, heretofore assistant to 
the general manager, has been appointed assistant me- 
chanical superintendent, with office at Meadville. Mr. 
William Schlafge has been appointed master mechanic of 
the New York division, with office at Jersey City, N. J., to 
succeed Mr. T. Rumney, promoted. Mr. J. Wolfenden 
has been appointed general foreman boilermaker, with 
office at Meadville, Pa. 



Technical Publication 

Up-to-Date New York Air Brake Catechism, by Robert H. 
Blackall.— An up-to-date catechism on . the New York air 
brake by Robert H: Blaekall, author of the Westing-house Air 
Brake Catechism, has just been published, the use of the New 
York air brake having created a demand for literature de- 
scriptive of the parts of the apparatus employed and explain- 
ing their operation. A special effort has been made to render 
this work valuable to those in road service, who are required 
to pass examinations concerning their knowledge of the air 
brake and its operation. The information contained is equally 
instructive to those interested in the installation and mainte- 
nance of the air brake mechanism as to those handling the 
brake. Detailed information is contained bearing on' the 
peculiarities, troubles, care and remedies, and other chapters 
contain a large amount of general information on the broader 
subject of brakes, train handling, train inspection, leverage, 
formulae, rules, etc. Published by the Norman W. Henley 
Company, New York. Price, $1.25. 



"739 Paint Questions Answered." This is the title of a 
comprehensive reference book, compiled from the pages of the 
Painters' Magazine. One of the features of this magazine has 
been the .attention given to answering questions concerning 
the knotty problems and difficulties encountered by painters 
in their daily work. This feature has assumed such propor- 
tions and lias beep so successful in dealing with questions Of 
general interest to the painter's trade that the practical 
answers to these questions have been accumulated and put 
into hook form so as to constitute a valuable addition to a 
library of reference. The volume includes a treatise which 



deals with the principles presented m replies to 739 of these 
questions. Published by the Painters' Magazine, New York. 
Price, $3.00. 

+-+-+• 

Train Rules and Train Dispatching, by H. A. Dalby. The 
train dispatcher, his position as a factor in the successful 
operation of American railways, his growth, the methods and 
appliances by which he controls the movement of trains, 
constitute the subject of this work. The book begins with the 
story of an interesting incident of the first use of the tele- 
graph in authorizing the movement of trains. It contains 
much instructive information and includes a number of valu- 
able suggestions derived from the experience of one who has 
acted as operator and dispatcher in various parts of the coun- 
try. Among other valuable features are given an outline of 
the origin, organization and object of the American Railway 
Association, the establishment of standard time, explana- 
tion of what constitutes a train, the necessary sig- 
nals to be carried, much descriptive matter covering 
the time table, train order, work trains, train order 
signals, identification of trains, the relation which should 
exist between the dispatcher and the men on the trains, the 
author's opinion what the department of train dispatcher 
should consist, the standard code, as well as a number of 
illustrations of semaphores, target signals, diagrams of hand 
signals, train markers, etc. Published by the Derry-Collard 
Company, New York. Price, $1.50. 



Diaphragms 

Fearing that the wording in which certain statements were 
couched in an article referring to a type of sewed diaphragm, 
appearing on page 170 of our May issue, might be mislead- 
ing in conveying the proper conception of the situation, we 
wish to state that the figures quoted refer to a single manu- 
facturing company. We wish to state further that riveted 
diaphragms are still being manufactured and continue to be 
used among railroads. 



A Vise for Holding Drill Press Work 

The illustration herewith shows a vise especially designed 
for holding work securely upon the table of a drill press. 
The vise is bolted to the table, and when so secured is in 
position to accommodate a large number of jobs without 
being re-set. A large part of the work that would otherwise 
have to be bolted to an angle iron can be much more readily 
and quickly secured, so that its value is readily estimated. 
Work is held between the jaws which are 5 ins. wide, 2 ins. 
deep, and open 6% ins. The stop pins are hardened and can- 




not fall out, but by lifting and turning slightly, will stay up 
so the jaw and follower can be easily moved to I1ie desired 
position and the pins dropped inlo place. The holes in base 
for stop pins are % in. apart and the jaw has I in. travel with 
screw, so it can be quickly adjusted to the work, lis weight 
is 40 lbs. A drop forged wrench, lifting binding nut and 
screw, is furnished with the device. 

This vise is nianu I'acl nred and marketed by the llopkinson 
Machine Works, Springfield, Mass. 



2l8 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



Roofing 



Many of the principal railroads of the country hare adopted 
'Perfected" granite roofing to a large extent for the roofs of 
their shops, roundhouses and other buildings. Among these 
may be mentioned the New York, New Haven & Hartford R. 
It., who have used this type of roofing uninterruptedly for over 
fourteen years and have from two thousand to three thousand 
roofs of all sizes covered with this material. > 

An interesting instance of the use of this roofing is in 
connection with the saw-tooth roof over the machine shop 
of the P. & L. E. R. R. at McKees Rocks. Pa. While planning 
the erection of these shops considerable anxiety was expe- 
rienced in regard to obtaining a suitable roofing material for 
covering the saw-tooth section of the roof — particularly the 
trench portion, as it had been thought desirable to make it 
waterproof for at least one foot above the bottom to take 
care of snow and water. As one side of this trench is vertical, 
the condition will be appreciated as being unusually severe 
for asphalt roof construction. The roofing material has, how- 
ever, been put in place, meeting the above conditions by the 
Eastern Granite Roofing Company of New York, manufacturers 
of perfected granite roofing, under an absolute guarantee for 
ten years. 

Some of the claims for this roofing is that it can be laid 
properly by an inexperienced laborer, that it is sightly, light 
in weight, and easy to handle, that it is long lasting and- will 
resist the action of fire, as well as that of acids, chemical 
fumes, steam, gas or intense heat or cold, that it may be 
laid smoothly over old shingles or tin and will not warp, 
buckle, rust, rot or crack. Comparative tests have established 
the fact that it is adapted to any and all kinds of roofs. We 
are informed that there are buildings throughout the country 
with roofs that have been covered with this material over 
ten years and that these roofs are in neat, excellent condi- 
tion, not having had one dollar expended for repairs during 
that time. One strong point in regard to this product is 
that it cannot be ripped from the roofs by high winds, which 
so frequently happens in the case of tin roofs. The roofing 
itself is made from the best grade of wool felts compressed 
and held together by a composition, the top surface of the 
felt base is coated heavily with the composition into which 
white pebbles of uniform size are firmly pressed by the 
application of machinery. 

The rapidly increasing demand for the ready-to-lay roofing 




ADOPTED 

LDING railrc 

iufagturerII 

'111 

jil 
*■ build! 





manufactured by this company in the states bordering the 
Mississippi, as well as the necessity of maintaining a dis- 
tributing center for the Western trade, has induced them to 
establish offices and salesrooms at 305 Frisco building, St. 
Louis, Mo., as well as to locate extensive warerooms in order 
that a complete stock may be kept constantly on hand to en- 
able orders to be filled promptly at short notice. 

It is very probable that within a short time the company 
will also begin manufacturing in the vicinity of St. Louis, as 
it has been considered advisable to establish a plant on West- 
ern territory. 

The Eastern Granite Roofing Co. published a very handsome 
photo pamphlet, which describes the roofing and explains its 
economy and general adaptability. This book is embellished 
with photographs showing a number of railroad buildings and 
large industrial establishments covered with Perfected Granite 
Roofing. 

■» * » 



Revolving: Racks 



Order is generally recognized as a desirable condition. In 
manufacturing this is particularly so, and anything which 
promotes order, which systematizes, and which economizes 
time or effort needs but little urging upon the wide-awake 
shop manager of today who appreciates the profit to me made 
by providing against wastes. Tool racks, lathe pans and 
other useful articles, unobtrusive but ever at hand, presenting 





WRITE FOR SAMPLt AND PHOTO PAMPHl£r, 

"Perfected" Granite Rooeinu. 



Revolving Tool Racks. 

the right tool in the proper place at the instant required, 
give the great saving and service for a very small outlay. 
Appreciating the value of such appliances, the New. Britain 
Machine Company directs attention to their tool racks among 
the furniture in iron and steel which they handle. This 
company is now prepared to offer in connection with their 
line of machine shop furniture the revolving screw racks 
and revolving tool racks formerly made by George Gorton 
Machine Co. of Racine, Wis. 

The screw rack has proven to be a great convenience in 
stock and tool room because it holds a large supply of screws, 
nuts, bolts, etc., in very small space, and in such shape that 
any size is almost instantly accessible and the supply of a 
given size may be seen at a glance. The step is supplied 
with a ball bearing, so that but a touch is required to revolve 
the rack. 

The tool rack is very desirable for use in assembling room, 
in tool room, at machine, or where it is desirable to have 
large shelf room close at hand for fixtures or rough and 
finished work. A ball, bearing also facilitates the revolving 
of this rack. 

These racks are illustrated by the accompanying engravings. 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



219 



Pintsch Side Lights for Suburban Coaches 

The New York Centra] & Hudson River Railroad have ef- 
fected an innovation in lighting by introducing side lights 
in some of their suburban coaches and the results have been 
so satisfactory that it is probable that many more of their 
coaches will be equipped with these new fixtures. These 
new side lamps were developed at the request of Mr. Brazier 
of the Central, by the Safety Car Heating & Lighting Com- 
pany, and the general style of the fixtures, as well as the 
manner of applying, may be seen in the accompanying 
illustrations. 

The side deck center suspension lamp, now known as 
Pintsch lamp No. 442, has proven particularly satisfactory. 
It has all of the draught proof features of the standard 
Pintsch center lamp and is proving very efficient in service. 
It is fitted with a 2-flame burner, therefore it consumes but 
half the amount of gas that a center lamp burns. These 
fixtures are suspended from the side deck directly over the 
seats as shown in the first illustration. 




Fig. 1 — Pintsch Side Lights for Suburban Cars — 
Showing the No. 442 Lamp. 

The lamp shown in the second illustration is the Safety 
Co.'s No. 373 bracket. These lamps, it will be observed, are 
fastened to the panels between the windows, Tliey are sin- 
gle flame, open burners, fitted with opal shades and can be 
depended upon to give satisfaction, especially when used in 
combination with the regular number of center fixtures. 

There are great possibilities in this matter of side lighting 
for railway passenger equipment, and the use of those lamps 
by the Central has demonstrated that there are no insur- 
mountable difficulties in connection with their employment. 
It would not do or course to depend entirely upon side lights 
for illumination, hut when some, or all of the center fix- 
tures are retained, the result achieved may truthfully he 
termed a hrilliant one. 



■mm Ua 

HHBHHfinjjlHfl 1SBS 



Fig. 2 — Pintsch Side Lights for Suburban Cars- 
Showing the No. 373 Bracket. 



Riveting: Machine With Special Universal Bail 

The accompanying half-tone engraving illustrates a 26-in. 
riveting machine built by the Chester B. Albree Iron Works, 
of Allegheny, Pa., which is equipped with a special Albree 
universal bail which enables the machine to be turned to 
any position for riveting on a sphere. This machine is made 
up in the most careful manner. The yokes are O H steel 
castings; all other parts except the cylinder are steel forg- 
ings, and all the working parts are bushed with hard phos- 



Mr. T. P. Der;armo, now representing the Flannery P,olt 
Company, manufacturers of the Tate flexible stay-bolt, in 
the west, is located <** Chicago. 




Riveting Machine with Special Universal Bail. 



220 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



nhor bronze bushings. The entire head of the machine is 
bushed with a phosphor bronze bushing turned inside and out. 
The head of the machine is bored accurate to take the bush- 



Green River Opening Die Bolt-Cutter, Nut-Tapper 
Pipe-Threader and Cutting -Off Machine 

The accompanying illustrations show the Green River open- 
ing die bolt-cutter, nut-tapper, pipe threater and cutting-off 
machine, designated as number 55, with plain countershaft, 
cutting-off attachment, extra scroll chuck on back end of spin- 
dle, nut holders, etc., manufactured by the Wiley & Russell 
Mfg. Co., Greenfield, Mass., together with a larger view of the 
chuck supplied with machine and a more detailed view of 
the opening dies, holders and carriage. 




Fig. 1. 

The machine is illustrated by Fig. 1. Its capacity is for 
bolts and nuts, or pipe % to 2 inches. It is powerfully back- 
geared. Has six changes of speed, which are obtained by 
throwing gears in and out, as with an engine lathe, which 
makes it possible to get suitable speed or power, as the nature 
of the work may require. It has a hollow spindle, hole 
through spindle being 2% inches. The machine is operated 
by a 3% in. belt. 

The chuck used with this machine is shown by Fig. 2. 
The jaws of this chuck are made of the best tool steel, and 
are carefully hardened and tempered. They have three 
changes to enable taps, pipe, or iron, large or small, to be 
p:operly grasped. The great advantage of this in keeping 
the jaws sharp and in good order Will be highly appreciated. 
The jaws will hold firmly square or round iron, from % to 
2% inches in siz'e. Hole clear through, 2% inches. 




The cutting-off attachment, which cuts off bars or pipe in 
front of chuck, is a very valuable feature for some kinds of 
work. It swings back out of the way when not in use. 

The dies used with this machine do not need to be adjusted, 
but stand always ready for work. With opening-dies, bolts or 
pipes are instantly released when threaded, without running 
backwards over the screw, thereby saving nearly half the 
time, and also much wear on the dies. By simply turning 
the hand wheel the dies separate, and the work can be taken 
out. The quickness and convenience of such an arrange- 
ment is a very desirable feature. It is very simple and 
substantial, so that workmen of ordinary skill can use it with 
good results and without danger of breaking. 

The dies (as many as ten different sizes in assortment), see 
Fig. 3, are secured in two equal wheels (die-holders) set side 
by side, and controlled by a right and left screw, each die 
being divided, the half in one wheel opposite to the half in 
the other, in such a manner that a complete working die is 
made by bringing the wheels together, and the finished screw 
released by separating them, thus saving running back over 
the threads. 

Each die has independent stop-pins controlling its cut, which 
can be either shortened or lengthened, enabling a perfect 
adjustment to be maintained, all the different dies standing 
ready for use, so that any size may at once be brought into 
line by turning the wheels to the proper places, thereby mak- 
ing it possible to thread a lot of bolts of different sizes almost 
as quickly as if all were of the same size. Each die cuts a 
full thread at one operation, and the hollow spindle allows 
a screw of any desired length to be cut. 
■» * » 

Mechanical Dust Collecting Systems 

The Hartford Blower Co., of lOOSufneld street, Hartford, 
Conn., have received a large order from the well-known firm, 
Sargent & Co., New Haven, Conn. This system is for col- 
lecting the shavings, saw dust, chips, etc., from their wood- 
working machinery and conveying same to their boiler house. 

Another large order just received by the Hartford Blower 
Co. is from the Scovill Mfg. Co., Waterbury, Conn. This is 
for collecting dust from their crushing machinery. Orders of 
this kind from such well-known firms speak well of the Hart- 
ford mechanical dust collecting systems. 

A copy of the Hartford Blower Co.'s new sectional catalogue 
No. 57, entitled "Dust Collecting," will be mailed to any one 
interested who writes to the company at the above address. 

This company makes a specialty of installing mechanical 
dust collecting systems of all kinds, as well as heating, ven- 
tilating and drying systems, mechanical draft, dry kilns, blow- 
ers, exhaust fans, etc. 




Fit. 2. 



Fig. 3. 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



221 



Improved Re-inforced Symington Journal Box Lid 

The T. H. Symington Co., of Baltimore, Md., have recently 
improved their regular journal box by the addition of two 
lugs placed at the bottom corners of the lid, which enable it 
to ride up and drop down over the engaging tit on the box, 
without necessitating any other movement than a circular one 
around the hinge bolt. 

On the old design lid it was necessary in closing the lid, 
to lift it as well as swing it around, and by the use of the 
inclined plane lugs on the new lid this double motion is 
obviated. 

The new design lid has also been materially strengthened 
by the addition of stiffening ribs and the finished appearance 
of this latest design is very attractive. 



Atlantic City 

There is an odd charm in that famous resort on the South 
Jersey coast known as Atlantic City. At one time it was 
considered purely a health resort where invalids congregated 
to renew their vigors in a climate ever temperate and al- 
ways healthful. Gradually, however, there came a change, 
and instead of the sickly inhabiting the famous city by the 
sea, the robust pleasure seeker finds in Atlantic City attrac- 
tions social as well as climatic, the like of which is not 
found at any outing place on the Atlantic seaboard. 

Grand hotels, untold pleasures, a five mile board walk, 
bathing facilities which are unexcelled, sports and enter- 
tainments of all kinds, boating, fishing and the like take 
up one's time and after a visit to America's well named 
fashionable Spa there is always a desire to go again. The 
New Jersey Central has excellent train service between New 
York and eastern points and Atlantic City, and if you are 
interested send for time table to C. M. Burt, G. P. A., New 
Jersey Central, New York City. 

<• » » 

Notes and Comments 

Mr. J. C. McQuiston, until recently secretary, has been ap- 
pointed superintendent of tlje Westinghouse Companies' pub- 
lishing department, having charge of matters relating to the 
publicity of the products of the various Westinghouse inter- 
ests in the United States and Canada. 
■+—-+ 

The Great Western Railway Company of England has lately 
placed an order with the Kennicott Water Softener Company 
for the equipment of their Aldermaston (Berkshire) Water 
Station with one 10,000 imperial gallons per hour Kennicott 
water softener. This order was secured through the Kenni- 
cott London office, 29 Great St. Helens, London. E. C. This 
company has lately opened an office in Paris at 7 Rue Meyer- 
beer. 

■» » » 

It is with sincere regret that we learn of the death of Mr. 
J. A. Ilinson, president of the National Car Coupler Company. 
Mr. Ilinson was apparently in the best of health when he was 
suddenly stricken with appendicitis and died Thursday morn- 
ing, the 12th, after a brief illness. He was well known in 
railway and supply circles, having been closely associated 
with the railway supply business during the past twenty-five 
years. Mr. Ilinson invented a number of railway appliances 
and was closely connected with the development of the auto- 
matic coupler. 



The management of the Bickford Drill and Tool Company 
has produced a pamphlet of testimonials which is unique in 
its arrangement and attractive in its design. This pamphlet 
is entitled "Bouquets." and contains a number of testimonials 
complimentary to the Bickford drill, presenting fac simile 
letters written by users of these machines. In addition to 
these there is appended a partial list of concerns who have 
recently installed one or more Bickford drills. 



The Damascus Bronze Co., Allegheny, Pa., has purchased 
the adjoining lot to their property formerly owned by the 
Martin Hardsocg Mfg. Co. The ground is 70 feet front by 
180 feet deep, and will be covered by a modem steel build- 
ing. This addition is necessitated by the- large demand 
of their Damascus nickel bronze, which is giving such ex- 
cellent results in railroad service, and for rolling mills and 
stationary engines. There are now some five million pounds 
of this metal in active service without a single complaint. 
■» » » 

Mr. M. F. Cunningham has severed his connection (after 15 
years' service) with the Waltham Emery Wheel Co. to as- 
sume the management of the Superior Corundum Wheel Co., 
of Waltham, Mass., and is making emery and corundum 
wheels, and stones for all purposes. 

■» * » 

H. I. McMinn has been appointed agent and storekeeper of 
the Safety Car Heating & Lighting Company, in charge of 
storehouse and real estate in Jersey City; vice James N. 
Andrews, resigned. He will receive and ship all materials 
on instructions from the second vice-president and will inspect 
and test same to approved standards. 



John F. Allen, 370-372 Gerard Ave., New York City, manu- 
facturers of all kinds of riveting machines, has put upon the 
market a new riveter especially designed for light riveting. 

The American Car & Foundry Co. recently obtained a con- 
tract for 1,0C0 cars made of pressed steel for use in the 
New York Subway and after examining other tools in the 
market, placed an order for four of these new machines to 
be delivered at Berwick, Pa. All the rivets, % in. and % in., 
are driven cold and this machine will do them all, including 
those on seams, seats, corners, etc. 

Mr. Allen reports quite a demand for this new riveter on 
such work as house range tanks, etc., where small rivets 
are required. The machine will drive, however, up to %-in. 
hot rivets and as it is only 9 in. over all can be operated in- 
side of very small tubes. 



We are in receipt of a pamphlet describing the Haverhill 
Eclipse dry dust fire extinguisher, which is marketed by 
Adrecn & Company, Security Building, St. Louis, Mo. The 
chemical dust contained in this extinguisher dissipates the 
flames by means of rapidly expanding gases. When the 
dust meets the heat it generates 2,000 times its volume of 
fire-killing gases, which immediately displaces the oxygen 
in the air. Where there is no oxygen, there can be no com- 
bustion, and the fire is smothered. The dust will extinguish 
fire that water has no effect upon, such as fires caused by 
exploding lamps or stoves, gasoline, naphtha and electrical 
fires. Two-thirds of the fires are of this nature. The dust 
will not injure the finest fabric in any way. It cannot 
harm person or any kind of material. The gas arising from 
the dust is not injurious except to fires. 



The Falls Hollow Staybolt Company announces the receipt 
of a large order from the Norwegian State Ry. Co. for both 
falls' hollow and solid staybolt bars, through their agent at 
Christiania, Norway. This is the third large order received 
fro in this railway company in the past year and is gratifying 
to the manufacturers in view of the fact that it comes from 
a country which has die reputation for producing a good 
grade of iron. A portion of the raw material, from which 
the Falls' hollow and Solid staybolt iron is made, is imported 
from Norway and Sweden. It is then blended with a high 
grade of native charcoal iron, which gives the combined 
product the necessary tensile strength and other requirements 
to make good staybolt iron, which is very much appreciated 
by the Norwegian State Ry. CO., the Japan government rail- 
ways, the railways of other foreign countries, also the U. S. 
government, leading railways of the States, Canada and Mcx- 
tea, marine boiler manufacturers and ship builders, 



222 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



Railroad Paint SHop 

Edited by Devoted to the Interest of 

CHARLES E. COPP <£?<£>.£> Master Car and 

General Foreman Painter B. <3b M. Ry. Locomotive Painters 

Official Oruan of the Master Car and Locomotive Painters' Association. 



In Memoriam 

Many of our readers will be pained to learn of the sudden 
death of Mr. George H. Worrall, foreman painter of the B. & 
M.s' Somerville shop, which occured May 23. In company 
with the Foreman Carpenter, Mr. Joseph Staples and Mr. 
James Beede he went to Winchester, a distance of about 8 
miles, on an errand connected with his shop, and, on alight- 
ing from the train at that point, fell to the platform in an 
attack of heart failure. A Boston-bound express train was 
stopped and his stricken form placed thereon and borne to 




Mr. George H. Worrall. 

the hospital, where every means were resorted to to bring him 
to life and consciousness, but without avail. 

Following is a portrait and extract from a sketch of Mr. 
Worrall which was published in the "Railroad Car Journal," 
September, 1896, then the official organ M. C. & L. P. A.: 

"Mr. George H. Worrall, foreman painter, Somerville shop, 
B. & M. system, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1850. When 
he was very young his parents removed to Kennet Square, 
Chester county, where he received a common school education. 
After getting through school, with nothing in particular in 
view, he drifted to the West, and, traveling through a num- 
ber of the Western states, finally settled down in the State 
of Iowa and attended a Western college two or three terms, 
with the intention of becoming a master of penmanship. 
After teaching penmanship a few terms he became, to use 
his. own language, "paint struck," and served three years at 
carriage and sign painting under Mr. B. F. Seaton, in Marion, 
la., and, strange to say, has not seen his old master since 
closing the bargain of his apprenticeship, for he went at 
once to Cedar Rapids to work for the Burlington, Cedar 



Rapids & Minnesota R. R. at that place, where he worked 
two years under Mr. Thomas Shiverton, who was then fore- 
man. His next move was to return home and go to work 
for the Jackson & Sharp Company, Wilmington, Del., under 
Mr. Galbreth. He worked in Wilmington in the different con- 
tract shops until 1880, when he left there and went to Salem, 
Mass., and took charge of the painting of the old Eastern Rail- 
road, "the Seashore Line to the White Mountains," afterward 
leased by the Boston & Maine. After fourteen years there, he 
was transferred to Somerville, Mass. 

"He joined the M. C. & L. P. Association in 1884 in Boston, 
Mass., when the convention was held at Young's Hotel, and 
has been an active and useful member." 
♦ ♦ » 

The Foreman Painter s Responsibility 

Does the foreman painter try to see where he can save 
his company a dollar, either in material or labor? If not, 
it is a question whether or not he is a profitable investment. 
True, he may not, for some reason or other, be given the 
prices of the materials he uses— this is the case in some 
shops— and he may have no voice in their selection. This 
may not be his fault, but it is dead wrong, if this is the 
practice anywhere. It would seem to show that they do not 
want him to know the prices of materials for fear he will 
give them away to "the other fellow" when he comes along; 
and so this is one way— a bad way for the company — to 
keep painting materials in the control of the office. It is to 
be hoped that the office is not ashamed to give the painter 
the prices of the articles he uses? 

The foreman painter, if he is what he ought to be, should 
not only know the prices of materials in his use, but he 
should be accorded a large latitude in their selection. Does 
anybody know better than he, with his long experience, 
what is best and most economical to the company to use? 
If he is throttled in this and' like the sail aboard of the 
man -0'- war, -"not allowed to think" by the captain, then it 
need not be surprising if he has reached a don't-care spirit 
a? to what anything costs the company so long as he gets 
his bread and butter and is fairly taken care of and his 
position is assured. But this is a long way off from the 
right condition that things should be in order to produce 
the best results for the company that employes him. Pos- 
sibly a divided responsibility is better here betAveen him 
and his superior; but enough responsibility should be put 
upon his shoulders in this respect, if he is worthy of it,— if 
he is not someone else should be employed— so that he will 
feel it in the prosecution of his work in order to produce 
the best results; and he should thus be held accountable for 
them. Personally we have no grievances. We write for the 
benefit of others. 

Then, again, there is the other important question of 
labor. In too many cases the foreman painter has no voice 
in the hiring of his help. Indeed, he may not know the 
wages paid. He doubtless knows what they are worth be- 
fore he has had them a great while— he may know that they 
are worth little or nothing. Perhaps politics or friendship 
also cuts some figure in furnishing him some hindrances, 
otherwise termed "help." Some "ward heeler" who has 
worked hard (?) to elect a man to the legislature favorable 
to the road has ninety "and nine hangers-on who are looking 
not particularly for something to do but something for doing 
little or nothing. These must often be provided for in day- 



June, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



223 



work shops, though to the praise of the piece-work system 
be it said that this usually steers clear of them, or soon 
weeds them out. The foreman painter usually gets the lion's 
share of this kind of help in some quarters on account of the 
lack of a trade that most of these men have and the thought 
that almost anybody can work at painting! 

This, and many other things and conditions that might be 
named, puts the painter in some places where he has as little 
control over the labor question as over that of materials. 
Is it any wonder, then, that he has degenerated into a spirit 
of don't-care-what-any thing-costs so long as it is done? Or 
whether it is durable or not? But under all this handicap 
the chances are that his efficiency will be questioned just the 
same as if nothing interfered with the exercise of his au- 
thority and selection. Pretty much a zero in the strife, he 
will likely be blamed for not being a hero in it. Tied down 
to this and to that in an inextricable fashion, he will likely 
be censured for not showing more agility and try to jump 
over the moon. 

This is no overdrawn picture; it is true to life in some 
quarters. But we are grateful that it is not so everywhere. 
The foreman painter is chosen for his ability and character 
in many places and is accorded that respect for his opinions 
of men and materials which is due him, and therefore is a 
factor in the economical prosecution of the company's busi- 
ness.' Not unmindful of friendship and the amenities of life, 
still he is not bought nor "bull-dozed"; he calls a spade a 
spade whether in the hands of friend or foe. Such should 
be employed, trusted and respected, because he is "every 
inch a man," and not a tool. The best results are obtained 
where the foreman painter and his superior officer conscien- 
tiously and thoughtfully pull together in all that is for the 
betterment of the service. We rather look upon this condi- 
tion of things than to contemplate the other. 



Another Shop Fire 

Learning through the Boston daily papers of a destructive 
fire at the West Albany Shops of the New York Central, dur- 
ing the last week in April, we wrote to Bro. Butts for an 
authentic account for publication, if he would grant us the 
privilege, believing that he could do the railroads at large 
and the members of our association in particular a favor 
by doing so. He has kindly consented and we subjoin his 
interesting letter. We think such true accounts of the causes 
of fires in our shops should be published in our official organ 
for the benefit of others, that they may take warning and 
avoid the danger which has entrapped their fellow workers. 
It will be seen that this is still another case of varnish re- 
mover, but this most useful help in the paint shop should 
not be ruled out on this account— it need not be. Means of 
safety must be devised and maintained for its use, and that 
is simple enough. Now the writer has a tank of varnish 
remover in his shop and this timely letter and advice of 'Bro. 
Butts will be profited by in looking after it in the future in 
a different way than we have in the past. Please note his 
suggestions. 

West Albany, N. Y., May 6, 1904. 

My Dear Friend Copp:— Yours of May 4th at hand. I am 
very glad to say that the loss sustained in the burning of 
one of our shops is not as o-reat as was reported by the 
newspapers. The fire burned about, one-quarter of the build- 
ing known as shop No. 5; this was what we commonly called 
our "Wash Section," where the cars are taken in and are 
stripped, cleaned and are then transferred to the erecting 
shop where the carpenter work is done. This section held 
at the time of the fire 13 coaches and one dining car. There 
was also one dining car just completed which stood imme- 
diately outside near the end of the building; all of the 13 
coaches and Iho two diners were destroyed. 

According to Ihe reports made by the watchman, the fire 



originated in one end of this building at about 2 o'clock in 
the morning in the room that is used for the purpose of 
scraping small work, such as sash, doors, blinds, etc.; in one 
corner of this room is a small tank filled with varnish-re- 
mover in which is immersed the small work, such as seat- 
ends, window-stops, etc., for the purpose of removing the 
varnish. This tank had recently been filled with varnish- 
remover. The watchman states that he entered this room 
(carrying a lighted lantern) which he presumed was closed 
up tight when the whistle blew at 6 o'clock, and when within 
a few feet of the tank there was a flash which soon filled 
the room with flame. It spread rapidly through this section 
of the building up to the brick cross-wall where, by the heroic 
efforts of the firemen, it was stopped. The estimated loss 
is $G5,000, covered by insurance. 

Fortunately this part of the shop could be better spared 
without seriously inconveniencing our work than almost any 
other part of the shops. Our work is going on just the 
same. One track in our large paint shop is being used for 
washing cars. Workmen are already cleaning away the 
debris where the new shop will be erected at once, which 
will be a decided improvement over the one burned. The 
new shop will have much better light, cement floor, drainage, 
and other modern facilities. 

Varnish remover is certainly proving to be a dangerous 
enemy as well as a help in the paint shop. In the new 
shop we desire to have a room for its use which is made as 
nearly fire-proof as possible, with abundance of ventilation 
in the shape of a hood coining down over the tank, with a 
pipe running up through the roof which will carry off the 
gases that are constantly escaping from the tank. 

No one was injured by the fire. Our shop is full of work 
and we are pushing hard to get every car possible done be- 
fore the excursion season begins. 

I have just come into the office, from a trip over the line 
and have not the figures before me of our last month's out- 
put. I will ti-y and send them to you later on. 

Yours truly, H. M. Butts. 



The Shellac Question 

The price of pure orange shellac gum ("D. C") is said 
to have reached the altitude of 90 cents per lb. of late! This 
is about triple its former value. Other grades are proportion- 
ately less. This will naturally open the floodgates of adultera- 
tion and substitution upon the market. We may yet be 
driven to the extreme of using some good substitute, so it 
is well enough to be forearmed by trying some to see which 
is best. "Siamlac," at $1 per gal. for orange and $1.10 for 
white, is making quite a bid for recognition. Ever tried it? 
Shellac as an interior sandpaper surfacer for finished wood 
is no longer used as formerly for car work. It is merely 
used as a stop-coat between the paste filler and two coats 
of rubbing varnish to follow, the surface being put upon the 
varnish. Why may not, then, some good substitute be used 
for this purpose which has all the charactertistics of shellac, 
since it is protected by the varnish and is mainly used to 
slop the suction of the latter, being only lightly sandpapered 
before varnishing? Something that will not evaporate so 
quickly that large surfaces cannot be easily covered with it 
by an ordinary brush in the hands of a skillful operator be- 
fore "setting" ought to be satisfactory, other things con- 
sidered. One thing is pretty sure: Tt is no longer necessary 
to use "D. C." gum cut in straight, grain alcohol. As the 
latter is about $2.40 per gal. and it takes about 5 lbs. of the 
gum per gal. of alcohol it will be readily seen that this is 
a pretty costly article. That, is to say, the above costs $fi.90. 
which amount of gum in a gallon of alcohol will make about. 
1V. gallons of shellac, or $4.(10 per gallon. Of course this 



224 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



June, 1904. 



mixture being too heavy for most work to apply its cost will 
be farther reduced by the addition of more alcohol; but 
even then it is unnecessarily extravagant. 

Probably the pattern maker is the greatest crank on the 
kind of shellac he uses on his patterns. For his use ''black 
shellac" is prepared by mixing into the usual article lamp- 
black dry in the requisite proportion and thinning same to 
working consistency with alcohol. He must apply several 
coats, sandpapering each nicely and smooth in order that 
the pattern may be drawn from the sand properly by the 
moulder in order to present a good surface on the casting. 
He is strongly prejudiced against any innovations here- 
more so, if possible, than the painter. He will sniff his pot 
as a dog scents his master's tracks to see if it is O. K — no 
wood alcohol, or any other substitute for the pure thing 
smuggled into it by the adroit painter or stock-keeper. If 
so, it won't work! But perhaps the most unexpected com- 
plaint against anything but the pure grain alcohol shellac 
comes from the electric car barn, where shellac is used on 
the Wire-wound armatures. They say that wood alcohol 
shellac will not work here; that it gathers a moisture, etc., 
and so the pure grain alcohol shellac has to be supplied for 
this purpose anyhow! Does any reader know anything about 
this, pro or con? If so, he will confer a favor by commu- 
, nicating with the editor of these columns. 

For pattern makers use a grade of gum known in the market 
as "B. R." and about half the price of "D. C." could be 
.-just as well used, cutting it in straight grain alcohol, if pre- 
ferred, rather than a portion of refined wood spirits. This 
is native gum and is simply too dark-colored for some work, 
but where lampblack is added to any shellac for the pattern 
maker's work of course this dark gum cuts no figure. 

Grades of gum designated in the market as "Octagon B.," 
"S. D." and "A— S. S. L.," are all right for the painter's use 
for an orange shellac. For white shellac he should order 
"Bone-dry, pulverized.'' If he will get these and cut his own 
shellac in any spirits he likes he will have no trouble in 
srettina - aood shellac. 



Notes and Comments 

We understand that the Hotel Committee has chosen the 
"Rudolf" as the headquarters of the Master Oar and Locomo- 
tive Painters at their convention to be held in Atlantic City, 
Sept. 13-16. 

The sou of the editor of these columns has chemi- 
cally concocted a front-end black for the heated parts 
of locomotives that seems to be meeting with favor and from 
which he expects great things. This will "fill a long-felt 
want," to use a hackneyed phrase, if it meets expectations, 
for many have tried it and failed. Seven years in the shop 
with his father and 2% years with the, Sherwin-Williams Co., 
in testing laboratory, he ought to have some practical in- 
formation. He is general manager, Atlantic Paint Co., Cleve- 
land, 0., where he has been for a year. 

We have received a note under date of April 26, from our 
esteemed associate, Mr. D. B. Vail, of Buffalo, N. Y., wherein 
he says he has resigned his position held for 15 years as 
foreman painter at the Erie R. R. shops at that point, and 



is in the field for a position as traveling salesman for some 
good paint and varnish house. We trust he will be thus 
put in communication. His address is 10 Putnam St. He 
makes this move in the interest of his health, the close con- 
finement of the shops being a continued detriment. Having 
known him for some ten years, we give him a hearty in- 
dorsement and hope he will become associated in the field 
he desires. 

Chairman Dane of the Special Committee on Locomotive 
Painting, says: "I have just received (May 17), the report 
of the committee from its long journey which it was nee-, 
essary for it to take to obtain the signatures of its mem- 
bers, and I have forwarded the same by registered mail to 
Mr. J. W. Taylor, secretary A. R. M. M. Association, Chicago, 
111. The committee has worked hard to compile this report 
and I hope the results will be satisfactory to both asso- 
ciations." 

Following is Secretary Taylor's acknowledgment of its 
receipt, which is quite complimentary to the committee: 

658 Rookery Building, Chicago, 111., May 18, 1904. 
A. P. Dane, Esq., Foreman Painter, Boston & Maine R. R., 

Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir:— I have yours of May 16th enclosing report of 
the special committee of the Master Car and Locomotive 
Painters' Association on "What is the Best Practice for Paint- 
ing Locomotives," etc., and much obliged to you for the 
splendid shape in which it is presented. I will submit the 
matter to the Master Mechanics' Association as a special re- 
port from your association. Yours truly, 

Jos. W. Taylor, 
Secretary A. Ry. M. M. Assn. 



Extraordinary Test of Graphite Paint 

The true value of "Superior Graphite" paint was exposed by 
tec recent disastrous fire which occurred in the business dis- 
trict of the city of Baltimore. Among the buildings injured 
or destroyed was the Union Trust building and an examina- 
tion of the paint covering its steel structural work, after 
having been subjected to great heat, demands the attention 
of those interested in preservation by paint. The building 
was erected in 1897-98 and the steel work was painted once 
in the shop and twice after erection with what is known in 
the trade as "No. 30 Superior Graphite" paint. Much of the 
steel ha_s been stripped of its terra cotta and other coverings 
and about one-third of it has been exposed. Although these 
surfaces which are now open to examination were subjected 
to great heat, the paint remains glossy and elastic. A few 
rivet heads show rust, but they are always likely to do so 
on account of the scale which adheres to them after being 
driven, and their condition is unimportant. Practically speak- 
ing, the paint remains as serviceable today as when applied 
six or seven years ago. 

A blotter, in which an illustration of the remains of the 
Union Trust Building is displayed, together with a short 
acocunt of the facts connected with this building, is being 
distributed by the Detroit Graphite Mfg. Co., the establishment 
making the paint which withstood the test whose results 
were exposed in such an extraordinary manner. 




July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



225 



Established 1878. 



RAILWAY 
MASTER MECHANIC 

Published by the 
BRUCE, V. CRANDALL COMPANY, CHICAGO 



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Vol. XXVIII. 



CHICAGO, JULY, 1904. 



No. 7 



THE late appearance of this July issue is unavoidable, 
owing to the later date at which the Saratoga con- 
ventions were held, but it seemed preferable to" delay the 
date of publication rather than to wait until the August 
issue to give a report of the proceedings and discussions. 
It is with no little pride that the management of the 
Railway Master Mechanic sends out to its readers 
this July issue, which is the largest single number ever 
issued by any railway publication on account of these 
annual conventions. 



The June Conventions 

HISTORY is said to repeat itself, but it does so in 
resemblance rather than in fact, just as one spring- 
time is like unto its predecessor, but differs in the growth 
and development of the year that has intervened. So 
we may say that the Saratoga gathering of 1904 was like 
the one of the year before in that there was the same con- 
gregation of supply and railroad men, the same exhibi- 
tion of appliances, the same series of papers and re- 
ports and discussions and the same sound of s'ocial 
gaieties that have become such a marked feature of 
these annual meetings. But to those who are most 
intimately in touch with what is done and doing a 
development is apparent from year to year that speaks 
a substantial progress all along the line. It goes 
without saying that the present status of the associa- 
tions and their conventions has not been reached at 
a bound, but through long years of patient effort; and 
to those who have been associated with the work, the 
relation to the past resembles that of a sturdily grow- 
ing tree in its maturity to the sapling struggling for 
existence. 

The standing of the two associations is now estab- 
lished beyond all peradventure and it is curious to 
note how their relations to the outer world of rail- 
road policies has developed with the growth in im- 



portance of their members. In the earlier days when 
the work of the master car builder and master me- 
chanic was largely that of mere shop superintendence, 
frequently being an imperceptible degree removed 
from that of a general foreman, the associations had 
but little power to obtain an acquiescence in and use 
of the several standards that they chose to adopt. 
The introduction of representative members and the 
right to enforce observance of the rules of interchange 
was the entering wedge, and from that time the in- 
crease in influence has been steady and uninterrupted. 

It has often been observed, of late, that the duty of 
the present superintendent of motive power is ad- 
ministrative and executive rather than mechanical, 
and so partaking somewhat of this nature the work 
of the two associations has become administrative and 
legislative to a great degree. We find this to be 
especially emphasized by the relations that now exist 
between them and the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. 

In his opening remarks before the Master Car 
Builders' Association, Mr. Moseley brought out the 
importance of the work that had been done and took 
the "opportunity of repeating that the standards of 
your association are fully recognized by the Interstate 
Commerce Commission." 

The importance of this matter of the standards can 
best be realized by a consideration of the conditions 
that would exist if they were to be done away with. 
It is interesting, too, to note how the appreciated value 
of this portion of the association's work has grown, 
as evidenced by the greater ease with which new 
standards are adopted as compared with a few years 
ago. 

It is to be hoped that the encouragmenet received 
and the cordial relationship that now exists with the 
Interstate Commerce Commission will be maintained 
and strengthened, and probably no better means can 
be taken for the accomplishment of such an end than 
in an address by the secretary which has been so valu- 
able a feature at the last two conventions. 

Finally to add one more word regarding the stand- 
ards attention may be called to President Brazier's 
admirable address, in which he reviewed the work 
before the associations and some of the problems 
that were presenting themselves and then especially 
urged the desirability of still further extending the 
list of standards. 

In regard to the work of the committees much could 
be said in its praise and still more of its value. The 
old catechising form of circular with the tiresome and 
uninstructive categorical replies has almost disap- 
peared, and where it is used its functions are limited 
to statistical work for which it is admirably well 
adapted. The real work of the committees has now. 
become one of scientific investigation. Not necessarily 
scientific in the sense of elaborate experimentation, 
hut scientific in its methods. It is no longer attempted 
to finish a subject in a day or a month, but the work- 
is continued from year to year until something definite 



226 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 



has been accomplished and at least one new base line 
established. 

A notable example of the effect of this method is 
to be found in the handling of the rules of interchange. 
The day assigned for the report and discussion of the 
changes was considered one to be dreaded. Time was 
consumed and the proceedings lumbered with a col- 
lection of words from which it seemed' impossible to 
disentangle the sense. Members discussed knotty 
problems of wear and tear, of responsibility for dam- 
age, of price and inspection to which they had really 
given but little thought. Illy conceived and un- 
digested opinions were expressed on the spur of the 
moment and rules were formulated that were capable 
of a variety of interpretations. Today this is changed. 
The report presented by the arbitration committee last 
month was very full and complete. A great number 
of suggestions were made and after their tabulation 
followed the brief remark : "The committee does not 
concur, in these suggestions," or "The committee ap- 
proves of this suggestion." Apparently this sufficed 
for the convention. The arbitration committee, 
through its long years of hard labor, has earned for 
itself a reputation for "consistency and justice," and 
now it is reaping its reward in the confidence placed 
upon it by the members. They know that there are 
good reasons to, support any decision that may be 
rendered, and so the discussion on the rules has 
dwindled from hours to minutes and the real work 
is done by a few thoughtful men who are familiar 
with all the ins and outs and influences that surround 
the formulation and administration of these important 
rules. 

It is natural that as the world progresses and new 
industries are being created new topics should be 
brought to the fore in the convention discussions. 
There have been whispers of it before, but this year 
electricity has come out as a new influence to be 
counted with. The address of Mr. Vreeland, in which 
he foretold the coming of electric traction and the 
problems which it would bring to the motive power 
officers, was a very significant -indication of the trend 
of current events. To this was added a report on the 
proper location of the third rail, so that it seems safe 
to predict that, in the future, electricity and its applica- 
tions will constitute a part of the work of both asso- 
ciations. 

It does not take so very old a man to remember 
when wooden trucks were common in freight service, 
though they have now disappeared, and the use of 
steel has spread over the underframing and even 
climbed up into the, sides and roof of box cars. A 
year ago attention began to be directed to the use of 
the steel truck for passenger cars and since that time 
several examples of steel passenger car construction 
have been brought out, and at last the attention of 
the association has been formally directed to this 
method, and urged to look into the matter. 

In the Master Mechanics' Association the work has 
been equally broad and valuable. Probably the most 
radical proposition of the year came in the first report 



that was presented, where it was suggested that the 
work of the switching locomotive be placed upon the 
basis of ton hours instead of a pure mileage one as 
heretofore. Last year the committee made a report in 
which it was shown conclusively that the present rat- 
ing of switching engines was altogether too high and 
that three miles an hour was nearer the mark than 
six. Then came the problem as to the exact amount 
of work that such an engine ordinarily performed. 
The impossibility of making an exact determination 
for all engines led to the ton-hour proposition, which 
consists in multiplying the weight on the driving 
wheels by the hours in service. It is a notable 
instance of the effect of education that while the 
report last year, in which the six-miles-an-hour basis 
was shown to be untenable, was warmly attacked, 
there was hardly a word of opposition raised to this 
new suggestion and the recommendation was adopted 
at once. 

Another new feature at the second meeting was the 
introduction of a change in the- construction whereby 
representative members will be admitted to the asso- 
ciation after the manner of those of the Master Car 
Builders'. The influence of these representatives has 
been so healthy and has contributed so much to the 
growth of the other association that it would seem 
strange that they had not been provided for before, 
were it not borne in mind that there is no interchange 
of locomotives and that, therefore, there was no de- 
mand for them as an assistant to an enforcement of 
rules of interchange or the adoption of standards. 
Now, however, the work of the association has broad- 
ened to such an extent that co-operation is needed in 
the prosecution of investigations that lie beyond the 
power of any one road to carry out, and the repre- 
sentative member has become a necessity. 

It would be interesting to review in detail the work 
that was done, but the limits of space make this an 
impossibility, and attention can only be called to the 
reports that are given in greater detail elsewhere. In 
conclusion a word must t be said in regard to the 
masterly manner in which the whole business of the 
two conventions was carried on. Certainly no meet- 
ings have ever been conducted with greater vim, and 
the affairs" carried through with more life than at these 
two. Both presidents seemed imbued with a vigor 
that is seldom seen and the discussions were kept mov- 
ing at a pace whose speed has rarely been equaled. 
At the same time there was no curtailment of the 
freedom of discussion and nothing was left in an un- 
finished condition. 

As for the supply men their chairman and com- 
mittee managed the entertainments and exhibition in 
such a businesslike manner that there was a spirit of 
preparedness and finish extending throughout the 
whole that made the flow of events as smooth as the 
oily tongues of some of their representatives. In fact, 
taken all in all, anyone who was in Saratoga between 
the dates of June 21 and June 29, 1904, is to be con- 
gratulated on being a part of so notable and important 
a gathering. 



July 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



227 



3BTH. ANNUAL- CONVENTION OF .K 

MASTER CAR BUILDERS ASSOCIAT;hQjj|L 

37TH. ANNUAL CONVENTION OF TNE ,«««-!- < 

AMERICAN RAILWAY MASTER *W&mj&fflW& ' 




The Camera and the Conventions 

THE thirty-eighth annual convention of the Master 
Car Builders' Association was held at Saratoga, 
N. Y., June 22, 23 and 24, 1904. The thirty-seventh an- 
nual convention of the American Railway Master Me- 
chanics' Association was held at Saratoga, N. Y., June 
27, 28 and 29, 1904. There was a good attendance of the 
members of both associations. There were also a number 
of supply men present as their guests. In another part 
of this issue will be found an account of the practical 
work done in the convention hall, which work from all 
reports seems to have been well done. But that is all 
told in another chapter. 

While perhaps a story of the Saratoga conventions of 



1904 as seen outside the convention hall is not as im- 
portant as the record of what went on inside it would 
seem to have its place. We might go to our annual con- 
ventions and work all the time and emulate "Uncle" Rus- 
sell Sage in his no-vacation theory. Then, again, we 
might not. The presence of the ladies, as usual, added 
greatly to the pleasure of the social side of the conven- 
tions. 

The members of the associations may well point with 
pride to their record of nearly forty years, as each suc- 
ceeding annual convention has shown an added improve- 
ment to the rolling stock of the railways of North Amer- 
ica. The fact that with the work at each convention there 
has been combined a little recreation, has detracted not 
at all from the important matters there discussed and de- 





'O Listen to the Band."' 



Mr. F. W. Brazier and Mr. H. H. Vreeland Heading 
tin-. Line of March. 



228 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July 1904. 



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Marching to the Contention Hall the 



cided, but has rather given added zest toward their better 
performance. 

Very naturally the presidents of the two associations 
which have just concluded their annual convention at 
Saratoga, were the centers of interest during the conven- 
tion. We hesitate to say' too much in regard to the 
admirable way in which both conventions were conduct- 
ed for fear that our compliments may seem like flattery. 
The fact that Mr. Brazier was elected president of the 
Master Car Builders' Association and Mr. Lewis presi- 
dent of the Master Mechanics' Association is sufficient 
evidence to our mind of their fitness for those offices. 
Perhaps it may be of more interest to recall to our read- 
ers a few incidents of a number of years ago which 



would tend to show why these gentlemen have attained 
positions of honor in these two associations. Not so very 
long ago, for Mr. Brazier is still a young man, we find the 
following item in the files of the Railway Master Me- 
chanic : "It may be some years before F. W. Brazier, 
foreman of the new car shops of the Fitchburg road, can 
be an alderman, as he is yet tall and slender, and has not 
that protuberant front outline which is associated in the 
minds of the people with that official position. But the 
citizens of Fitchburg have made him president of their 
municipal corporation, and he is therefore equal, officially, 
to several aldermen. He is more proud, however, of the 
new shops, and especially of the great bed of old- 
fashioned flowers which flourishes in the rear of one of 





Morning of the Opening of the 



July 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



229 





Thirty-Eighth Annual Convention of the 



the main buildings. The sight of their brilliant colors 
will put heart into tired men, and make them feel that life 
is, after all, worth living." 

Perhaps another item which appeared in the Railway 
Master Mechanic in April, 1893, would give some indi- 
cation as to why Mr. W. H. Lewis, president of the Mas- 
ter Mechanics' Association for the past year, has reached 
the prominent position which he now occupies in the mo- 
tive power department. Mr. Lewis is evidently one of the 
men who has always believed in the importance of little 
things, as is shown in the following which we quote from 
the files of the Railway Master Mechanic of over ten 
years ago : "Mr. W. H. Lewis, master mechanic of the 



Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, has managed to make an 
engine run 1,720 miles on a little over one quart of valve 
oil, and the valves and cylinders were then found to be 
in good condition." 

For convenience and brevity the annual conventions of 
the Master Car Builders' Association and the American 
Railways Master Mechanics' Association are referred to 
as the "Saratoga conventions," so often have we met in 
the same place. This year, as in other years, there have 
been suggestions definite and indefinite as to other meet- 
ing places. Without doubt, a change is desirable and the 
suggestion that Atlantic City be the next meeting place 
was favorably though informally discussed. Certainly 





Master Car Builders' Association. 



[r. W. II. Lewis, 



k. F. W. Brazier and Mr. J. W. 
Taylor. 



230 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July 1904. 



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Mr. J. J. Conally, Mr. J. J. Hennessey. 



Mr. Bettendorf Shows His New Truck. 



there should be some suitable meeting place somewhere 
in the United States where a hall with good acoustic 
properties could be provided for the use of the two asso- 
ciations. An enterprising committee, consisting of 
Messrs. Bradish, Westcott and Dunlop, was present at 
the convention to make a plea for Atlantic City for the 
coming year. If the enterprise of these gentlemen. in any 
way indicates the enterprise and push of Atlantic City the 
conventions would certainly be well taken care of at that 
place. 

The "snap shots" in this issue we leave to tell their 
own story. As ' is usual, a number of pictures did 
not "pan out" as expected, and among the missing 



are the electric signs of the Sherwin Williams Co., Paul 
Dickinson, the smoke jack man ; the exhibit of Philip 
Carey Mfg. Co., and many others, among which was a 
picture of the locomobile of the Gould Coupler Company 
of New York City. This company is already famous for 
a number of things in the railway supply line, and it has 
now added to its already good record by shortening the 
automobile running time from Trop to Saratoga to one 
hour and fifteen minutes. A touring locomobile carrying 
the members of the Guold company who attended the 
conventions made this trip of about 32 miles in the time 
mentioned. 

The supply men's meeting, which has come to play a 



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Mr. Peter H. Peck. 



Mr. J. T. Chamberlain and His Historic Umbrella. 



July 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



231 




Mr. Thos. Fildes. 

very important part in our annual conventions, was held 
on Tuesday night previous to the opening of the con- 
vention. Mr. George A. Post, who was the chairman, 
certainly has missed his calling. He should preside over 
the senate or be a speaker in the house of representatives. 
While we notice that the Daily Age gives him the title 
of "Czar Post," no one could accuse Mr. Post of using 
any of the powers generally attributed to the man who is 
supposed to guide and control the destinies of Russia. 
. .Not only Mr. Post as "boss of the pleasure mill," but 
Messrs. Toothe, Ross, Walbank and Dinsmore, who were 
chairmen of various committees, should be congratulated 
on the amount of work well done in providing entertain- 
ment for the members of the two associations and their 
guests. 





Mr. C. H. Cory and Mr. S. W. Midgley. 

General Charles Miller, president of the Galena Signal 
Oil Company and president or director of more railway 
supply concerns than any other one man in the United 
States, was in attendance at the conventions this year. 
The snap shots of the general, published in this issue, 
are not especially clear, but anyone who knows General 
Miller knows that he is far too busy a man to ever be 
found quiet. A number of railway supply men repre- 
senting General Miller's various interests would make a 
small army. And it may be taken for granted that this 
army is well trained, as the "General" is as well posted 
in military affairs as he is in business. 

Mr. William E. Magraw, known among the railway 
and railway supply fraternity as the "Red List" man, 
seems to be very unfortunate when attending the conven- 




Mr. L. C. Noble, Mr. D. C. Noble. 



Mr. Theo. H. Curtis, Mr. P. M. Elliott. 



232 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July 1904. 





General Charles Miller in Characteristic Attitudes. 



tions. Last year his signs for the "Red" and "Blue" 
became torn in some mysterious manner. He had forgot- 
ten all about this until reminded of it by the somewhat 
similar accident which recently occurred in St. Louis, 
where the balloon of Santos-Dumont received bad treat- 
ment at the hands of someone unknown. This year Mr. 
Magraw brought to the conventions a small sized, trunk 
filled with his souvenir albums, containing the pictures of 
the "men who . feed the railroads and the plants from 
which they are fed." The aforesaid trunk was watched 
with jealous care, not only by Mr. Magraw, but also by 




The [Symington] "Lid is On." — This Illustration 
Shows Either a "Tight" or a "Tough Joint." 
However the Tension on the Money Would In- 
dicate that Things Are Not Running "Wide 
Open." 



his partner, Mr. Bagnell, and by their representative, Mr. 
Puterbaugh. It is stated that these three named gentle- 
men divided the day into three watches of eight hours each 
and took turns guarding their treasured trunk. During 
one of the watches while Mr. Magraw was on guard he 
was enticed away from his post by what he thought was 
a chance to add "another name to the index," and upon 
his return the trunk was missing. It is not necessary to 
dwell upon the harrowed feelings of Messrs. Magraw and 
Bagnell, but it is enough to say that the trunk and the 
books therein were found with the assistance of the hotel 
detective, who discovered them in the large and more 
spacious trunk of the Simmons' Hardware Company, 
which occupied the space next to them. 
The Armstrong Bros. Tool Co., whose exhibit is usu- 




Mr. J. T. Wilson Shows His Exhibit. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



233 





Mr. A. M. Waitt, Mr. E. F. Slocum. 



Miss Janes, Miss Purves and Mr. Noble. 



ally seen at Saratoga, was missing this year. Mr. Paul 
Armstrong, who has attended the conventions regularly 
in former years, found himself so rushed with their in- 
creasing business that it was impossible to be there this 
year, but next year he promises a larger and in every 
way more interesting exhibit than ever before. The 
Armstrong company's exhibiting this year is being done 
at the St. Louis exposition, where they are displaying a 
very fine and complete line of tool holders. 

The face of Mr. John J. Cummings, president of the 
McGuire-Cummings Manufacturing Company, will be 
remembered as having been a familiar one at the con- 
vention several years back. Mr. Cummings, however, 
has not been in attendance for four years. During a 



part of that time he has been largely engaged in the 
supply business, but not railway supplies — he has been 
supplying the several and various municipalities of 
the. country with iron and steel work for the interior 
of buildings in which their more strenuous and unwel- 
come guests are housed. The word welcome suggests 
an experience had by Mr. Cummings while in this 
business, in a county seat far from Chicago. Mr. Cum- 
mings was the successful bidder on a new jail for the 
county in question. The subject of adornment for the 
new structure which was to be the pride of the county 
came up and Mr. Cummings in a spirit of humor sug- 
gested that he send along a steel wire mat in which 





Gold Car Heating and Lighting Company. 



Mr. G. L. Weiss and Mr. VV. S. Didle. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 




The "Dromedaries," Isbester and Elliott. 

marbles so arranged to spell the Word "Welcome" 
should appear. The idea was seized upon by the 
county commissioners, to Mr. Cummings surprise, as 
an excellent one, so a large fine mat bearing this sug- 
gestive and unusual inscription was duly installed at 
the portals of the county's new bastile, and to this 
day evildoers of that town upon whom the law lays 
its hands and imposes punishment are met on entering 
this house of enforced abode with the cheerful greet- 
ing "Welcome," and the joke — is it on Mr. Cummings 
or the other fellow? 

The photograph of Mr. George A. Post engaged in 
his official duties, as shown qii page 247, would lead 
one to naturally suppose that Mr. Post was the pos- 





Mr. Symington's Specialty Entertaining the 
Ladies. 

sessor of a long white beard on one side of his face. 
This, however, is not the case, as the sun shining 
through the window back of him is responsible for this 
effect. 

We print the following advertisement which was re- 
ceived too late for insertion in its proper place in the 
advertising columns: "Found on the floor of the Con- 
vention Hall a solid gold badge bearing this inscription, 
'The Champion Buck and Wing Dancer of the United 
States.' The Under -will return same promptly to owner 
on payment- of suitable reward.'" 

McCord and Company, who are well known in the 
railway fraternity because of their journal boxes and a 
number of other good things, are destined to become 




Franklin Mfg. Co.'s Exhibit and Mr. R. J. Evans 
and Family. 



Mr. D. W. Call and Mr. Charles Riddell. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



235 





Mr. H. W. Frost and Mr. G 
better known in the future 
because of the handsome 
silk flags which they dis- 
tributed at the convention 
this year. To say that these 
souvenirs were popular is 
putting it mildly. They 
seemed to have become a 
necessity not only to the 
members of the associations 
and their guests but to the 
entire town of Saratoga. 
Messrs. Dunn and Lamon 
have the reputation for be- 
ing fairly good natured in- 
dividuals, but their patience 
was sorely tried in the dis- 
tribution of their flags. One 
flag was not enough and in 
fome cases a half dozen 
flags did not seem to satisfy 
some people. 



W. Austin. 



Mr. L. R. 



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Messrs. D. Hunt, Jr., A. W. Foote and C. E. Randall. 



POMEROY. 

In this connection it 
should be remembered that 
many of the supply com- 
panies have discontinued the 
giving of souvenirs for this 
very reason. 

Many of the souvenirs 
were given out among which 
we note that of the Galena 
Signal Oil Company, which 
as always was something 
handsome and this year the 
handsome egg cup was an 
exceedingly pretty gift. 
Everybody got one and no 
one received more. The 
Philadelphia Pneumatic 
Tool Company's fob, with 
their trade mark monogram 
attached, was seen hanging 
from many watch pockets. 





HH 



o. 



_ 



Reynolds. 



236 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 





Mr. Thomas Madill, of the Sherwin-Williams Co., 
Taking, Orders for Paint. 



Mr. M. H. Haig, Mr. W. B. Leach and Mr. F. A. Mor- 
rison. 



The Franklin Manufacturing Company's pass book was 
put to immediate use by the railway officials. Nails for 
knockers and for other people as well were distributed 
by the American Brake Shoe Company. 

Among the "snap shots" that we wish could have been 
would have appeared that of Mr. E. F. Slocum, of the 
Safety Car Heating Company, and also of the entertain- 
ment committee, as he appeared "after the ball." Mr. 
Slocum's exertions in behalf of those attending the 
ball had made him look as though he had been through 
the wash and had not yet been hung up to dry. 



' Sherwin-Williams Company, we understand, left their 
chameleons at home this year because the chamelon in 
real life changes color and for that reason is not the 
proper trade mark for paints which never fade or wear 
out. 

We would offer as a suggestion to the Philadelphia 
Pneumatic Tool Company, the Rand Drill Company and 
others that they invent a noiseless tool for exhibition at 
the conventions.- But perhaps good tools have to make 
a noise, and if so we will have to put up with the racket. 



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Mr. Ray Lovell of the Columbus Rolling Steel 
Shutter Co. 



The Committee From Atlantic City: Mr. R. 
Dunlop, Mr. J. L. Wescott, Mr. A. J. Bradish 
and Mr. L. M. Taylor. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



237 




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Mr. C. W. Ambrust and Mr. F. W. Edmunds. 



Mr. A. L. Guilford of the Ajax Mfg. Co. 



Among the large and varied exhibits we note the 
following as being the more interested and well dis- 
played. Photographs of many of these exhibits appear 
in the accompanying pages. 



The American Balance Valve Company, of Jersey 
Shore, Pa., was represented by J. T. Wilson, whose 
name has become well known in railway circles as being 
associated with the high-pressure slide valve. Models 
of the J. T. Wilson high-pressure slide valve, internal 
and external admission, were shown, and also an Ameri- 
can semi-plug piston valve which had been in service 
for two years and nine months. Mr. Wilson's souvenirs 
were, as usual, of the best. 

The American Brake Shoe and Foundry Company, 
of New York and Chicago, had its usual well placed 




President Lewis Wondkks- 



Mr. J. C. Barber and Mr. C. T. Schoen. 



2 3 8 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 





Mr. C. A. Anderson, Mr. Geo. T. Anderson and Mr. 
S. D. Anderson. 



Mr. John C. Duner. 



and interesting exhibit, showing their large and varied 
line of railway brake shoes and miscellaneous iron and 
steel castings. They were represented by F. W. Sar- 
gent, Otis H. Cutler, J. D. Gallagher, J. S. Thompson, 
R. S. Mercer, Louis Seibold, E. L. Adreon, Jr., F. H. 
Coolidge, H. S. Bradfield and Frank Barbey. 

The American Steel Foundries of New York, Chicago 
and St. Louis showed the R. E. Janney all cast steel 
coupler, models of American, Ajax and Player trucks 
and body bolsters. Their representatives were S. A. 
Watson, J. V. Bell, R. H. Weatherly, H. M. Pflager, 
W. O. Jacquette and W. A. Blanchard. 

The Aurora Metal Company, of Aurora, 111., were 
represented by A. Christenson and G. Thurnauer. Dr. 
Thurnauer showed their exhibit of the Lewis and Kun- 



zer metallic piston packing, which is fast becoming 
recognized as one of the necessaries in good railroading. 

The exhibit of the Ashton Valve Company was dis- 
played in one of the rooms of the Grand Union Hotel, 
where were shown their locomotive muffler and pop 
safety valve, blow-off valves, steam and air pressure 
gauges, gauge testers and chime whistles. They were 
represented by Fred A. Casey, Albert C. Ashton and 
J. W. Motherwell. 

W. C. Baker exhibit showed a two-coil perfected 
heater, a two-coil fireproof heater, the "Mighty Midget" 
car heater, a single-coil fireproof heater connected with 
500 feet of pipe, and two steam attachments. Mrs. 
Walker and James A. Demarest represented the com- 
pany. 





Mr. W. J. Smith and Mr. E. E. Davis. 



Mr. W. R. Toppan and Mr. Cass L. Kennicott. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



239 




Mr. R. T. Brydon and Mr. Walter La Parle. 

The exhibit of the Bettendorf Axle Company, of 
Davenport, la., and Chicago, was one of the most in- 
teresting exhibits on the grounds because of the new 
Bettendorf truck which was shown. That the oppor- 
tunity given for the inspection of not only the truck, but 
the other Bettendorf products, was appreciated by the 
members of the M. C. B. and M. M. associations, was 
evidenced by the numbers of motive power officials 
who carefully inspected the exhibit. One of our ac- 
companying "snap shots" illustrates this and proves 
beyond question the increasing value to the railroad and 
the railroad supply men of the exhibits at these 
annual conventions. In addition to the trucks, the 
Bettendorf steel tank car, steel underframes and the 
Bettendorf I beam bolsters were shown. W. P. Bet- 




Mr. Nat C. Dean and Mr. William St. John. 

tendorf, G. N. Caleb, J. H. Bendixen and J. W. Ball 
represented the company. 

One of the new exhibitors this year was S. F. 
Bowser & Co., of Fort Wayne, Ind., showing their 
self-measuring oil tanks and pumps, which are used 
for storing and handling all kinds of lubricating oils, 
and are especially adapted for use in machine shops 
or power plants — in fact, wherever lubricating oils 
are used. They were represented by C. A. Dinkel- 
berg and P. F. Cashman. 

The Camel Company, of Chicago, was well repre- 
sented by P. M. Elliott and his exhibit showing car 
doors and hose clamps. A picture on one of the ac- 
companying pages tells the whole story. 

L. C. Chase & Co., of Boston, represented by Wil- 





Mk. R. 1). Gallagher, Jr., and Mr. H. H. Sessions. 



Messes. G. F. Slaughter, W. D. Lowry, J. R. Nieder- 

lander, John E. Ward, G. E. Scott 

and W. W. Butler. 



240 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 





Mr. Chas. L. Sullivan and His Exhibit. 



Mr. Geo. L. Rich. 



Ham Walden, showed their usual full line of Chase 
leather, Chase curtain fixtures and Chase car curtains. 

Chicago Railway Equipment Company, Chicago, 
showed the "Diamond" special beam for high-speed 
brakes, "Diamond" adjustable brake beam and 
"Creco" automatic frictionless side bearing. They 
were represented by H. C. Buhoup, A. J. Farley, 
C. F. Huntoon, B. F. Pilson, E. G. Ely, E. G. Bu- 
chanan and A. J. Schevers. 

The Cleveland Car Specialty Company, of Cleve- 
land, O., showed their pressed steel car lines, Cleve- 
land City Forge & Iron Company's turnbuckles, draw- 
bar yokes and general car forgings. They were repre- 
sented by Geo. B. Maltby, Geo. L. Weiss and W. S. 
Bidle. Their exhibit showed in an interesting and 
practical way the use and advantage of the pressed 



steel car lines, and a photograph of the exhibit is 
reproduced on one of the accompanying pages. 
, The Columbus Steel Rolling Shutter Company, of 
Columbus, O., was represented by Ray Lovell, who 
exhibited samples of their steel rolling shutters and 
the advantages of their use in roundhouses. 

The Davis Expansion Boring Tool Company, of St. 
Louis, showed their boring tools for car wheels and 
their exhibit well illustrated their economy. C. Willis, 
J. Smith and E. E. Davis represented the company. 

The Detroit Lubricator Company, of Detroit, Mich., 
exhibited their original bullseye type of locomotive 
lubricators in. all sizes, strictly up to date. They were 
represented by F. W. Hodges, A. B. Wetmore, A. D. 
Homard and W. T. Simpson. 

Paul Dickinson, of Chicago, better known as "Dick- 





Messrs. Rosser, Symington and Washburn. 



Mr. W. F. Hall. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



241 





Mr. W. J. Cooke. 



Mr. J. J. Cum mings. 



inson, the smoke-jack man," had an exhibit which 
worked night and day, the big electric sign showing 
by night and the Dickinson movable and Dickinson 
Giant smokejacks for roundhouses which attracted at- 
tention by day. Paul Dickinson and Arthur J. Filkins 
represented the exhibit. 

The Jos. Dixon Crucible Company, of Jersey City, 
N. J., well known throughout the entire world by 
their liberal and judicious advertising, were repre- 
sented by H. A. Nealley and G. P. Hutchins, who 
showed the Dixon Graphite paints and lubricants. 

The Duff Manufacturing Company, of Pittsburg, 
showed their Barrett improved car jacks in the exhibit 
of their agents, the Fairbanks, Morse Company. 
T. A. McGinley, vice-president of the Duff Company, 



attended the conventions and represented his exhibit. 

The Farlow Draft Gear Company, of Baltimore, 
Md., had a large exhibit showing four styles of their 
draft gear, single, twin, tandem and friction, applied 
to steel and wooden cars. They were represented by 
D. F. Mallory, I. O. Wright, M. A. Garrett and John 
Farlow. 

The Franklin Manufacturing Company, Franklin, 
Pa., showed their asbestos dust guards, magnesia 
boiler covering, asbestos train pipe covering, journal 
box packing and all kinds of asbestos goods. They 
were represented by R. J. Evans, Wallace W. John- 
son, Fred Alford, H. S. Hayward, Jr., C. B. Holdredge, 
W. A. Trubee and Geo. E. dishing. 

The Franklin Railway Supply Company, Franklin, 





Detroit Lubricator Co. 



The Standard Paint Co. 



242 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 





Mr. W. B. Templeton. 



Franklin Railway Supply Co., Represented by Mr. 
S. G. Allen. 



Pa., showed the Sheedy's cylinder circulator, Mc- 
Laughlin flexible metal conduits for steam and air,< 
McLaughlin lock nuts, Worthington coupler, Player 
brake shoe, FJvin driving box lubricator. Represented 
by S. G. Allen and A. G. Elvin. 

The Handy Car Equipment Company, Chicago, 111., 
showed the Handy swinging pilot coupler, Snow car 
and locomotive replacer and Handy journal box jack 
block, and were represented by Chas. L. Sullivan, R. L. 
MacDufne and Henry Oersterich. 

The Gould Car Coupler Company, New York, 
showed their improved M. C. B. journal boxes, im- 
proved malleable draft rigging for freight equipment 
with spring buffer blocks, improved M. C. B. coupler 
for 100,000-pound car, and improved locomotive tender 



coupler for heavy equipment, steel passenger platform 
with friction buffer and draft gear, friction draft gear 
for freight passenger cars and locomotives, improved 
roller side bearings for freight cars and steel couplers. 
E. P. Huntley, G. Milne, W. F. Richards, C. M. Gould 
and T. L. McKeen represented the company. 

The Homestead Valve Manufacturing Company, of 
Pittsburg, had their usual exhibit showing the Home- 
stead locomotive blow-off, and those who looked care- 
fully into the large sized model voted it the most in- 
teresting exhibit on the grounds. F. Schuchman and 
Tom R. Davis represented the company. 

Jenkins Bros., of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, 
Boston and London, exhibited a full line of valves for 
high and low pressure and Jenkins' "96" packing. 





Mrs. A. Fenton Walker and Mr. Jas. G. Demarest, 
Representing the Baker Car Heater. 



Mr. D. F. Mallory of the Farlow Draft Gear. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



243 




Mr. F. Schuchman and the Homestead Valve. 

They were represented by Charles J. Jackson, J. H. 
Williams, Arthur C. Langston and Chas. W. Mar- 
tin, Jr. 

The Manufacturers' Railway Supply Company, of 
Chicago, had a large and well displayed exhibit show- 
ing the interlocking car and driver, brake shoes and 
interlocking driver brake head. In the exhibit was 
also a large number of shoes illustrating how com- 
pletely they wear out. They were represented by 
C. W. Armbrust and H. G. Fuchs. 

The Mason Regulator Company, of Boston, Mass., 
showed a complete line of their steam specialties and 
locomotive reducing valve ; also exhibiting the Mason 
automobile engine, model "C." They were repre- 
sented by Wm. B. Mason and F. A. Morrison. 

The McConway & Torley Company, of Pittsburg, 





Rand Drill Co., Represented by Messrs. Traver and 
Hurley. 

Pa., exhibited their steel and malleable iron couplers 
for freight and tender, of the Kelso and Pitt patterns, 
and 3-stem couplers for freight cars. They were rep- 
sented by E. M. Groves, I. H. Milliken and H. C. 
Buhoup. 

McCord & Co., of Chicago and New York, showed 
their usual exhibit of their malleable iron journal 
boxes, McCord spring dampener, McKim gasket, Mc- 
Canna force feed lubricator and Gibraltar bumping 
post. They were represented by James A. Davis, Jud- 
son A. Lamon, Morrill Dunn, William May and W. G. 
Dunham. In addition to this exhibit the flag given 
out by them as a souvenir attracted universal atten- 
tion and made the annual march of the Master Car 
Builders to the convention hall more than usually in- 
teresting-. 




A Bunch ok Advertising Men: Messrs. Puter- 
baugh, Tyler, Sherman, Simmons, Ma- 

GRAW AND WlTHROW. 



Mr. Judson A. Lamon ok McCord & Co 
Popular Man at Saratoga. 



Tin-. Most 



244 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 





Mr. and Miss Coffin. 



An Informal Discussion. 



The McGuire-Cummings Manufacturing Company, 
of Chicago, showed a new release grain door and 
safety door brackets. W. J. Cooke and John J. Cum- 
mings represented the company. 

Merritt & Co., of Philadelphia, Pa., exhibited sheet 
steel and expanded metal lockers, showing a variety 
of different constructions adapted to all classes of 
work. They were represented by S. P. Carter. 

The Nathan Manufacturing Company, of New York, 
showed injectors, lubricators and Klinger reflex water 
glass. They were represented by J. C. Currie, Edward 
S. Tooth, James E. Minor, Sanford Keeler, John M. 
Stayman and Charles Shults. 

The Modern Tool Company, of Erie, Pa., showed 
the Wallace chaser, grinder, self-opening dies, hollow 
mills, tapping attachments and "Magic" chucks. They 
were represented by E. L. Warner. 



The National Car Coupler Company, of Chicago, 
111., exhibited their steel platform and buffer for pas- 
senger cars, National freight car coupler, National cen- 
tering yoke, Hinson draft gear, Hinson drawbar at- 
tachment, Hinson emergency knuckle, and were rep- 
resented by S. W. Midgeley. 

The National Malleable Casting Company, Cleve- 
land, O., showed the Tower and Climax locomotive 
coupler, Tower and Climax freight coupler, National 
journal box and National car door fastener. J. V. 
Davidson, F. R. Angell, W. E. Coffin, D. W. Call, 
Maurice C. Pilson, J. H. Jaschka, S. L. Smith and 
John W. Stephenson represented the company. 

A. O. Norton, of Boston, otherwise known as "Nor- 
ton, he makes jacks," exhibited ball-bearing lifting 
jacks, journal,, bridge and track jacks, and was repre- 
sented by Harry A. Norton and J. O. St. Pierre. 





Mrs. W. B. Leach and Mr. A. O. Berry, M. M., of the 
B. & A. R. R. 



Mr. H. M. Perry. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



245 





Mr. E. H. Gold, T. F. Downing and the Chicago 
Car Heating Co. 



Mr. G. H. Bryant — Mr. G. W. Greenwood. 



The Philadelphia Pneumatic Tool Company, of 
Philadelphia, showed a large and well displayed ex- 
hibit of their chipping, calking and riveting hammers, 
yoke riveters, rotary drills, breast drills, foundry ram- 
mers, air hoists and complete pneumatic equipments; 
also a Herron & Bury compressor. They were repre- 
sented by Julius Keller, W. H. Keller, A. G. Hollings- 
head, William Curtis, Harry A. Pike, A. M. McFar- 
land, James L. Fanon and Edmund Bury. 

The Pittsburg Spring & Steel Company, Pittsburg, 
Pa., showed miscellaneous springs for locomotives, 
cars, street railways and valve springs. They were 
represented by D. C. Noble, L. C. Noble, H. A. Noble, 
S. F. Krauth and T. N. Motley. 

The Railway Appliances Company, of Chicago, 111., 
exhibited the Oldsmobile railway inspection car, for 



which they have been appointed exclusive agents for 
the United States for the railway trade of the Olds 
Motor Works, of Detroit and Lansing, Mich. They 
were represented by Geo. H. Sargent, B. T. Lewis and 
Geo. C. Isbester. 

The Rand Drill Company, of New York, showed 
their steam, electric and belt driven compressors, com- 
pound belt driven type 10 air compressor operated by 
50-horse power Westinghouse motor, driven by a 
Morse chain, with Cutler, Hammer Company starter 
and pressure regulator ; also one type 10 steam driven 
compressor, one type 11 electric driven compressor 
and type 11 belt driven compressor, Rockwell oil rivet 
forge. They were represented by F. M. Parson, F. M. 
Hitchcock, Geo. A. Howells, J. D. Hurley, A. B. 
Holmes, Clarence Peck, Cade Peck, O. S. Shantz, W. 





Mr. J. E. Meek and the H. W. Johns-Manville Co.'s 
Exhibit. 



Isbester, Elliott and Cooper, Who Tins Year Is a 
Thorn at i he End of Tun Roses. 



246 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 





The Mason Rgulator Exhibit and Messrs. Mason 
and Morrison. 



The Philadelphia Pneumatic Tool Exhibit, With 
Messrs. Keller and Hollingshead. 



H. Travers, W. E. Gilman, J. A. Prescott, R. O. 
Hodges, F. C. Weber, M. DeF. Sample, A. M. Bos- 
worth, E. M. Mackie. 

The Safety Car Heating & Lighting Company, of 
New York City, exhibited their car lighting and heat- 
ing apparatus. The new features are fancy deck 
lamps, bracket lamps and a steam heating exhibit in 
cottage "L," showing all the latest improvements in 
this line and buoy lantern. They were represented 
by R. M. Dixon, D. W. Pye, William St. John, E. F. 
Slocum, W. H. Hooper, J. M. Towne, J. S. Henry, A. 
Sebold, F. A. Brastow and H. L. McMinn. 

W. H. Salisbury & Co., of Chicago, exhibited their 
new vestibule diaphragms. They were represented by 
F. F. Bennett. 

The Sherwin-Williams' Company, of Cleveland, O., 



left the chameleons at home this year, and instead 
made a fine exhibit, showing "metalastic" paint, sys- 
tem of car surfacing and painting, system of locomo- 
tive finishing and samples showing rattan seat enamel, 
full line of varnishes and paint and varnish remover. 
They were represented by Thomas Madill, E. M. 
Richardson, W. B. Albright, J. H. Eames and- F. A. 
Elmquist. Their electric sign was a reminder by 
night of the fact that they sell paint. 

The Standard Car Truck Company, of Chicago, 
showed models of Barber roller bearings for lateral 
motion on trucks, and were represented by J. C. Bar- 
ber and Lee W. Barber. 

The Simplex Railway Appliance Company, of Chi- 
cago, showed Simplex bolsters for 100,000, 80,000 and 
60,000 pound capacity cars, Susemihl frictionless bear- 





Miss Coffin, Mrs. Magraw and Mr, Brydon. 



Around the Main Entrance. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



247 





Mr. George A. Post, the Boss of the Pleasure Mill. 



S. F. Bowser & Co.'s Exhibit. 



ing brake beams for all service, coil and elliptic springs 
for all classes of equipment. W. V. Kelley, R. P. La- 
mont, W. W. Butler, Geo. C. Scott, Robt. Ripley, Geo. 
C. Murray, F. L. Susemihl and Geo. C. Slaughter rep- 
resented the company. 

The Standard Coupler Company, of New York, ex- 
hibited the Standard steel platforms, Sessions' stand- 
ard friction draft gear, Standard couplers, and were 
represented by G. A. Post, H. H. Sessions, A. P. Den- 
nis, R. D. Gallagher, Jr., and J. S. Turner. 

Templeton, Kenly & Co., Ltd., of Chicago, exhibited 
their Simplex jacks, and were represented by W. B. 
Templeton and Frank A. Barbey. 

The Walworth Manufacturing Company, of Boston, 
Mass., exhibited ratchets, Walworth injectors, Stilson 
wrenches, stocks and dies ; pipe taps, pipe vises, pipe 



cutters, nipple holders, Smith's railway track ratchet. 
They were represented by Geo. E. Pickering and G. F. 
Elliott. 

The Washburn Company, of Minneapolis, Minn., 
showed freight couplers, flexible head passenger 
couplers and switch engine couplers. They were rep- 
resented by W. W. Rosser and Edwin C. Washburn. 

The George R. Rich Manufacturing Company ex- 
hibited the "Rich" improved drill chuck, and were 
represented by Geo. R. Rich and R. Dale. 

The Westinghouse Air Brake Company, of Pitts- 
burg, Pa., were represented by H. H. Westinghouse, 
E. M. Herr, John F. Miller, L. F. Purtill, E. D. Ad- 
reon, H. S. Kolseth, S. D. Hutchins, Robt. Burgess, 
A. L. Humphrey, R. H. Blackall, F. M. Nellis. They 
showed the Westinghouse joint exhibit. Operating 





American Brake Shoe & Foundry Exhibit. 



Exhibit of Paul Dickinson, the "Smoke-jack Man." 



248 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July, 1904. 





The Buffalo Forge Exhibit. 



Mr. F. D. Fenn of the Crane Company. 



model of the Westinghouse combined automatic and 
straight air brake for electric railway cars, with motor 
compressor and electric pump governor ; operative 
model of the Westinghouse magnetic brake; operative 
model of the Westinghouse automatic air and steam 
couplers for both freight and passenger service ; ex- 
hibit of the Westinghouse friction draft gear. 

Among the number of supply men who^ were in at- 
tendance at the convention who did not exhibit were 
John T. Brown, of the Damascus Bronze Company, of 
Pittsburg; also W. B. Klee, president of the company. 

The Falls Hollow Staybolt Company, of Cuyahoga 
Falls, O., manufacturers of hollow and solid staybolts, 
was represented by C. M. Walsh. 

The Excelsior Car Roof Company, of St. Louis, 
manufacturers of the galvanized soft steel "Excelsior" 



car roofs, were represented by Frank B. Hart. 

The Ewald Iron Company, of St. Louis, the well- 
known manufacturers of "Tenn. C. C. Bloom" stay- 
bolt, were represented by S. F. Sullivan, G. S. Thomp- 
son and J. W. Place. 

B. M. Jones & Co., of Boston and New York, agents 
for "Taylor Best Yorkshire Staybolt Iron," were repre- 
sented by G. H. Williams. 

The Galena Signal Oil Company, while not exhibit- 
ing at Saratoga, was well represented by S. A. Ma- 
geath, J. S. Coffin, Col. Barton Grundy, E. W. Hayes, 
J. C. Peabody, Col. E. W. Grieves, Fred A. Guild, 
J^ S. Seeley, Alexander Turner, W. O. Taylor and E. H. 
Baker. As usual, their souvenir was of the best and 
everybody got one. 

The Railway Materials Company, of Chicago, manu- 





Exhibit Modern Tool Company. 



Exhibit of the Gould Coupler Company. 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



249 





Mr. John T. Brown. 



Norton "He Makes Jacks." 



facturers of the' Ferguson furnaces, were represented 
by W. M. Simpson, George L. Bourne and T. B. Cram. 

Thos. Prosser & Son, of New York, were represented 
by Thos. Prosser, F. A. Barbey and G. C. Bryant. 

The Rogers Locomotive Works, of Paterson, N. J., 
was represented by G. E. Hannah. 

The Fabrikoid Company of Newburgh, N. Y., manu- 
facturers of the "Better than Leather" goods, was repre- 
sented by J. K. Rodgers. 

The Wadsworth-Howland Company, of Chicago, also 
known as "Carburet Black," was represented by R. T. 
Brydon. 

The Standard Pneumatic Tool Company, of St. 
Louis, manufacturers of pneumatic tools and car roofs, 
were represented by S. D. Anderson. 

The Lowe Brothers Company, of Dayton, O., paint 



manufacturers, were represented by Nat. C. Dean and 
Charles Stannon. 

The Consolidated Railway Electric Lighting and 
Equipment Company, of New York, was represented 
by John T. Dickinson, P. Kennedy and W. E. Kennedy. 

The Niles-Bement-Pond Company was represented 
by James K. Cullen, George F. Mills, Samuel Prince, 
H. M. Reed and Frank B. Ward. 

Heath & Milligan Manufacturing Company, of Chi- 
cago, paint mannfacturers, was represented by Gor- 
ham B. Coffin. 

The Sligo Iron and Steel Company, of Pittsburg, 
manufacturers of staybolt iron, was represented by Omar 
S. Decker. 

Warner & Swasey of Cleveland, O., were represented 
by David Hunt, Jr. 









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Just a Bunch— Messrs. Sharp, Garrett, Stimpson, 
Bellman, Hamilton and Allen. 



Exhibit of the National Malleable Castings Co. 



250 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 

Master Car Builders' Association 

Thirty-Eighth Annual Convention 



July 1904. 




WEDNESDAY'S SESSION . 

HE thirty-eighth annual convention of the 
r, B < " Master Car Builders' Association met in 
the ballroom of the Grand Union Hotel, 
Saratoga Springs, New York, Wednesday, 
June 22, 1904. President F. W. Brazier 
called the meeting to order at ten o'clock, 
and the exercises were opened with a 
prayer by the Rev. Dr. Joseph Carey. In 
his usual pleasant manner, Mr. Knapp, 
president of the village of Saratoga, welcomed the 
visitors and members of the association. 

Mr. H. H. Vreeland, president of the New York 
City Railway Company, and president of the New 
York Railroad Club, was introduced by President 
Brazier, and in an instructive and inspiring address 
predicted the future relation between electric traction 
and the present steam railways. An abstract of his 
address is presented elsewhere in this issue. 

In his presidential address Mr. Brazier referred to 
the degree of progress attained by the association in 
improving both freight and passenger cars, the har- 
mony acquired among the different roads through the 
rules of interchange, and the comforts now to be had 
by the traveling public. All the developments brought 
to mind by a review of car construction and design 
since the inception of the Master Car Builders' Asso- 
ciation reflects great credit to that body, to the Master 
Mechanics' Association, and to the operating depart- 
ments of railroads. He expressed the opinion that the 
Master Car Builders and Master Mechanics' Associa- 
tions should be brought together as one organization, 
believing that the interests of the two associations are 
not now sufficiently far apart to warrant separate 
organizations. A number of valuable suggestions 
were made regarding improvements and standardiza- 
tions, which may be summarized as follows : The 
adoption of a standard coupler; standardizing the 
pivot pin and the material to be used in its manufac- 
ture ; investigation of coupler side clearance ; a stand- 
ard formula for journal bearings and linings ; improve- 
ment in the quality of waste for use in freight and pas- 
senger service ; an addition to be made to the require- 
ments of the standard brake beam, calling for test 
across line of the fulcrum ; the standardization of steel 
freight cars ; the use of 40 and 50 ton capacity box 
cars, from an economical standpoint; improvements 
in uncoupling arrangements on couplers; adoption of 
standard archbar truck; an adequate apprenticeship 
system. 

In view of the many interesting and important fea- 
tures suggested and discussed, the address is repro- 
duced in abstract on another page of this issue, in 
order that the points of argument may be more readily 
appreciated. 

The secretary s report showed a total present member- 
ship of 581, composed of 335 active, 217 representative, 



10 associate and 19 life members. The total number of 
cars represented in the association is 1,755,682. 

The report of the treasurer, John Kirby, showed a bal- 
ance on hand on June 15, 1904, of $3,469.38. 

Having a large balance last year, it was considered 
wise to reduce the dues to $3. This balance having been 
considerably reduced, it was voted to again increase the 
dues to $5. 

Upon motion of Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson (S. A. L.), 
the recommendations contained in the president's address 
were referred to the executive committee for action in 
the matter of committee work for next year. 

The secretary read a letter referring to Mr. Casper 
Wicke, of Chambersburg, Pa., in which it was stated that 
after nearly half a century of service in railroad life he 
had retired. The secretary reported that the executive 
committee, at its meeting last evening, instructed him to 
present to the convention for life membership the name of 
Casper Wicke, Cumberland Valley Railroad. 

Mr. Wicke was duly elected a life member. 

Pursuant to notice given at the convention of 1903, 
Article 3, Section 3, was amended to provide that private 
car lines owning over 1,000 cars shall be entitled to rep- 
resentative membership. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEES. 

Revision of Standards and Recommended Practice. 

The report of the Committee on Revision of Standards 
and Recommended Practice was read by Mr. W. P. Ap- 
pleyard, chairman. In order to save time in the discus- 
sion, the report was considered by subjects. With regard 
to brake beams it was decided that the committee should 
consider leading dimensions for standard form of brake 
beam covering all clearances. 

Inasmuch as the subject of safety chains for freight 
cars is covered by a report of a committee on this sub- 
ject of practice, the part of the report regarding safety 
chains was ordered to lie on the table until the report on 
safety chains should be taken up. 

Those sections of the report to which no objection 
was raised by the association were accepted and it was 
stated by the secretary that the sections which were dis- 
approved will not be included in the letter ballot. 
Address of Mr. E. A. Moseley. 

Mr. E. A. Moseley, secretary of the Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, spoke to the association at this time 
as it was expected that he could not remain to deliver 
his address later in the meeting. He called attention to 
a number of matters of mutual interest to the railroad 
representatives and to the. commission, which are of vital 
importance to the railroads, their employees and the pub- 
lic. He directed attention to the recognition of the stand- 
ards of the association, by the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, the desirability of clearer understanding between 
the commission and the association and pointed out 
several instances in which defects might be remedied. 
The need of high braking power is a feature to which 
the association could properly give its earnest and careful 



July 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



251 



attention, and he further suggested the desirability of 
two air pumps on all locomotives designed to haul the 
heavy freight trains common to-day. He believed that 
this would largely do away with the necessity for cutting 
out cars, the reason for which is often given as insuf- 
ficiency of air. Two pumps would also give a substantial 
feeling of security in case of the failure of one pump, 
and believed the good results would more than offset any 
additional cost. 

The great necessity for a practical gauge for estimating 
the wear of couplers was pointed out and he said that the 
one adopted by the association is perhaps the most perfect 
device that could have been selected for that purpose, 
but it requires the separation of cars before it can be 
used. The congestion of traffic that has prevailed at 
almost all the principal terminals of the country renders 
the use of the present gauge impracticable, therefore he 
believed it clearly evident that an instrument which will 
show approximately the wear of couplers when cars are 
connected should be devised and put into use. 

A matter which Mr. Moseley believed to be of great im- 
portance is the set of rules governing the loading of long 
materials. While this is perhaps outside the province of 
the commission, he promised the aid of that body in secur- 
ing the proper observance of any rules which may be 
adopted by the association governing the matter. Before 
closing, the speaker expressed his appreciation of the 
opportunity to become better acquainted with the mem- 
bers of the association, believing that great benefit would 
be obtained in the advancement of the commission's work 
by a pleasant relation between members of the association 
and representatives of the commission. 

Upon motion of Mr. G. R. Henderson it was decided 
to appoint a committee to confer with the Interstate 
Commerce Commission as was done last year. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEES. 
Triple Valve Tests. 

The report of the committee on triple valve tests in- 
cluded the report on the revision of air brake and signal 
instructions. This report carries a revision of all the air 
brake and signal instructions and there are changes 
throughout the report. Inasmuch as the matter is neces- 
sarily submitted to letter ballot it was decided to submit 
the report to such ballot in the form in which it was pre- 
sented, when the members will have an opportunity to 
compare the proposed revision with the present rules. 
Brake Shoe Tests. 

The committee advised that there was no report to 
make on this subject, as no brake shoes had been sub- 
mitted for testing by manufacturers, railroad companies 
or individuals. 

In this connection Prof. Goss (Purdue University) 
stated that shoes have been submitted to the university 
and tested as a private matter, so that the machine of the 
association has not been entirely idle during the year. He 
attempted to excite the interest of the association in con- 
ducting elaborate investigations and endeavored to induce 
more activity in requesting roads to send in brake shoes 
to be tested. In line with this suggestion Mr. William 
Garstang (Big Four) offered a motion to the effect that 
in the case of the representative of any railroad company 



having any new shoes, that have not been tested, a 
sample of the shoes be sent to the university, and that 
the committee be furnished with the formulae of the mate- 
rial in the brake shoes to be tested, and that the result of 
the test of such shoes sent to be tested during the coming 
year be made the subject for a report at the next meet- 
ing. 

Mr. R. C. P. Sanderson offered an amendment that 
the Brake Shoe Committee include any other shoes that 
they may know to be sufficiently important to investigate. 
The motion as amended was adopted. 

Test of M. C. B. Couplers. 
The report of the committee on this subject was read 
by Mr. W. P. Appleyard. Mr. W. E. Fowler (Canadian 
Pacific) asked on what degree curvature the new contour 
line of coupler was tested as there is at least one curve 
of 22 degrees on his road. Mr. R. L. Kline (P. R. R.) 
replied that the tests had been made on curves that gave 
the 15 degrees allowed in the coupler and added that the 
new contour line will not couple on a much shorter 
curve than the old contour line. Some little discussion 
followed regarding trouble from the wear of pin holes. 
Mr. W. F. Bentley (B. & O.) believed that the users of 
couplers would be much benefited by spending a little 
more money by making a machine fit, if necessary, to take 
up more of the clearance now allowed, saying that this 
would result in less couplers condemned and a smaller 
number of break-in-twos on the road. As soon as the 
rough places are worn off it causes continual play and 
wears the holes oblong, and for this reason couplers are 
frequently condemned before they have given anything 
like the amount of wear which they should. He expressed 
the opinion that the clearance between the pin and hole 
should be reduced. Mr. J.L. Lawrence (Cumberland Val- 
ley) thought that the hole in the knuckle should not be 
allowed to be cored, but should be drilled, as a true hole 
can be obtained and the clearance reduced to 1-32 in. 

Standard Location of Third Rail for Electrical Operation. 

The report on this subject was read by the secretary, 
the report accepted and the committee discharged. 

Stenciling Cars. 

The report of the committee on stenciling cars was read 
by the secretary and accepted by the association. 

Coupling Chains. 

The report on coupling chains was read by Mr. R. P. 
C. Sanderson, chairman. As there was some difference 
of opinion among the members of the committee, it was 
decided to continue the committee in order that a report 
might be prepared embodying the views of all the mem- 
bers. 



THURSDAY'S SESSION. 

REPORT OF COMMITTEES. 
Air Brake Hose Specifications. 

The first report taken up on Thursday morning was 
that on air brake hose specifications. The report was 
presented in abstract by Mr. Le Grand Parish, chairman. 
On motion of Mr. A. M. Waitt, it was decided that the 
committee be continued and he instructed bv the associa- 



252 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



July 1904. 



tion to conduct such tests, made as thoroughly and as 
extensively as possible in connection with Purdue Uni- 
versity, as will enable them to give definite data another 
year on the subject of the life of hose and any other points 
pertaining to it, and that these tests be conducted in con- 
nection with hose made under the present M. C. B. 
standard specifications and other hose made under the 
modified specifications suggested by the Committee. 

After some discussion of the report it was decided by 
the association that the present M. C. B. standard speci- 
fication should be abrogated and the specification sub- 
mitted by the committee should be substituted in its place 
as recommended practice for this year. 
Draft Gear. 

The report of the committee on draft gear was pre- 
sented by Mr. Parish, who read the body of the report. 
Mr. Sanderson expressed himself as strongly in favor of 
the round back yoke, but thought better results could be 
had by using a follower of a round back construction 
made of malleable iron, in preference to using the wrought 
iron flat follower and the filling piece referred to. He 
believed that if the recommendations of the committee 
were to go through as presented, it would practically 
mean the use of a filling piece in the back of the 
yoke. He thought the option ought to be recommended 
to use a malleable iron follower, which will fill the round 
back yoke properly. Mr. Parish concurred in this 
opinion. 

Mr. J. J. Hennessey (C, M. & St. P.) believed that 
there were more failures to-day among the i^-in. rivets 
than in any other part of the M. C. B. coupler. This 
matter received some discussion, after which, upon mo- 
tion of Mr. Hennessey, it was decided that the size of 
holes in the pockets should be increased to 1^ ins. and 
that the size of the tail piece should be increased y 2 in. in 
width. The subject was referred to the committee on 
standards with this recommendation. 

Upon motion of Mr. Waitt, it was decided that the 
suggestions which constituted the report should be re- 
ferred to the committee on standards, with the request 
that they canvass the matter thoroughly with the dif- 
ferent roads during the coming year and come next year 
prepared to make definite final recommendations. 
Stake Pockets. 

Mr. W. F. Kiesel (P. R. R.) expressed the opinion that 
the pocket shown in the report was rather weak at the 
top, where it is only }4 in. thick. He thought also that 
the recommended size of temporary stake, 4 by 5 ins., 
would not allow sufficient clearance on many cars now 
in service and stakes 4 by 4 ins. would therefore be more 
desirable. 

Mr. Ball thought the committee should have recom- 
mended that the weight of the castings should not be 
less than a certain amount, rather than a maximum, be- 
cause the tendency is to make malleable castings very 

The report was finally referred to the committee on 
standards. 

What Is the Best Preventive of Rust on Steel Cars? 

Mr. H. S. Hayward, chairman, read the report of the 
committee on prevention of rust on steel cars, and stated 



that since the report had been made up some four or 
five additional roads had sent in answers to the inquiry 
sent out by the committee, but that these answers corre- 
sponded very nearly with the replies received from the 
other roads. 

Mr. George W. West (N. Y. O. & W.) called atten- 
tion to the mixture used by steel plate manufacturers and 
steel car builders for marking dimensions, saying that 
in many cases he noticed the only paint visible on cars 
passing his line was that used for dimension figures. He 
said also that the white lead used on locomotive 
front ends was visible for such a length of time 
that it must be mixed with some material having good 
staying qualities on steel plate. Mr. Hayward had 
noticed similar staying qualities in the marks on plates 
of which boats were being built. From ship builders he 
received the information that they used nothing but white 
lead and linseed oil, made very thin and using just enough 
lead to whiten the oil. 

Mr. Sanderson called the attention of the association 
to a method of protecting the steel underframes of cars 
having wooden floors by using tar roofing paper under 
the floor and over the steel sills and bolsters, held in 
place from underneath by a light false floor, makingi a 
regular umbrella overthe steel structure. He believed 
this method would save much trouble in painting, clean- 
ing, etc., after the cars had been in service some time. 

Mr. W. M. Mcintosh (C. R. R. of N. J.) offered the 
suggestion that the time to paint steel cars is when the 
cars are being built. He said that if they are thoroughly 
painted with good material at the outset, a foundation has 
been laid that is easily taken care of. 

The report of the committee was accepted. 

Report of Arbitration Committee. 

Under this head the rules of interchange, the report 
of the arbitration committee and the report of the com- 
mittee on prices for repairs of steel cars were considered. 
The report of the arbitration committee was presented 
by Mr. Hennessey, and upon motion of Mr. Sanderson 
the association endorsed the decisions of the committee 
in the cases which have been passed upon during the past 
year. The rules of interchange were passed with the 
amendments recommended by the arbitration committee, 
omitting the hose specifications and excepting the prices 
for steel cars. 

Mr. R. F. McKenna (D., L. & W.) presented the re- 
port of the committee on prices for repairs to steel cars, 
reading the recommendations of the committee. Follow- 
ing a discussion of prices, it was decided, upon motion of 
Mr. Hennessey, that as the committee had been unable 
to come to a conclusion as to the proper amount to charge 
for repairs of 80,000 lbs. capacity steel cars as compared 
with 100,000 lbs. capacity steel cars, it would be best to 
appoint a committee to advise with owners of 80,000 lbs. 
capacity steel cars and determine upon an equitable basis 
for repairs. Following a number of questions addressed 
by different members to the committee, the question of 
prices was referred to the arbitration committee. 

Upon motion of Mr. H. F. Ball (L. S. & M. S.), a com- 
mittee was appointed to investigate the rules for inter- 



July, 1904. 



RAILWAY MASTER MECHANIC 



253 



change of passenger cars submitted by the New England 
Railroad Club and report at the next convention. 
Outside Dimension of Box Cars. 

Mr. W. P. Appleyard, chairman, presented the report 
of the committee on this subject. Mr. H. La Rue (C, R. 
I. & P.) asked the committee in regard to the distances 
from the front of the end sill to the center of the truck, 
with reference to inside or outside of end sill, or thickness 
of dead wood. He believed that measurement should be 
taken from the pull of the drawbar. Mr. Appleyard re- 
plied that the majority of the roads from whom the com- 
mittee received information used the dimension as given' 
in the report. At the same time he agreed with Mr. 
La Rue that the dimension should be given from the pull- 
ing force of the drawbar. 

INDIVIDUAL PAPER. 

The Use of Steel in Passenger Car Construction. 

A paper on this subject was presented before the asso- 
ciation by Mr. William Forsyth (Railway Age.) The 
paper is presented in abstract on another page of this 
issue. Mr. Forsyth called attention to a number of inter- 
esting features touched upon in the consideration of the 
subject and the paper was opened for discussion. The 
remarks of the president and the ensuing discussion evi- 
denced a high appreciation of Mr. Forsyth's paper and 
his suggestion that the steel car should be considered in 
the list of subjects for the coming year, met with favor- 
able comment. Mr. George R. Henderson thought that 
good work could be done in the beginning by laying 
down certain ideas or rules which" would be considered 
good practice and which would assist in arranging a 
standard design as the steel passenger car develops. He 
suggested further that the committee appointed to con- 
sider this subject could recommend to advantage what 
might be termed a list of suitable trimmings, interior 
finishings, etc., to give a proper appearance to the interior 
of the car with a minimum amount of combustible matter. 

Mr. H. F. Ball (L. S. & M. S.) said that if a committee 
is appointed to go into the subject, he would like to see 
them consider it in two ways — present a design of steel 
underframing, including platforms and end frame, to 
prevent telescoping, as many roads would adopt that con- 
struction in the development of the all-steel frame car 
and make use of it, and a design of an all-steel caY, 
side frame as well as roof frame. 

The paper was referred to the committee on subjects. 

REPORT OP COMMITTEES. 

Cast Iron Wheels. 

Mr. William Garstang, chairman, read the report of 
the committee on cast iron wheels, and recommended that 
the committee's recommendations be submitted to the let- 
ter ballot for recommended practice. The ensuing dis- 
cussion evidenced appreciation of the work done by the 
committee and the results accomplished. Following an 
extended discourse on the subject of cast iron wheels, on 
motion of Mr. Waitt, the report was referred to letter 
ballot for adoption as recommended practice. 

TOPICAL DISCUSSIONS. 

What Are the Advantages or Disadvantages of 2-Inch Main 
Steam Pipe with 1%-Inch Steam Hose? 

This was the first subject taken up for topical discus- 
sion. It was opened by Mr. Hennessey. His road had 



experienced no little difficulty during the extreme cold 
weather of the past winter in heating the last cars of 
13 and 15 car trains with i^-inch main steam pipes. 
Mr. Hennessey anticipated considerable difficulty in 
coupling the larger hose and requested the experience of 
other roads. 

Mr. H. F. Ball referred to a test conducted last winter 
on a 16-car train which demonstrated that it is possible to 
heat that train with 30 pounds pressure, using a 2-inch 
steam pipe, whereas it would require 80 pounds pressure 
with the 1 ^2 -inch pipe. It shows that the 2-inch pipe is 
better than the I'^-inch pipe. He went to the ify steam 
hose and i 1 /^ coupling last winter, but notwithstanding 
the severity of the winter he had better results than 
previously, so that he is in favor of the larger pipe. 
His road is putting on the 2-inch pipe as rapidly as pos- 
sible, but so far have no trains running with the 2-inch 
pipe in all the cars and therefore could not tell from 
actual experience what it will do. 

Mr. Garstang referred to some tests made a year or so 
ago whereby it was demonstrated that with 13^ -inch hose 
it required 70 or 80 lbs. of steam, and sometimes as high 
as 90 lbs., to heat the sleepers on the rear of the train 
when using i^-inch hose. With 1^8-inch hose he found 
the pressure required was greatly reduced and 60 or 70 
lbs. steam proved sufficient at all times. 

Mr. Ball referred to the fact that there is no question 
about the radiation inside the car, saying that 2 lbs. pres- 
sure will heat the car satisfactorily. The trouble is in 
getting steam back to the rear cars and the damage 
done to the hose by high pressure. He added that his 
road had derived great benefit from the increased size of 
the coupling in the hose and expected to derive still 
greater benefit from the use of 2-inch pipe in connection 
with larger hose and coupling. 

To What Extent Does Friction Draft Gear Reduce Repairs, 
Expenses, Etc.? 

A discussion of this subject was presented in a paper 

by Mr. E. B. Gilbert, read by the secretary. 

To What Extent Will a More Rigid Inspection of Car Couplei s 
At Terminal Points Reduce Accidents and Repairs? 

This subject was opened by Mr. James Macbeth (N. 
Y. C. & H. R.), who directed attention to the necessity 
of the closest inspection of couplers and attachments to 
avoid break-in-twos because of the trouble, expense and 
inconvenience of such accidents. He believed that inspec- 
tions should be made not only at terminal points, but also 
wherever inspectors are located, and wherever it is pos- 
sible for inspection to be made. In the discussion which 
enued the advisability of a gauge and the necesity of 
closer inspection were brought out. 

The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Different Varie- 
ties of Side Bearings Now in Use. 

A paper, contributed by Mr. L. H. Turner and read by 
the secretary, opened this subject. Following some re- 
marks by Mr. George L. Fowler regarding a number of 
tests made by himself on an electric line, the next question 
was taken up. 

Cannot the Present Method of Securing Spring Pockets to 
Couplers for freight Cars Be Improved Upon? 

Mr. Ball believed that inasmuch as the number of 
spring pockets is increasing »o largely in practice with 



254 



RAILWAY MAST£R MECHANIC 



July 1904. 



the introduction of friction draft gear and the variety of 
tandem spring gears, some form of pocket could be ar- 
ranged which could be removed at the small interchange 
or repair points. By having such a pocket and attach- 
ment, which could be removed from a coupler that was 
taken out on account of defects and applied to a new 
coupler, would save shipping in this coupler to the 
larger repair point or shops to have coupler pockets re- 
moved and put on other couplers. 

Mr. Ball also showed a blueprint of a design of coupler 
having a flexible connection between the coupler and 
pocket, which would allow greater lateral motion of 
couplers. 

The matter was referred to the committee on subjects 
with a view of making it a special subject for next year. 

Brake Beams — The Proper Hanging of Brake Beams to 
Secure Brake Shoe Clearance. 

In opening this subject the trend of Mr. W. E. Fowler's 
remarks was with regard to brakes hung from trucks. 
He thought tbere should be no divergence from the 
opinion that the only proper place for attachment of the 
brake hanger is to the truck, and to that part of it not 
affected by spring movement, this being necessary to 
secure uniform piston travel and breaking power. 

Stronger Draft Gear for Passenger Cars — Wherein Should 
Present Practice Be Modified? 

In opening this subject Mr. La Rue showed a blue- 
print of a casting devised to strengthen the draft arrange- 
ment used with wooden draft timbers. He believed the 
ideal arrangement to be one in which the first '}i inch of 
the travel of the drawbar should be comparatively easy 
or about the same as the present 8-inch spring. The 
balance of the travel should go up in strength very quick- 
ly and much stronger, the above operation to suit both 
light and heavy trains, and also the space occupied by 
such an arrangement should be but a very little more 
than the present single spring arrangement, so that the 
same length of drawbar can be maintained on all classes 
of cars. 



FRIDAY'S SESSION. 

Immediately after the meeting was called to order 
Friday morning, a communication was read calling atten- 
tion to the fact that Mr. J. A. Doran, who had entered 
railway service in i860 an